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New York State Education Department 

BCl .1 ETIN 4OO 

WAV 1907 

New York State Museum 

John - M. Clarke, Director 

Bulletin 108 





Introductory 5 

Difficulties in determining aboriginal names 7 

Composition of local names 9 

Authorities on language n 

Local names 18 

Albany county i3 

Allegany county 24 

Broome county 27 

Cattaraugus county ?o 

Cayuga county 34 

Chautauqua county 37 

Chemung county 41 

( henango county 44 

Clinton county 45 

Columbia county / 40 

Cortland county 50 

Delaware county 51 

Dutchess county. 54 

Krie county 59 

Essex county ^ 67 

Franklin county 76 

Fulton county 81 

Genesee county 83 

Greene county 83 

Hamilton county 86 

Herkimer county 91 

Jefferson county 95 

Kings county gi 

Lewis county 101 

Livingston county...^". 10 1 

Madison county no 

Monroe county 115 

Montgomery county 118 

New York county 12S 

Niagara county. ....* 131 

Oneida county 1 <7 

Onondaga county 142 

Ontario county 154 

Orange county joo 

Orleans county if 7 

Oswego county 168 

Otsego county 172 

Putnam county 176 

Queens county with part of Nassau 177 

Rensselaer county 181 

Richmond county 186 

Rockland county 186 

St Lawrence county 189 

Saratoga county 194 

Schenectady county 198 

Schoharie county 201 

Schuyler county 203 

Seneca county 20? 

Steuben county 206 

Suffolk county 209 

Sullivan county 227 

Tioga county 229 

Tompkins county 231 

Ulster county. . .' 23a 

Warren county 237 

Washington county 239 

Wayne county 241 

Westchester county 242 

Wyoming county 257 

Vates county 257 

General names 

New York « 258 

Pennsylvania 260 

New Jersey * 262 

Canada 264 

Miscellaneous 266 

Additional names 268 

List of authorities 271 

Index 279 

M [O5111- M . • 




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With years when terms expire 

1913 Whitelaw Rbid M.A. LL.D. Chancellor - - - New York 

191 7 St Clair McKklway M.A. LL.D. Vice Chancellor Brooklyn 

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Commissioner of Education 

Andrew S. Draper LL.B LL.D. 

Assistant Commissioners 

Howard J. Rogers M.A. LL.D. First Assistant 
Edward J. Goodwin Lit.D. L.H.D. Second Assistant 
Augustus S. Downing M.A. Pd.D. LL.D. Third Assistant 

Secretary to the Commissioner 

Harlan H. Horner B.A. 

Director of State Library 

Edwin H. Anderson M.A. 

Director of Science and State Museum 

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Chiefs of Divisions 

Accounts, William Mason 

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M.R Harrington 

New York State Education Department 

Science Division, April 23, 1906 

Hon. Andrezv S. Draper LL.D. 

Commissioner of Education 

My dear sir: I beg to transmit herewith for publication a 
bulletin on archeology entitled, Aboriginal Place Names of New 
York, by Dr W. M. Beauchamp. This important contribution on 
archeology is one of the two final reports to be made to this division 
by the distinguished author. 

Very respectfully yours 

John M. Clarke 


Approved for publication April 23. 1906 

Commissioner of Education 



New York State Education Department 

New York State Museum 

John M. Clarke, Director 

Bulletin 108 







In 1893 I published a little book entitled Indian Names in New 
: l ork, with a Selection from other States, containing all those then 
known to me in New York and adding to these a number of 
Onondaga names of plants and animals, with many of their 
primary meanings. These are not included here, and many names 
outside of New York are also omitted. Further research has at 
lee - doubled the local names in this State and increased the knowl- 
edge of the significance of many, as now given. In the work 
me oned there were slight verbal errors, not materially affecting 
so' J or sense, and these have been carefully revised and cor- 
re ted. There is a larger treatment of alleged meanings, bringing 
together the views of various writers, and a fuller reference to 
e> sting vocabularies. As many names have been left undefined 
th was a temptation to give such early Algonquin and Iroquois 
words as might help general interpretation. Thorough students 
would still require the larger vocabularies, and the benefit of a 
brief compilation to others might prove very small. Instead there 
are supplied digests of languages from reputable writers, treating 


of the formation of aboriginal words, which may be helpful to 
l„ y . Students of Indian words will find POlmg's Algonquin 
and Iroquois bibliographies very useful. 

The names given arc local, though sometimes derived from the 
names of persons. Of the latter 1 have several thousands con- 
nected with New York, mostly Iroquois, but fully representative of 
the less important Algonquin tribes. All have dates and many of 
them interesting histories. The mere mention of tins fact sho 
how large were the powers of those languages which iW ~on be 
c-alsed among those which are dead. In a list of 1885 lakes and 
ponds of the United States, 285 have Indian names stdl and more 
than a thousand rivers and streams have names from the same 
source Half the names of our states and are in the 
same class, and most of our great lakes and rivers. 

It is not necessary to prefer Indian place names to others. They 
are not always pleasanter in sound, and are rarely V""***™ 
are glad to retain many of them. Some of our very finest names 
i„ New York are aboriginal, but names derived from our own ances- 
try dear to us from historic or personal associations full of 
meaning even to the untrained ear, may be just as good as abo- 
riginal names which mean nothing at all to us, or perhaps any one 
eta It is just as incongruous to place an Indian prairie name 
amo „g our mountains as it was to plant the names of Pompey, 
Cicero and Virgil in central New York. Onondaga ,s not appro- 
priate on our western plains. 

In the of our New York aboriginal names we fortunately 
have early and valuable aids. The French and English ™« 
translated hooks of devotion and portions of the Bible .often 
describing languages and preparing The Iroquo 
were greatly favored in this way, though most of this linguistic 
12 fill to the lot of the Mohawks and Senecas. The Moravian 
had men at ( .nondaga for several successive years merely t .study 
the language. In Iroquois councils the interpreter was one 
Lfiportance for nearly two centuries, nor has his usefulness vet 
Zol in direct and indirect ways much useful has been 
gained' and preserved, and when these languages cease to be spoken 
they will still be read and understood. To aid m all tins » the 
purpose of these pages. 



A primary factor in the spelling and pronunciation of aboriginal 
names is their record by men of different languages. The English, 
Dutch, Germans and French had varying values for certain letters 
and their combinations. The English Cayuga and the German 
Gajuka differ in appearance, while nearly alike in sound. The 
French Shatacoin and the English Chautauqua are not so far apart 
as they seem. Other instances will be recalled. 

Then the persons who received and recorded names were not 
always persons of good education, and their writing is often hard 
to decipher. In the pressure of business, names were imperfectly 
heard and understood, and in the same record, perhaps in the same 
paragraph, may have several different forms. The name of Sche- 
nectady well illustrates this. It requires thought and skill to give 
a combination which will accurately reproduce Indian words in our 
tongue. One consideration must often be which of several forms 
is the true one, and what are its relations to that established by 

Another factor is that all members of a given tribe do not 
pronounce alike. All investigators soon learn this, and it is found 
among ourselves. A phonetic report of the conversation of several 
persons in New England and New York would show variations of 
sound. These increase in distinct and isolated communities. The 
Five Nations of New York had as many dialects of their language, 
and these would have varied more but for their political and social 
union. The Algonquin tribes of Canada and the United States had 
also one language but a score of recorded dialects. Great differences 
are evident between these two great classes, but it is also true that 
the Mohawk, Onondaga and Seneca forms of a local name may be 
far apart in appearance and sound. 

There are difficulties in the composition of names. In many the 
words for lake or river are incorporated, while in others they are 
implied but not expressed. If person or sex is expressed, the 
initial letters vary accordingly. In Iroquois local names many 
have the prefix T'kah or Tega, referring to a place. If the word 
proper begins with Ka or Ga, this syllable replaces part of the 
prefix. Te may be dropped or retained, but sometimes it belongs 


to the body of the word. De is equivalent and is quite as often 
used. The interchangeable sounds of several letters must be borne 
in mind. 

On another point Cadwallader Colden had some excellent obser- 
vations in his New York land report of 1732. In that he said: 

There being no previous survey of the grants, their boundaries 
are generally expressed with much uncertainty, by the Indian names 
of brooks, rivulets, hills, ponds, falls of water, etc., which were 
and still are known to very few Christians'; and what adds to their 
uncertainty is that such names as are in these grants taken to be 
the proper name of a brook, hill, or a fall of water, etc., in the 
Indian language signify only a large brook, or broad brook, or 
small brook, or high hills, or only a hill, or fall of water in general, 
so that the Indians show many such places by the same name. 
Brooks and rivers have different names with the Indians at differ- 
ent places, and often change their names, they taking the name often 
from the abode of some Indian near the place where it is so called. 
O'Callaghan, 1 1375 

This last seems oftener the case with Iroquois than with Algon- 
quin names, the latter being usually descriptive of the place, and the 
former often referring to some person or local incident, but the 
statement is true of both. With both there is little appearance of 
poetic fancy. Names were a convenience, and but little more. Mr 
Morgan's words follow : 

The method of bestowing names was peculiar. It frequently 
happened that the same lake or river was recognized by them 
under several different names. This was eminently the case with 
the larger lakes. It was customary to give to them the name of 
some village or locality upon their borders. The Seneca word 
T e-car-ne-o-di means something more than " lake." It includes 
the idea of nearness, literally "the lake at." Hence, if a Seneca 
were asked the name of Lake Ontario, he would answer, Ne-ah-ga 
Te-car-ne-o-di ; " the lake at Ne-ah-ga." This was a Seneca village 
at the mouth of the Niagara river. If an Onondaga were asked the 
same question, he would prefix Swa-geh to the word lake, literally 
" the lake of Oswego." The same multiplicity of names frequently 
arose in relation to the principal rivers where they passed through 
the territories of more than one nation. It was not, however, the 
case with villages and other localities. Morgan, p. 413 



All aboriginal names in New York are either Algonquin or 
Iroquois. The broad distinction is that while labials abound in the 
former they are not used in the latter. The Algonquin adjective 
commonly precedes the noun in composition, while in the Iroquois 
the reverse is the rule. 

Territorially Algonquin names prevail in the southeast and north- 
east parts of the State, and are occasional along the Pennsylvania 
line. Iroquois names occupy the western and central parts of New 
York, with a few examples south of Albany. North and northwest 
of that city both families are well represented. There are a few 
intrusive names. 

Among all the papers on Algonquin place names, of a general 
character, no one is better than that by the late J. Hammond Trum- 
bull, entitled " The Composition of Indian Geographical Names, 
illustrated from the Algonkin Languages," and published in the 
Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society, volume 2. A 
brief summary of this excellent paper will be given, but its 50 pages 
will well repay close study and they cover a large field. He was 
long the leading authority on these languages and published much 
concerning them. 

In them he included three classes of local names, th first being 
formed by two elements, adjectival and substantial, with or with- 
out a suffix denoting location. The second has single elements ; the 
substantive with locative suffix, and these two classes contain nine 
tenths of local Algonquin names. Most others are from verbs, as 
participial or verbal nouns, denoting the place where the act was 
performed. In translating, the earliest record form should be found 
and variations noted. There follow other excellent rules. 

Land or country is ohke in the Massachusetts dialect, ankc in 
Xarragansett, hacki in Delaware, alike in Chippewa, etc. These 
terminals will be recognized in many words. Wompan refers to 
the east and is often applied to a people or country east of the 
speaker. Thus the YVappingers had their name from living east 
of the Hudson. Shcewan referred to the south, and thus we have 
the Shawnees or south people. Such words are frequent in 


River is quite generally scip or sipu; in Delaware, sipo. Thus 
from Missi, great, ;l11( 1 sipu, we have the Mississippi or great river. 
Near the Atlantic, tuk, haii, hanne au<l huan arc frequent parts of 
river names, none of these being used independently. Tuk or ittuk 
is a river whose waters are driven in waves, whether by tides or 
winds. With these may be used poh-ki or pahkc, pure or clear, 
and quinni, long, as in Quhinituckut or Connecticut. 

Pautuck is a fall, often applied to a river, while acawme usually 
denotes the other side of a body of water. Many other words are 
compounded with tuk or ittuk. Hanne or huan, for river, occurs 
in New York, but is more frequent in Pennsylvania and Virginia. 

A ippi, for lake or water, is more comjmon farther west. Pang, 
pog or bog, water at rest, often enters into the names of small 
ponds of varied character, and is quite frequent in Xew England, 
Garni and gumee are more common westward, indicating lakes, but 
one form of this appears in northern Xew York. Amaug enters 
largely into of fishing places, and qussuk, stone, in its many 
varieties, is often applied to creeks and rocky places. Wadchu or 
adchu, a mountain or hill, is sometimes included in Xew York 
names. Its most conspicuous use is in the great hill country of 
Massachusetts. Komuk, an inclosed place, is found on Long 
Island, mostly in combination. 

Munnohan or munno, for island, is frequent and with striking 
variations, some of them mentioned by Mr Trumbull later. 
Another word for island is aqucdne, usually with note of location. 
Exact location is shown by the particles, ct, it or ut ; indefinite by 
set. Many words are derived from naiag, a corner, point or angle. 
Hocquan, a hook, originates some, and others are from sank, 
pouring out. or an outlet. Saco and Saginaw are among these. 
Nashane, midway or between, is most frequent in Xew England. 
Mattapan, sitting down place, or the end of a portage, occurs in 
Xew York. He gives other examples, which need not be men- 
tioned now. and closes with some useful hints. The terminal loca- 
tive, he says, means /';;. at or on, but not land or place, nor can 
animate nouns take this affix. Differences of languages and dia- 
lects must not be disregarded, for names and parts of names might 
vary in meaning among different people, while quite alike in form 
and sound. 


As we are not dealing with languages so much as a class of 
names, this may suffice for Algonquin names, though very briefly 
stated. In considering Iroquois words of the same class, a few- 
words may be quoted from Sir William Johnson, written in 1771 : 

The article is contained in the noun by varying the termination, 
and the adjective is combined into one word . . . Caghyang- 
haw is a creek; Caghyungha, a river; Caghyunghaowana, a great 
river; Caghyungheeo, a fine river; Haga, the inhabitants of any 
place and ticrhan, the morning ; so if they speak of eastern people, 
they say Tierhans-aga, or people of the morning. 

Mr L. H. Morgan gave a comparative list of 24 local names in 
the six dialects of the New York Iroquois, and a few of his remarks 
may be quoted. He reckoned 19 letters common to these, but two 
or three of them are not needed. " The Mohawks and Oneidas use 
the liquid L, and the Tuscaroras occasionally employ the sound of 
F, but these letters are not common to all the dialects. It has been 
customary to exclude the liquid R from the Iroquois alphabet, as 
not common to the several nations, but this is clearly erroneous." 

These sounds are now rare among the Onondagas, if used at all. 
He says further : " In connecting the adjective with the noun, the 
two words usually enter into combination, and lose one or more 
syllables. This principle or species of contraction is carried 
throughout the language, and to some extent prevents prolixity." 
He gives as an example: " O-ya, fruit; O-ga-uti, sweet; O-ya- 
ga-uJi, sweet fruit. In other instances the adjective is divided, and 
one part prefixed and the other suffixed to the noun thus : Ga-nun- 
da-yeh, a village ; Xe-wa'-ah, small ; Ne-ga-nun-da'-ah, a small 

Among the few prepositions applicable to place names but modi- 
fied in composition, he mentioned: " Da-ga'-o, across; No'ga, after; 
Xa'-ho, at; O'-an-do, before; Dose-ga'-o, near, etc." He added a 
remark which should be modified, as towns often changed their 
sites and yet retained their names : " Names of places as well as of 
persons, form an integral part of their language, and hence are all 
significant. It furnishes a singular test of their migrations, for 
accurate descriptions of localities become in this manner incor- 
porated into their dialects. The Tuscaroras stid adduce proof from 
this source to establish a common origin with the Iroquois." In 


this he may have referred to a few early names of towns preserved 
in one of the condoling songs, but of which no further tradition 
remains. Some reservation is necessary in this statement. 


A number of accessible works treat the general subject of Iroquois 
words, their composition and modifications, these having many 
interesting features, some of which will be mentioned incidentally. 
The leading ones to be remembered here are the lack of labials, 
the use of prefixes and suffixes, and the position of the adjective. 

About 1075 Father Jacques Bruyas wrote a treatise on the radical 
words of the Mohawk language, including a valuable lexicon, much 
used in defining names. It dealt mostly with verbs and their 
derivatives, and a synopsis of his grammatical scheme follows. 

There are four simple tenses, from which the others are formed : 
infinitive, present indicative, the future of affirmation and the 
negative. From the present the imperfect is formed by an addition 
at the end. The preterit, terminating like the infinitive, the pluper- 
fect, the future compounded with the preterit, are the cognate 
tenses from the same paradigm. The pluperfect adds nen to the 
preterit. The future of affirmation and the aorist present of the 
potential mood terminate alike. The double future of negation is 
like the indicative present. With one exception the tenses of the 
optative do not differ from the potential mood and those of the 
subjunctive are similar. 

Verbs whose infinitives end in a usually terminate the present 
with on, imperfect akoue, future en, negative with anne. Gaienna, 
to take, is an exception. Verbs in e have commonly the present in 
e, imperfect ekoue, future eg, negative sere, seg or the. They add 
tenses from several verbs and have some exceptions. 

Verbs in i, signifying plentitude, have the present in i, imperfect 
innen, future ig or isere. Relatives ending in i have the present isk, 
imperfect iskoue, future men, negative nire. Ori and onni and 
their compounds are exceptions. 

Verbs in aon have the present in as, imperfect askone, future anne, 
with some exceptions. Some have the imperfect kaonas, future kao, 
negative ouascre. W may take the place of on in many cases. 
Verbs in enon have the present in ens, imperfect enskoue, future 


enne, negative ensere, with three exceptions. Those in ion have ris, 
riskzve, rinne, riser e; and ending in gon have the present in ks, 
imperfect kskoue, future ag, negative ache, with slight exceptions. 
Some verbs in ron have the present in rhc, future r, future negative 
anne. Others have in the present onsk, future on, negative ronne. 
Still others have present ons, future re, negative resegs. 

Verbs in se have the same in the present and future, and sere in 
the negative. Those in ouan have ouas in the imperfect, future so 
or o, negative waserc. Those in en are irregular, but if they end 
in gen they make the present in cha, future g, future negative 
ganne. If the ending is gannen or gennen the present is gennha, 
future genu, and negative gentumde, while those in ien are irregular. 

Verbs in at have the present at, imperfect atakoue. In ct they 
have tha, ten, tanne and in out the same. Those in at, et, it, out and 
out have a double present: one for the act and another when it is 
customary. Te and ta have present ta, imperfect takoue, future 
ten, negative tanne. Ti has the present tisk, future ts or tars, nega- 
tive tire. 

Verbs ending in tion have the present ties, future ti, negative 
tiesere. With ston the present is tha, future t, negative tanne. 
Those in thon have thosk in the present, imperfect tho, negative 
thosere. Those in ton van- from this, and those in o are mostly 
irregular. No general rule applied to many ending in on, but there 
were common rules for all. 

Those ending in a, e, o, k, s, t, have the imperfect in koue. From 
active verbs the passive is formed by prefixing at to the first person 
of the present indicative, g being taken away, but this has excep- 
tions. Kon, ston, or ton may be added to verbs to express 
causality and this was quite common, as onnehon, to live on any- 
thing, from onhhe, to live. Some verbs are naturally relative ; others 
are made so by additions and this involves many changes. 

Nouns are not inflicted by cases, and thus are unchanged except 
in compounds. National nouns may be formed from the simple 
name of the nation by adding ronnon or haga to express people. 
There are many verbal nouns and those derived from adjectives. 
All substantives do not undergo composition. He noted also that 
while broadly generic names could be compounded, individual or 
specific ones could not. The name of a tree could be compounded 


but not that of an oak. This brief sketch will give some idea of 
scope of this early lexicon and of the language treated. 

Zeisberger wrote an essay on an ( )nondaga grammar nearly ioo 
years later, in which he divided words into simple and compound, 
the participle being usually lacking. Nouns had three genders, but 
no cases, and he mentioned but two numbers where others recognize 
three. The plural adds a syllable, as that of schoh. In words end- 
ing in a, e, o, relating to rivers, roads, hills, springs, etc. nnie is 
added, and hogu or ogu to others. Nouns compounded with ios, 
meaning long, change this into es in the singular, and eso in the 
plural. Thus we have garonta, a tree, garontes, long tree, garonteso, 
long trees. In compounding with numerals age is sometimes added 
at the end, but tekeni, two, is often prefixed and shortened to t' . 
The initial G may signify the first person, S the second, H the third, 
and G may also indicate the feminine in the third persons, but these 
are not all. 

There are many rules for compounding words. The comparative 
degree adds haga or tschihha, and the superlative tschik to the pos- 
itive. Prepositions he placed at the end of nouns, but they some- 
times occur at the beginning. An instance of the former is 
ochnecanos, ivater, ochenecage, in the water. According to him 
gachera is added to signify on, ocu for under, acta for at, on or by, 
ati for over on the other side, ge or chne for to, etc. There were 
r.y-my conjunctions and adverbs, and interjections were much used. 

He mentioned but three moods and three tenses. The infinitive 
is the root and the present indicative formed from it by substituting 
a pronoun for the first syllable. The perfect adds a syllable of 
various forms, and the future is like the present with en or in 

In writing on the Iroquois language Horatio Hale referred to 
M. Cuoq's excellent lexicon, published a few years since. According 
to the latter writer 12 letters sufficed for all words, but the Rev. 
Asher Wright used 17 with proper marks. The English mission- 
aries used 16, and Air Hale thought the Mohawk had seven con- 
sonants and four vowels. Three nasal sounds made his number 14. 
K and G , D and T were interchangeable. Numbers were singular, 
dual and plural. The dual prefixes te and suffixes kc to the noun. 
With a numeral adjective the plural prefixes ni to the noun and 


adds ke. Sometimes the plural has okon, okonha, son or sonha, 
following the noun ; in other cases the number appears from the 

Local relations of nouns appear from affixed particles, like ke, 
ne, kon, akon, akta, etc.. as kanonsa, house, kanonskon, in the house. 
There are many perplexing affixes. The adjective follows the noun, 
but they often coalesce. Pronouns are more numerous than in 
European languages, and he gave five conjugations to nouns and- 
verbs. Verbs have three moods, with seven tenses in the indicative, 
and they take a passive form by inserting the syllable at after the 
pronoun. M. Cuoq thought there were 12 forms of the verb, but 
Mr Hale reckoned more. Particles were many and freely used. 
There are other early vocabularies by unknown authors, but Mr Hale 
regarded M. Cuoq's as the best. The work of the Rev. Asher 
Wright among the Senecas of Xew York he also esteemed highly. 

The dictionary of German, English, Onondaga and Delaware 
words, compiled by David Zeisberger, useful as it is, is not as satis- 
factory in one way as could be wished. He commenced with the 
study of Mohawk, following this with the Onondaga more thor- 
oughly, but adding something from the Seneca and Cayuga. As a 
consequence his words should be classed as Iroquois rather than 
Onondaga. His Delaware vocabulary is one of the best we have, 
and preferable to others in analyzing or defining Algonquin place 
names in most of Xew York. On Long Island the New England 
dialects were influential in forming names and Williams and Eliot 
are often quoted on these. As all these writers are frequently re- 
ferred to in considering names, it seemed proper to give some brief 
attention to them. 

While the Dutch held New Y'ork, many Algonquin place names 
were in use and put on record, but their knowledge of Iroquois 
names was very small, the Jesuit Relations of that period having 
many of which they knew nothing. With the English in power this 
knowledge rapidly increased, Greenhalgh's journey in 1677 giving 
tiie names of most Iroquois towns and some lakes and rivers. Most 
of those near the Pennsylvania line were not known till the next 
century, and some were recorded only in Moravian journals. Sul- 
livan's campaign added many, and later visitors and settlers greatly 
increased our knowledge of Seneca local names. Important work 


was done by O. II. Marshall, L. H. Morgan and others in obtaining 
names from the Indians themselves, with their definitions and origin. 
The former treated Seneca names alone, while Morgan's work took 
in all the New York Iroquois names which he could obtain, system- 
atically arranged. In their conquests the Iroquois gave names to 
distant places. In the Algonquin field the best local results are clue 
to J. Hammond Trumbull and W. Wallace Tooker, the latter dealing 
mostly with Long Island names and those near the city of New 
York. Along Long Island and Hudson river E. M. Ruttenber did 
conscientious work. In 1893 the writer published an account of 
the Indian names of New York, embracing all those then accessible 
and many from original sources. Valuable results have come from 
others in more restricted fields. 

While H. R. Schoolcraft is an authority, yet on many points it is 
now conceded that in eastern matters he was often fanciful. His 
names and definitions will be quoted with this necessary reservation. 
Mr Tooker said : " Schoolcraft attempted the translation of many 
Algonquin names in the east, but, by employing Chippewa element- 
ary roots or syllables, with which he was familiar, he failed in nearly 
every instance . . . His erroneous translations are still quoted and 
are very persistent." This dialect, however, did affect some names 
in northern New York. His most conspicuous failure was in Iro- 
quois names, but in a general treatment it seemed proper to give 
them here, their character being well understood. 

The question of credibility becomes more important when we 
turn to such an authority as John Heckewelder, the Moravian mis- 
sionary. No one can fail to see that his derivations and definitions 
often seem farfetched, some being contested at the very outset. 
Some stand well, but good philologists do not hesitate to discard 
others. The result is that while his name carries weight, it is not 
now the end of discussion. 

In the North American Rcvieiv of 1826, Hon. Lewis Cass sharply 
questioned Mr Heckewelder's reliability in Indian matters, and was 
answered by William Rawle in the Pennsylvania Historical Society 
memorial of that year. Mr Cass made an elaborate and critical 
reply in the Review for 1828. In criticizing words he sometimes 
impugned their correctness, but part of his contention was that 
many of these were Mousey rather than Delaware. To us this is 


unimportant, but the Monseys or Minsis were one of the three great 
divisions of the Delawares. Mr Cass did full justice to Hecke- 
welder's character, but said he was old when he wrote and had 
forgotten much. At this day it is pleasant to see what an intelligent 
interest such men as Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Albert 
Gallatin and Lewis Cass took in American languages. As Hecke- 
welder is often quoted, being trustworthy in what he saw though 
credulous in what he heard, it may be well to quote Mr Cass's 
words in part : 

His intercourse was confined to a small band of the Delaware 
tribe, who during many years received the humane attentions of 
the Moravians, and who had lost many of their own distinctive 
traits without acquiring ours. This band, after various migrations 
settled upon the Muskingum, about 70 miles west of Pittsburg, 
and here Mr Heckewelder's knowledge of the Indian character 
was principally acquired. His band was removed from this place 
by the British authorities, during the Revolutionary War, to the 
river Huron of Lake St Clair, and Mr Heckewelder accompanied 
and remained with them a short time. One journey to Vincennes, 
and two or three shorter excursions on the business of the mission, 
and we have the whole of his intercourse with the Indians. . . If 
a comparison be instituted between his narrative and memoir and his 
history, it will be obvious that the latter has passed through other 
hands, and has assumed an appearance its author could never have 
given it. These three works as they appear before the public, were 
never written by the same person. Cass, 26:372-73 

It will be manifest that his acquaintance with the language was 
superficial, and that little confidence can be placed in the process 
he adopts, or in the conclusions he attains. In fact, there is a 
visible confusion in his ideas and a looseness in his translation 
utterly incompatible with that severity of research and exactness 
of knowledge, which give the investigations into the philosophy of 
language their principal value. Cass, 26:376 

As Heckewelder was continually with the Moravian Indians for 
15 years, besides other contact, the above hardly gives a fair idea 
of his opportunities, and Mr Cass elsewhere said he passed his 
entire life among them. In his first article he dealt more with his 
credulity and liking for the Delawares, on which Cooper founded 
their character in his Indian tales. Others have commented on 
this weakness, and having known him well, Mr Cass said : 

He was a man of moderate intellect, and of still more moderate 


attainments ; of great credulity, and with strong personal attach- 
ments to the Indians. His entire life was passed among the Dela- 
wares, and his knowledge of the Indian history and character was 
derived wholly from them. The Delaware tribe was the first and 
last object of his lopes. Every legendary story of their former 
power, and of their subsequent fall, such as the old men repeated 
to the boys in the long winter evenings, was received by him in 
good faith, and has been recorded with all the gravity of history. 
It appears never to have occurred to him that these traditional 
stories, orally repeated from generation to generation, may have 
finally borne very little resemblance to the events they commemo- 
rate, nor that a Delaware could sacrifice the love of truth to the 
love of his tribe. Cass, 22:65 

All this must be taken with reasonable allowance but it may be 
added that the best authorities sometimes err, Indians themselves 
often differing widely in the interpretation of names, and that while 
some are certain, very many must always be matters of opinion, 
whoever sustains them. Most nouns have been shortened for con- 
venience and others have been insensibly changed, so that the true 
forms and meanings of mjany are hard to determine. 


In giving and defining local names, when this can be done, 
perhaps no better or more convenient arrangement can be made 
than the arbitrary one of classing them by counties. The general 
and logical territorial grouping has been mentioned, and on Long 
Island might be preferred. Names might be grouped in linguistic 
families, but a little practice soon enables most persons to distin- 
guish between Iroquois and Algonquin names, wherever found, 
though a few are barely separated in sound. It will be seen that 
many places have more than one name, or that it appears in several 
forms. At first it seemed best to group all the names of any place 
under one head. While this is occasionally done it seemed better 
to separate the more important names or forms, giving them a 
nearly alphabetical arrangement in the several counties. A few 
doubtful names will appear, where writers have differed as to their 
origin. It is remarkable that they are so few. 


The Indian title was so soon extinguished in most of Albany 
county that few local names remain. It belonged to the Mahicans, 


but for their safety they lived mostly on the east side of the Hudson 
and the Mohawks had names only for prominent places. Those 
given by Schoolcraft alone may be of his own invention. 

Ach-que-tuck or Aquetuck was an early name for Coeymans 
Hollow. It is usually applied to the flats there, but appears to be 
the Hagguato of the map of the New Hampshire grants and the 
stream mentioned by Schoolcraft as Hakitak, below Coeymans. It 
may be derived from Ahque, he leaves off, and tuk, a river; i. e. a 
river at a boundary. 

Ba-sic creek may be a corruption of quassik, a stone. 

Ca-ho-ha-ta-te-a is a name assigned to Hudson river by Dr 
S&muel Mitchel. Schoolcraft thought this great river having 
mountains beyond Cohoes, but the word does not refer to the falls 
or include mountains. It is an Iroquois word for river, appearing 
in Zeisberger's dictionary as Gei-hate and Geihutatie. No adjec- 
tive appears in this, but when used alone one was implied. It was 
the liver. Hoffman abbreviated it to Atatea, and Sanatatea is a 
personal variation of the word. Sylvester thought it an Algonquin 
name, which it is not. 

Ches-co-don-ta is given by Schoolcraft as a Mohawk name for 
Albany, meaning hill of the great council fire. I have seen no use 
of this, but he may have derived it from otschista, fire, and onont, 
hill or mountain. 

For Co-hoes Morgan has Ga'-ha-oos, which he defines as ship- 
zvrecked canoe. Spafford said [549], "This name is of Indigena! 
origin, and like the most such, has an appropriate allusion : Cah- 
hoos or Ca-hoos, a canoe falling, as explained by the late Indian 
sachem, Brandt." In his account of the Chahoes, about 1656, 
Adriaen Van der Donck said : 

An Indian whom I have known, accompanied his wife and child, 
with 60 beaver skins, descended the river in his canoe in the spring, 
when the water runs rapid and the current is strongest, for the pur- 
pose of selling his beavers to the Netherlanders. This Indian care- 
lessly approached too near the falls before he discovered his danger, 
and notwithstanding his utmost efforts to gain the land, his frail 
bark, with all on board, was swept over by the rapid current and 
down the falls, his wife and child were killed, his bark shattered to 
pieces, his cargo of furs damaged. But his life was preserved. 



I have frequently seen the India!) and hav^ heard him relate the 
perilous occurrence or adventure. 

This agrees with the definitions of Spafford and Morgan. Zeis- 
berger gives the Iroquois word gahuwa for canoe, and School- 
craft's Mohawk vocabulary kahoweya is a boal. On the., other hand 
Ruttenber said Cohoes was not the name of the falls, but of an 
island below, and he connected this with the Algonquin name of 
the Coos country in New Hampshire, referring to pines. Masten's 
History of Cohoes also quotes a statement from the Schenectady 
Reflector of 1857, that the name is Mohegan, and that the Canadian 
Indians still call pitchholes in the road cahoos. The Mohawk defi- 
nition is to be preferred. 

Ga-isch-ti-nic or Kaishtinic was a name for Albany, according 
to Schoolcraft, used by the lower river Indians. It may have come 
from Kish-ke-tuk, by the river side, but there seems no reference 
in the word to door, capitol. or council fire, as implied in the 
following story, recorded by Hecke welder. This was a tradition 
of the Delawares that the northern door of their long house, or 
confederacy, was at Gaasch-tinick or Albany, and the southern on 
the Potomac. When the white people landed they began to tear 
down this house at both ends, at last destroying the league. There 
is no known historic basis for such an alliance, but he was ver\ 
credulous on such points. The Mahicans had forts near Albany, 
bi:t no apparent political relations with Indians near the sea. 

Hak-i-tak was mentioned by Schoolcraft as a stream below 
Coeymans, called by others Hagguato and Aquetuck. Spafford 
said : " The old Indian name of Hockatock, still occasionally heard, 
is of Indian or Dutch origin, applied to a creek and neighborhood 
along its borders." Its Indian origin is clear. 

I-os-co is Schoolcraft's name for a tributary of Norman's kill. 
in Guilderland, but he elsewhere speaks of it as a small village. If a 
Mohawk word it would mean a bridge, but it seems to have been 
used by him alone. It appears among some Michigan names as 
water of light. 

It-sut-che-ra is a name of his assigned to Trader's hill, once three 
miles northwest of Albany. He prefixed Yonnondio, great moun- 
tain, and then defined it hill of oil. This is not satisfactory, nor do 
1 find any such word relating to oil in Iroquois dialects. If the 


name ever belonged to such a hill it might be from the Mohawk, 
atearosera, a friend, and the Cayuga, aterotsera, is still nearer in 
sound. Otschista, fire, would do quite as well. 

Kan-is-kek or Caniskek was bought in 1664. Ruttenber said 
this was a tract in Coeymans, 10 miles below Albany. It seems 
lower down, but is placed at Beeren island. The name may be 
derived from Kschiecheek, clean. 

Kax-hax-ki, a place mentioned in Coeymans, suggests Coxsackie. 

Kox-hack-ung was bought in 1661, on the west side of the river, 
between Van Bergen island and Neuten Hook [see Pearson]. It 
was the name of a large tract, not restricted to one spot. This was 
mostly south of Albany county, and also suggests Coxsackie. 

Ma-hi-can was one name of Beeren island, meaning wolf, but 
referring to its Mahican owners, called Loups by the French. 

Mach-a-wa-meck or Beeren island. In 1664 it was said that 
Caniskek was behind this and opposite Claverack. It has been 
suggested that the name came from mashq, bear, and wamok, 
enough; i. e. place of many bears. This agrees with its Dutch 

Me-ka'-go, an Indian village 2 miles north of Coeymans, accord- 
ing to Schoolcraft. It might be Mogkiyeu, it is large. 

Mo-en-em'-i-nes castle was on an island at the mouth of the 
Mohawk in 1630, and belonged to the Mahicans. It may be derived 
from Moninneam, he looks at it, as a lookout place, or one con- 

Mohegan-ittuck is one of Schoolcraft's names for the Hudson, 
and the same Algonquin name is given by others with slight varia- 
tions. It means simply Mohegan river, but those dwelling on it. 
near Albany, are usually called Mahicans to distinguish them from 
the same people in New England. Ma-ha-ke-negh-tuc is another 
form of the river's name, meaning the same. In the Massachusetts 
Historical Society Collection, volume 9, page 101, is a tradition re- 
lated by this people in New England, with a very different meaning 
for the name. They said that "Muhheakunnuk, according to 
original signification, is great waters or sea, which are constantly 
in motion, either ebbing or flowing." This was far in the west, 
whence they came. "As they were coming from the west they 
found many great waters, but none of them flowing and ebbing like 


Muhheakunnuk until they came to Hudson's river, then they said 
one to another, this is like Muhheakunnuk our nativity." Hickan 
is tide in Delaware, and perhaps the word in question might be 
formed from this, though none like it appears in any vocabulary. 
Catlin erroneously called Mohegan good canoe men. 

Mon-at'-tan hook is mentioned by Spafford, who says: "Monat- 
tan hook, north of Hockatock and Indian Fields, is perhaps the 
last of the local names that I need mention in tin's town/' It refers 
to an island as usually defined, not to a point. 

Ne-wes'-keke or Naveskeek is described by Ruttenber as a neck 
of land with a stream on its east side, io miles below Albany. This 
would place it above Coeymans Landing. 

Nis-cont'-ha is Niscatha on the map of the New Hampshire 
grants, near the mountains west of Coeymans, but on the Coeymans 
patent. It refers to corn lands, and was probably derived from the 

O-nis'-ke-thau creek in Coeymans Hollow, is also called 
Coeymans creek. There is a hamlet of this name in New Scotland, 
and also Oniskethau flats and mountain. It is said to have been 
an early name for Coeymans. meaning cornfields. 

Pa-chon-a-hel-lick or Mahickander's island was bought in 1661. 
It is opposite Bethlehem and has been called Long island. The 
name may be derived from pachgammak, black ash, or from 
pisseogquayeuonk, miry place. 

Pas-sa-pe'-nock is Bear island below Albany, and was an early 
name. A suggested derivation has been from pussough, wildcat, 
penuhkau, he cast it down upon him, but this is not satisfactory. 
Pesuponk, sweating house, seems better, but Trumbull had a pred- 
ilection for names from roots, and said : " P'sai-pen, ' wild onion,' 
with the suffix for 'place,' gave p'sai- pen-auk, or as it was written 
by the Dutch, "Passapenock" [O'Callaghan's New Netherlands, 
I :i22], the Indian name for Beeren island, in the Hudson, near 
Coeyman's." This would be wild onion place. 

Pem-pot-a-wut'-hut, according to Schoolcraft, was a Mahican 
name for Albany, meaning place of the council tire, but he suggested 
no derivation. Ruttenber merely assented to the name and meaning, 
saying that Mahican tradition placed their capital there, under the 
name of Pempotowwuthut-Muhhecaneuw, or the fireplace of the 


Muhheakunnuk nation. For the latter he quotes the tradition 
already given. The name may refer to a place for games. 

Peoria is a western name for a place in Berne. 

Sa-chen-da'-ga, said to be a place near a branch of the Hudson 
at Albany, was probably Sacondaga, overflowed lands, lying much 
farther north. 

San'-a-go was placed at Coeymans by Schoolcraft, probably 
intending Sanhagag at Albany. 

San-a-ta'-tea for the Hudson at Albany, is probably a personal 
form of Cohatatea, a river. 

San-ha'-gag appeared in 1630. In that year Van Rensselaer 
bought this tract west of the Hudson, from Smack's island to a 
little above Beeren island. Ruttenber called this Sunckhagag. "It 
may have been corrupted from sanaukamuck, land, referring merely 
to the tract, without being a name. Another derivation might be 
from Sunnuckhig, a falling trap. 

Sek-tan'-ic, or Mill creek, was mentioned by Schoolcraft, above 

Ska'-neh-taVde, beyond the openings, is Morgan's Iroquois name 
for Albany, afterward transferred to Schenectady, where it was 
equally appropriate. Dr Mitchill said he learned that Skenectadea, 
or Albany, "signifies the place the nations of the Iroquois arrived 
at by traveling beyond the pine trees." It has also been given as 
Skaghnetade, beyond the pines, etc., and Skaneghtada, end of pine 
woods. There are numberless forms of the name. David Cusick 
called it Shaw-na-taw-ty, beyond the pineries, and the Onondagas 
give essentially the same definition. Bruyas defined Skannatati 
as on the other side, from askati on one side. 

Sne-ackx island, above Albany, is sometimes written Smack's. 

Soen-tha'-tin was a place in Coeymans. 

Ta-wa-sen'-tha is a name for Norman's kill which Schoolcraft 
erroneously defined as the place of many dead. Literally it is a 
waterfall, but by analogy it may signify to lament or shed tears. 
Bruyas gave the Mohawk word and definition. Dr Yates is said to 
have translated it like Schoolcraft, while Gallatin gave the word 
correctly, but called it an abbreviation, which it is not. In the 
Colonial Laivs of Nezv York it appears as Tawalsontha, and Rut- 
tenber used this form. 


Ta-was'-sa-gun'-shee, 2 miles from Albany, and near Norman's 
kill, where the old fort was built [Barber & Howe]. Rnttenber 
gives the name of "Tawassgunshee, that of the mound on which 
Fort Orange was erected." It has been called Lookout hill, which 
is a fair definition of the Indian name. 

Ti-ogh-sah-ron'-de, place where streams empty themselves, 
referring to the forks thus made, as at Norman's kill and other 
places on the Hudson. It is simply a variant of Tioga. Though 
the name might properly be used in many places, the specific appli- 
cation of this form is much farther up the river. 


In common usage the name of Allegany is quite differently 
written. In New York the above form is the rule, but in Pennsyl- 
vania it is as commonly Allegheny. There are other forms. Spaf- 
ford said of this: "Alleghany is formed from the Indigenal name of 
the Ohio, signifying Long or Endless, River or Mountain, for with 
the addition of these words for either, the same name may be 
applied to the Alleghanies, or the Alleghany range of mountains 
and the Ohio river." He thought also that the people of Pennsyl- 
vania were entitled to the spelling of the word, the mountains being 
mostly in that state. Heckewelder said : "The Delawares still call 
the former (Ohio) Al-li-ge-wi Si-pu, the River of the Al-li-ge-wi." 
Many have thought these the mound-builders. Loskiel said of the 
river, " The Delawares call this Al-li-ge-wi-si-po, which the Euro- 
peans have changed to Al-li-ghe-ne, and the Iroquois call it Ohio, 
that is, the beautiful river." He added : "At present the Delawares 
call the whole country as far as the entrance of the river Wabasch 
into the Ohio, Alli-gewi-nengk, that is, 'a land into which they 
came from distant parts.' ' This does not agree with other defi- 
nitions, and there is no reason to suppose they ever lived in Ohio 
till the middle of the 18th century. 

Trumbull thought the name might be from Wel-hik-han-ne, best 
or fairest river, welhik meaning most beautiful. Wu-lach-neu 
would be the finest river without falls. Allegany, longest or finest 
river, and the mountains were often termed endless. Wulik-hanne- 
sipu, best rapid stream long river, and Wulik-sipu, best long stream, 
he suggests for origin. He also cited Charles Frederick Post, the 


Moravian missionary, who wrote in 1758 of " The Ohio, as it is 
called by the Sennecas. Alleghenny is the name of the same river 
in the Delaware language. Both words signify the fine or fair 
river." This would seem conclusive at a time when it was certainly 
a comparatively new name to the Delawares. 

He also quoted La Metairie, the notary of La Salle's expedition, 
who "calls the Ohio, the Olighinsipou, or Aleghin; evidently an 
Algonkin name." At that time, however, the eastern Algpnquins 
had no access to the river. If the name was in use it must have 
been a western one. Dr Trumbull added that one of these two 
suggested a possible derivation. " The Indian name of the Alle- 
ghanies has been said, — I do not remember on whose authority, — 
to mean 'endless mountains.' 'Endless' can not be more exactly 
expressed in any Algonkin language than by 'very long,' or 'longest,' 
— in the Delaware Eluwi-gnnen. 'The very long or longest river' 
would be Eluwi-guneusipu, or, if the words be compounded in 
one, Eluzi'i-gunesipn." If Dr Trumbull has not decided the ques- 
tion, he has certainly given his readers much to choose from. The 
testimony of Post has the best support. 

Another definition comes in which will be as welcome to poetic 
minds as the mythic Alligewi. In the Transactions of the Buffalo 
Historical Society for 1885, is a statement from some Canadian 
Delawares, which differs from others : "The Alleghany mountains 
were called by us Al-lick-e-wa-ny, he is leaving us and may never 
return. Reference is made, I suppose, to departing hunters or 
warriors, who were about to enter the passes of those rugged 

Ca-i-a-di'-on, a Seneca village of 1767, may be Caneadea. 

Ca-na-se-ra'-ga creek and village, among the milkweeds. 

Can-e-a-de'-a is written Ga-o-ya'-de-o by Morgan, where the 
heavens rest on the earth. The name of this Indian village is now 
given to a creek and postofhee [see also Karaghyadirha]. Colonel 
Proctor wrote this Canaseder when he was there in 1791. 

Can-is-te'-o river, board on the water. 

Car-a-ca-de-ra, about 7 miles from Nunda, called Carahaderra 
by Proctor in 1791. It seems the Karaghyadirha mentioned below. 

Chaut-au'-qua Valley postoffice in the town of Grove. 

Che-nun'-da creek, by the hill. 


Cu'-ba, a village and town. An introduced West India name, 
said to have come from (ubanacan, the center or middle, two sylla- 
bles being dropped. 

Cus-a'-qua creek varies in spelling, but means a spear. 

Ga-ne-o'-weh-ga-yat, head of the stream, is Morgan's name for 

Ga'-nos was the name for Oil spring given to Charlevoix in 1721. 
lie was told it was between the Ohio and Genesee rivers. 

Gen-e-see' river, town and creek. Also little Genesee. 

Gis'-ta-quat, a place at Wellsville, mentioned by Zeisberger and 
appearing on Guy Johnson's map. 

Hisk-hu'-e, a village mentioned by Proctor, suggests Ischua or 

Hon-e-o-ye creek and corners are on the south line of the 

Ja-go'-yo-geh, hearing place, is a name for part of Black creek. 

Kar-agh-ya-dir'-ha, or Karathyadira, was a Seneca village at 
llelvidere in 1765. It is on Guy Johnson's map and was essentially 
his own Indian name, meaning rays of the sun enlightening the 
earth. A shorter definition may be used. In 1791 Proctor called 
it Carahaderra, a village 47 miles south of Lake Ontario. 

On-on-dar'-ka. i-illage on a hill. A village north of the last on 
the map of 1771. 

Os-wa'-ya creek, from O-so'-a-yeh, pine forest. 

O-wa-is'-ki, tinder the banks, is Morgan's name for Wiscoy creek. 

Pa-cih-sah-cunk, Paseckachcunk, Pasigacnkunk and Passiquach- 
kunk are varying forms of the name of a Delaware town at Colonel 
Bill's creek in 1766. The next may be the same. 

Pas-se-kaw -kung, a place several days above Tioga in 1757. It 
seems to mean where the stream bursts through. 

Pee-me-han-nink was at the head of the Cayuga branch in 1757, 
and not far from the Chenasse or Genesee. 

Pe-mid-han'-uck, a winding stream, was a Delaware name for 
Gruesee creek in [767, and is much like the last. 

Shan-a-bas-gwa-i-kon creek was an affluent of Genesee river, 
mentioned in the Morris deed of 1793. 

Shon'-go is called after a Seneca Indian of post-colonial days. 


Sis-to-go'-a-et is the name for part of Genesee river on Pouchot's 

Tagh-roon-wa'-go, a Seneca town of 1779, seems to have been in 

Wig'-wam creek. This Algonquin word means house. 

Wis-coy postoffice is on Wiscoy creek. 

The migration of the Delawares in the 18th century brought 
many Algonquin names into southwestern New York. 


The Indian names in this county are nearly all quite recent, 
those of the Susquehanna being the only ones known which ante- 
date the 18th century. In that century the Iroquois began to 
settle on that river, and before its close had several colonies of 
subject tribes on or near its banks. Intercourse with Pennsylvania 
increased and names of places naturally came with this. 

A-no'-lca seems a fanciful name, but it may be a survival of 
( )noto. Boyd, however, gives it as the name of a village in Min- 
nesota, meaning on both sides of the river. 

An-o-jot'-ta was the name given to the Moravians for Chenango 
river above Chenango Forks, it being so called from leading to 
Ana jot or Oneida. 

Che-nan'-go is the name of the river, forks and lake. Bingham- 
ton was long known as Chenango Point. Morgan derived this 
from O-che-nang, bull thistles, and the Onondagas thus interpret 
this now. In colonial days the Onondaga and Nanticoke villages, 
between Chenango Forks and the Susquehanna were collectively 
known as Cheningo, Otseningo and Zeniinge. The second was' 
the common form — Sylvester mistook in defining Chenango as 
water flozciug south. 

There are Little and Big Choconut creeks. The name is from 
Chug-nutts, variously spelled. In 1755 the Onondagas intended 
placing the Shawnees there. It was burned in 1779 and was then 
called Cokonnuck and Chukkanut. The name may be from Cho- 
kohton, blisters, a name for the balsam fir, but A. Cusick thought 
it was place of tamaracks. 

Co-hon-go-run'-to, a name of the Susquehanna, according to 
Colden, which may mean either a river in the woods, or one which 


serves as a door. This name, however, may not have been used 
so far down its course. It may be also from Heckewelder's name 
of Gahonta, the river on which arc extensive clear fiats. 

Cook-qua'-go may be derived from ( )quaga, but Boyd makes it 
from kekoa, owl, and gowa, great. The Onondaga name for one 
species is kaekhoowa, meaning big feathery thing. 

Ga'-na-no-wa'-na-neh, great island river; an Iroquois name for 
the Susquehanna according to Morgan. The Onondaga, name is 
different. [See Otsego county] 

Kil'-la-wog postoffice. 

Xan'-ti-coke creek and town. The Xanticokes were placed at 
Otsiningo in 1753. According to Hecke welder they called them- 
selves Nentego. The Delawares termed them Unechtgo, and the 
Iroquois, Sganiateratiehrohne, tide water people or seashore settlers. 
The Mohicans also called them Otayachgo, and the Delawares, 
Tawachquano, bridge over stream, from their dislike to going 
through the water. They had singular customs and were a south- 
ern people. 

Occanum (Ok-ka'-num) postoffice and creek is probably mis- 

O-nan'-no-gi-is'-ka, shagbark hickory, is applied by Morgan to 
the whole of Tioughnioga river, but it properly belongs only to the 
upper part and perhaps to a lake at its source. 

On-och-je-ru'-ge, one of the names of Onoquaga. 

On-oh-agh-wa'-ga is a mountain near the last. 

O-no'-to seems to have been Xanticoke creek. April 2, 1737, 
Conrad Weiser said they " reached the water called Onoto, and 
were immediately taken across in a canoe." It was on the north 
side of the Susquehanna, where several Onondaga families were 
living. It may be derived from onotes, deep, in reference to the 

( )-qua'-ga had many forms, applied to a village and creek. 
Among these arc Aughquagey, Onohaghquage, Onoquaga, 
( )cquango and ( )nonaughquaga. The last may refer to the moun- 
tain. A. Cusick defined this as the place of hulled corn soup. It 
was partly destroyed in [778, and utterly desolated in 1779. 

Oquaga Lake is the present name of a postoffice. 

Ot-se-nin'-go was the early form of Chenango and the name of 


two villages north of Binghamton, 1750-79, where Onondagas and 
Xanticokes lived on opposite sides of the river. These villages 
have been erroneously placed at Binghamton by some. Councils 
were sometimes held there, and it was called Otlincauke, Otsi- 
neange, Chinange, Zeniinge, etc. 

Ot'-se-lic river. Morgan defined this as capful and it has also 
been interpreted plum creek. Its mouth is at Whitney Point. It 
had another name in 1753, which may have originated in the wild 
red plum. An early Iroquois word for the plum tree was thichionk, 
from which Otselic might be derived, or it may have been cor- 
rupted from oshiaki, to pluck fruit. 

Oua-qua'-ga is the present name of a postoffice and creek. 

Schi'-o was the name applied by Zeisberger to the Otselic when 
he reached it in 1753. This might come from Tischo, wild red 
plum, as given in his dictionary, or abbreviated from thickionk, as 
above, an earlier name for the plum tree. 

Ska-wagh-es-ten'-ras, or Bennett's creek, is on Sauthier's map, 
below the mouth of the Unadilla and on the south side of the 

Skow-hi-ang'-to or Tuscarora town was a village near Windsor, 
burned in 1779. 

Sus-que-han-na is an Algonquin name of rather uncertain mean- 
ing, though the terminal for river is plain enough. Of this Hecke- 
welder said : 

The Indians (Lenape) distinguish the river which we call Sus- 
quehanna thus: The north branch they call M'chewamisipu, or to 
shorten it Mchwewarmink, from which we have called it Wyoming. 
The word implies, The river on which arc extensive clear flats. 
The Six Nations, according to Prylaeus (Moravian missionary) 
called it Gahonta, which had the same meaning. The west branch 
they call Quenischachgekhaune. but to shorten it they say Quen- 
ischachachki. The word implies : The river which has the long 
reaches or straight courses in it. From the forks, where now the 
town of Northumberland stands, downwards, they have a name 
(this word I have lost) which implies: The Great Bay river. The 
word Susquehanna, properly Sisquchannc, from Sisku for mud, and 
hanue. a stream, was probably at an early time of the settling of 
this country overheard by someone while the Indians were at the 
time of a flood or freshet remarking: Juh! Achsis quehanne or 
Sisquehanne, which is: How muddy the stream is, and therefore 


taken as the proper name of- the river. Any stream that has become 
muddy will, at the time it is so, be called Susquehanna. Hecke- 
welder, p. 262. 

This is ingenious, but Captain John Smith described the Sasque- 
hannocks living on that river in 1608, two centuries before Hecke- 
welder wrote. He called them Sasquesahannocks, a people at war 
with the Massawomecks, supposed by many to be the Iroquois but 
probably the Eries. Mr W. W. Tooker would make hanock and 
its variants expressive of a people. The Susquehannocks sold 
metallic articles to the Chesapeake Indians, and may have gained 
these in war. He therefore suggested that Sasquesah might be 
the equivalent of the Xew England Sequettah. signifying booty, 
and rendered the whole word, people of the booty obtained in ivar. 
If the terminal were hanne or river, he would then define it river 
of booty. From the quotation above it will be seen that Hecke- 
welder did not, as he supposed, suggest " that it was a corruption 
of the Delaware Quenisch-ach-gek-hanne, the long reach river." 
That he gave to the west branch and claimed a very different origin 
for the name in question. In 1885 some Canadian Delawares said : 
"We called the Susquehanna, A-theth-qua-nee, the roily river." 
Simms defined it crooked river. Its Iroquois names will appear 

Ti-ough'-ni-6-ga river has a name which is but a larger form of 
Tioga, referring to the forks of rivers. Spafford said : " If I am 
correctly informed, this name is formed from Te-ah-hah-hogue, 
the meeting of roads and waters at the same place." One early 
form was Te-yogh-a-go-ga. The Moravians wrote it Tiohujodha, 
describing its many forks. On Dwight's map it is Tionioga. It 
was sometimes called the Onondaga, as an easy highway from the 
Susquehanna to Onondaga. There is a wrong local pronunciation. 

Ze-ni-in'-ge or Zeninge was the Moravian form of Chenango. It 
was not a Tuscarora town as De Schweinitz supposed. 


Al-le-ga'-ny river and town [see Allegany county]- The river 
was called O-hee'-yo or beautiful river, by the Iroquois. It may 
be noted that io often combined the idea of grandeur with beauty; 
something very fine. In this way they probably meant this for the 
great river. 


Cat-ta-rau'-gus creek and village. Morgan gives the Seneca form 
as Ga-da'-ges-ga-o, fetid banks. Spafford said of this : "They 
have another [name] which signifies stinking shore, or beach, 
spoken Gah-ta-ra'-ke-ras, a broad, and this they say is the origin 
of onr Cattaraugus, a name perfectly appropriate to the Lake 
shore." The resemblance to Canawaugus, in sound and meaning 
will be noticed. On Pouchot's map the creek appears as R. a la 
terre pnante. The Seneca village of Kadaragawas was mentioned 
in 1780, and again in 1794 as Catoraogaras. 

Che-na-shun-gau'-tau was a name for the junction of Cold 
Spring creek and Allegany river in Mary Jemison's early days. It 
was also written Teu-shun-sesh-un-gau-tau, etc. 

Chi-e-ka-saw'-ne, a place east of the north bend of the Allegany 
river in 1795. 

Con-e-wan'-go town and creek, in the rapids. A frequent name 
in differing dialects. It has also been defined walking slowly, and 
this opposite meaning may have been suggested by the slow prog- 
ress against a strong current. It is not strictly a definition. A 
fanciful interpretation is they have been long gdne. 

Con-no-ir-to-ir-au-ley creek in Ashford has been defined ugly 
stream. This has no support. On a recent map it is Connoisa- 

Da'-u-de-hok'-to, at the bend. Seneca village on the Allegany- 

De-as'-hen-da-qua, place of courts. Ellicottville. 

De-o'-na-ga-no or Te-o-ni-go-no, cold spring. A Seneca village. 

De-o-no'-sa-da-ga, burned houses. Cornplanter's town was in 
Pennsylvania. These four are in Morgan's list and many of those 
which follow. 

Ga-da'-ges-ga-o, is his name for Cattaraugus, fetid banks. 

Ge-ne-sin-guh'-ta, an old town in Elko, mentioned by Mary 

Go-wan'-da, a village in the town of Persia. Mr Arthur C. 
Parker, a nephew of the late Gen. Ely S. Parker who was Morgan's 
able interpreter, furnishes a welcome note on this name and its 
origin, saying: " Go-wan-da is a contraction of Dyo-go-wan-deh or 
O-go-wan-da, meaning almost surrounded by hills or cliffs. The 
name Dyo-go-wan-deh, (deh being the modern form of the older 
terminal da) is still used by the Senecas to describe a place below 


high cliffs or steep hills, especially if the hills form a bend. The 
name Gowanda was suggested by the Rev. , Asher Wright in 
response to the request of the people of Lodi who wished a more 
appropriate and less common name for their village." 

Gus-tan-goh, the Seneca name for the village of Versailles. Mr 
Parker interprets this under the cliffs. 

He'-soh or Ischua, floating nettles. The latter is the present 
name of a creek and town. It was Asueshan in 1767- 

Je'-ga-sa-nek. Burton creek was thus called after an Indian. 

Jo'-ne-a-dih, beyond the great bend. A Seneca village. 

Kill Buck is not an Indian name of itself, but was that of a 
prominent Delaware chief of colonial and Revolutionary days, 
sometimes called Bemineo. It has long been a local name in this 

O-da'-squa-dos-sa, around the stone. Great Valley creek. 

O-da'-squa-wa-teh', small stone beside a large one. Little Val- 
ley creek. It is the same as Squeaugheta. 

O-do-sa'-gi, clear spring water. A new name in Machias. 

O-nogh-sa-da'-go, a Seneca town near Canawago in 1744. A. 
Cusick defined this as where buried things are dug up. This might 
seem an allusion to the lead plates buried by the French and dug 
up by the Indians, were not the name so early, but caches may 
often have been made there. It seems identical with the name of 
Cornplanter's town as given above. There are several names nearly 
the same in sound but differing in meaning. 

O-hi'-o or O-hee'-yo, beautiful river. Allegany river. In Mary 
Jemison's life it is said, " the word O-hi-o signifies bloody." This 
erroneous definition was the effect of associating the name with 
the bloody scenes enacted there. 

O-so'-a-went-ha, by the pines, for Hasket creek, is almost the 
same as the next. 

Os-wa'-ya creek, pine forest. It flows from Pennsylvania, and 
Morgan gave the original as O-so'-a-yeh. 

San'-dus-ky postoffice has a name introduced from Ohio. In 
Potier's Racinnes Huronnes it is Ot-san-doos-ke', there where 
there is pure water- A Polish trader lived on the bay who was 
called Sandusky, but he probably had his name from the bay, not 
the bay from him. 


Sque-augh-e'-ta, a creek at the north bend of Allegany river in 


Te-car'-nohs, dropping oil, is Morgan's name for Oil creek. 
Ganos, the name for Oil Spring in 1721, will be recognized in the 
last two syllables. 

Te-car'-no-wun-do, for Lime Lake, means the same as the pres- 
ent name. 

Teu-shan-ush'-song, the present name of an Allegany Indian 
village, suggests one much earlier. 

Ti-o-hu-wa-qua-ron-ta was mentioned by Zeisberger as the most 
easterly Seneca town on the Allegany in 1766. 

Ti-on-i-on-ga-run-te of Guy Johnson's map, at or near Olean, 
may be the same. The former may refer merely to a wooded point; 
the latter to a point which is hilly and wooded. 

Ti-oz-in-os-sun-gach-ta, a Seneca town on the Allegany, 30 miles 
west of the one mentioned by Zeisberger in 1766. He visited both. 

To-squi-a-tos-sy, a creek east of the Squeaugheta in 1795. Great 
Valley creek. This differs little from its present Seneca name. 
Around the stone. 

Tu-ne-ga'-want or Tunaengwant valley. As the name of a post- 
office it is shortened to Tuna. An eddy not strong. 

Tu-nes-sas'-sa, clear pebbly stream*. Seneca village at the junc- 
tion of Great and Little Valley with the Allegany river- 

Tu-ne-un'-gwan, an eddy not strong. In Carrollton. This ap- 
pears above. 

Tu-shan-ush-a-a-go-ta. An Indian village at the forks of the 
Allegany in 1789. 

Yet-gen-es-young-gu-to creek, flowing into the Allegany on a 
map of 1798, may be derived from one of Zeisberger's names. 

Although the Delawares reached this important region before 
the middle of the 18th century they left few surviving names on 
or near the Allegany river. The Senecas built some villages, and 
were rapidly spreading westward at that time. The wars which 
soon followed checked their advance, but their most important 
reservations and villages are still on the Allegany river and Cat- 
taraugus creek. 



Achs'-go is the name of Owasco lake in the Cammerhoff journal 
of 1750. On the map of Charlevoix it is Asco, and Kirkland wrote 
it Xascon in 1764. In every form it has reference to a bridge, 
though there was not always one there. It is a very old name, as 
will be seen. 

Ca-na-da-ho'-ho, a village east of Cayuga lake on T. Kitchin's 
map of 1756. The name refers to a fine village. 

Ca-yu'-ga lake and brook. A. Cusick translated this where they 
haul boats out, and I am quite sure this is the best of several defini- 
tions to be given later. It would refer to the first firm land above 
the extensive marshes. Hough had it " Koi-ok-wen, from the water 
to the shore, as the landing of prisoners." The Moravians usually 
wrote the name Gajuka, and other forms and definitions will be 
given separately. The earliest English form was Caiougo, and 
Loskiel wrote it Cajugu. The sound did not vary as much as the 
letters used. It was not the earliest name of the country and 

Cho-ha'-ro, called also Tichero and Thichero at an earlier day, 
was a Cayuga village at the foot of Cayuga lake in 1779. In this 
form it meant place of rushes. 

Cho'-no-dote or Chondot, alias Peachtown, was a name for a 
village at Aurora in 1779. There was a large peach orchard there, 
but the Indian name did not signify this. 

Choue-guen, equivalent to Oswego, Hozving out, was first men- 
tioned in the Relation of 1672, where it is applied to the outlet of 
Cayuga lake. "The river Choueguen, which rises in this lake, soon 
branehes into several canals." Through the marshes it had another 

Chrou'-tons was a French form of an Indian name of Little Sodus 
bay, 5 leagues beyond Oswego in De Nonville's expedition of 1687. 

Date-ke-a'-o-shote, two baby frames. Present Indian name of 
Little Sodus bay This and the next three are from Morgan's list. 

Dats-ka'-he, hard talking, is North Sterling creek. 

De-a-wen'-dote, constant dawn, is his name for Aurora. It may 
have been adopted while he lived there, or may be a variant of 


Ga-hes-ka'-o creek is Great Gully brook, south of Union Springs. 
It was mentioned in Cammerhoff's journal of 1750. In Onondaga 
it would be big arrow. 

Ga-jik-ha'-no, plate of salt, is the Tuscarora name for Monte- 
zuma, and varies from others. 

Ga-na-ta-ra'-ge may be from Ganniatarigon (Bruyas), to cross 
the Jake, as was often done, but Ganata, a village, is the form used, 
applying to the town. A better derivation would be from Ganna- 
taragon, to cat bread, in allusion to its hospitality. Cammerhoff 
mentions it as the Cayuga town nearest Onondaga. 

Ga-ni-a-ta-re-ge-chi-at was a name applied to the south end of 
Cayuga lake in the same journal. It was local, however, and A. 
Cusick defined it from here zee see the lake, being the first view 
the party had of it. It was also rendered end of the lake by Zeis- 
berger in 1766, and this seems more literal. 

Ga-ron-ta-neeh'-qui was a creek between Cayuga and Ovvasco 
lakes, having this name in 1750. Garonta by itself is a tree, but 
Zeisberger gives Garontanechqui as a horse. Horses were men- 
tioned near this place. 

Ga-weh'-no-wa-na, great island. Howland island in Seneca river. 
Ga-ya'-ga-an-ha, inclined downward, Indian village 3 miles south 
of Union Springs, 

Ge-wa'-ga, promontory running out, was a village at the site of 
Union Springs in 1779. All the Cayuga villages were burned at 
that time. These three are Morgan's names. 

Goi-o'-goh, mountain rising from the water, is David Cusick's 
rendering of the name of Cayuga lake. 

Goi-o'-guen is an early French form for the lake, town and 

Gwe-u'-gweh, lake at the mucky land, is Morgan's name for 
Cayuga lake. The name for lake is not expressed but understood 
in this. The definition hardly seems correct in application, nor is 
it in accordance with his interpretation elsewhere. 

Ka'-na-ka'-ge, black water, is his name for Owasco inlet. Ka- 
honji means black in Mohawk. 

Ki-hu'-ga creek and lake are mentioned in Sullivan's campaign 
for Cayuga. 


Ki-o-he'-ro, St Stephen's mission at the foot of the lake in 1670, 
is the same as Thiohero, defined below. 

Ko-lah-ne-kah is the name of Johnstown but Alfred B. Street in 
his poem <>f Frontenac applies it to the village of Aurora which 
itself occupies the site of the chief village of the nation, which was 
called Ko-lah-ne-kah. There is no other authority for this. 

Little Sodus bay and creek. Sodus has not been well defined. 

Montezuma town and marshes have their common name from 
the Mexican emperor. 

Nas'-con lake for Owasco, as used by Kirkland. 

Riviere d'Ochoueguen, the outlet for Cayuga lake in 1672. 

O-i-o-go'-en or Oiogouen was a name for Cayuga used by .the 
French in 1656. G was commonly prefixed. 

On-i-o'-en, stony laud, was the home of the Cayugas in 1654. 
For the people it was sometimes written Ouioenrhonons, involving 

a slight error. , 

( )n-non-ta'-re' or St Rene, the seat of a French mission in 1656, 
near but east of the present village of Savannah. It means on a 
lull though it was on the river, but may be rendered at the full 
The allusion is to Fort hill, not far away, and perhaps to the small 
earthwork on it. . 

Os'-co bridge over water, for Auburn, as defined by A. Cusick. 
Morgan also gave Dwas'-co as bridge on the water, and added lake 
to this, making Owasco lake, lake at the Hooting bridge. The bridge 
was not always there. [See Achsgo and Wasco] 

San'-ni-o, a village at the foot of Cayuga lake in 1750, and on 
the east side- By a change of persons this is from gannio, to pass 
the river in a canoe. The usual course was to ferry over Cayuga 
lake, instead of making a long detour to the north. 

Sen-c-ca river is variously written [see Seneca county]. 
Sgan-i-a-ta'-rees lake, long lake. It was thus written by Cam- 
merhoff when at Skaneateles in 17 5°- 

Squa-yen'-na, a great way up, applied by Morgan to Otter lake 

and Muskrat creek. 

Swa'-geh river is his name for Seneca river, and is equivalent 
to Oswego. In one place he spoke confidently of it as meaning 
flowing out, but afterward said there was doubt of this. His defi- 
nition is essentially correct. 


Te-car'-jik-ha'-do, place of salt. Montezuma, where there are 
salt springs. 

Tga'-a-ju is mentioned as a Cayuga village by De Schweinitz. 
I his was the name of their principal chief, and towns were some- 
times named from such men. I do not find this the case here 
though Zeisberger fully described his two visits to this chief in 
1766. It is purely a chief's title, given by Morgan as Da-ga-a-yo 
man frightened. All others define it, he looks both ways, which a 
frightened man might do. 

The-ro'-tons, another name for Little Sodus bay in 1688. Also 

Thi-o-he'-ro or Ti-o-he-ro, river of rushes, a name for Seneca 
river m 1672. It was also the name of a village, and came from 
the vast beds of flags in the Montezuma marshes and near Cross 

Ti-che-ro, the name of Cayuga lake in Greenhalgh's journal 
has the same meaning. He placed the Cayugas 2 or 3 miles from it.' 

H-onc-tong or Tionctora is Cross lake in Cammerhoff's journal- 
On the map of Charlevoix it is Tiocton, and has other forms 

Ti-uch-he'-o is another form for Tiohero, in the same journal 
for the north end of Cayuga lake. 

Tschoch'-ni-ees, a hamlet on Payne's creek in 1750, appears in 
tins journal. 

Was'-co, floating bridge, is Morgan's name for Auburn. Bridges 
were sometimes made by the Iroquois, but usually there was none 
at Owasco lake, though the trail traversed the beach. When Zeis- 
berger was there October 30, 1766, he said: "There were only 
two thin trees, the thickness of a man's leg, thrown over the out- 
et of a large lake, which had an awful depth, and as we crossed 
they bent so far down that you would be in water up to your knees 
and therefore had to be very careful to keep your balance so as' 
not to fall into the water." The lake had this name at least half 
a century earlier, pointing out some rude crossing 

Was'-gwas, long bridge, was Morgan's name for Cayuga bridge 
once the longest in the world. 


c^T'tu^ a P ' aCe Se ' eCted f ° r a French P° st at «* middle 
of the Chautauqua portage. It may be from Attentoniaton 



t BruyasL to cause to depart, in allusion to a fresh start, or from 
attona, stairs, from the ascent. 

Ca-na-da'-way creek or Ga-na-da-wa-o, running through the 
hemlocks Canadawa creek and Dunkirk. Spafford mentioned a 
portage there. Johnson called it Kanandaweron when he stopped 

there in 1761. 

Cat-ta-rau'-gus creek and Little Cattaraugus, fetid banks. 

Ca-yant'-ha, corn fields, one of Computer's towns, was on the 
Conewango in 1787, a mile north of the 195th milepost west of the 
Delaware river. Cayontoria and Kiantone seem derived from this. 

Chaut-au'-qua lake, creek and town. The place now called Port- 
land had the name of Chatacouit in French documents in 1753. 
The word has become widely known among summer schools, and 
has been very differently interpreted. For these reasons some space 

will be given to it. t 

L H Morgan wrote it Cha-da'-gweh in Seneca, Cha-da -qua in 
Onondaga and Cayuga, Cha-ta'-qua in Tuscarora, and Ja-da-qua 
in Mohawk: a as in far. He interpreted it. place where one was 
lost and his informant was a Seneca chief. Cornplanter is said to 
have told Judge Prendergast, that -Chautauqua (Ja-da-queh) sig- 
nified where a bodv ascended or was taken up. The Seneca tra- 
dition is that a hunting party of Indians was once encamped on the 
shore of the lake. A young squaw of the party dug up and ate a 
root that created thirst, to slake which she went to the lake and 
disappeared forever. Thence it was inferred that a root grew 
there which produced an easy death; a vanishing from the afflic- 
tions of life - This may be easily reconciled with Morgan's defim- 
tion. The account goes on that Cornplanter alluded to this in 
speaking against Phelps and Gorham : 

Another, who will not think of dying by the hand of his father or 
brother, says he will return to Jadaqneh, eat of the fatal root, and 
sleep with his fathers in peace. Uazelhne, p. 41-42 

Other proposed meanings are place where a child was swept 
away by the waves, and bag tied in the middle, in allusion to the 
form of the lake. These may be dismissed. Spafford's definition 
has this in its favor, that in early Mohawk the word for fog was 
otsata. He said: 



1 terminate the first (Chautauqua) with an a, because I sometime, 
hear it pronounced by strangers, in two syllables, as well as that 
this orthography comes nearer the Indian pronunciation. The fol- 
lowing is written from statements given me in 1815, and subse- 
quently, by several chiefs and interpreters of the Indian tribes in 
the western part of this State. In their language there is a phrase 
or zvord-in-their-manner, signifying of the fog, at the fog, fo??x 
place, etc., spoken Ots-ha-ta'-ka, with long sound of o, and the 
broad of a, except of the last letter, a short, almost like e.' 

This would seem conclusive, but has been disputed. In the 
Glen Echo Chautauqua, August. 1891. Mr Albert S. Gatschet had 
an article on this name. Mr J. N. B. Hewitt had told him that 
" the first two syllables are both pronounced short," and gave the 
original name as T'kantchata'kwan, "one who has taken out fish 
there." This pronunciation disagrees with all writers, early and 
late, unless the prefix is meant. He said, '"There exists an old 
tradition that the Indians of the vicinity took out fish from Lake 
Erie to stock Lake Chautauqua." He thought Cattaraugus creek 
was the place stocked. Mr Gatschet gave the story of Dr Peter 
Wilson, an educated Seneca (Cayuga) chief: "A party of Senecas 
were returning from the Ohio to Lake' Erie. While paddling 
through Chautauqua lake, one of them caught a strange fish and 
tossed it into his canoe. After passing the portage into Lake Erie. 
they found the fish still alive, and threw it into the water. From' 
that time the new species became abundant in Lake Erie, where one 
was never known before." Hence they called the place where it 
was caught, Jah-dah-gwah. the elements of which are Ga-joh. 
"fish," and Ga-dah-gwah, "taken out." By dropping the prefixes, 
according to Seneca custom, the compound name "Jah-dah-gwah" 
was formed. 

In Schoolcraft's Seneca vocabulary Kenjuck expresses Hsh 
in general, gahquah being used for bass- The Onondagas call fish 
ojoontwa, nor does this derivation have much support from other 
vocabularies. For the early name Evans' map of 1758 has Jadach- 
que, and on the boundary map of 1768 it is Jadaghque on Lake 
Erie. Rev. Mr Alden said the name, as pronounced by Corn- 
planter, was Chaud-dauk-wa. It is a Seneca name, of course, in 
its later form at least, and "according to the system of the late 
Rev. Asher Wright, long a missionary among them and a fluent 


speaker of their language, it would be written Jah-dah-gwah, the 
first two vowels long and the last short." This disposes of pro- 

In his expedition to the Ohio in 1749, ^ Celoron *rote it 
Chatacoin and Chatakouin, and in Bonnecamps' journal of the 
same expedition it is Tjadakoin. The lead plate brought to Gov- 
ernor Clinton had Tchadakoin on it. Pouchot's map has Schata- 
coin. K. for the outlet of the lake, and allowance for French pro- 
nunciation must be made in all these forms. A place on Lake Erie 
is quite as often indicated as Chautauqua lake. Thus, in an account 
of Marin's operations in 1753. the French first arrived at Chadakoin 
on Lake Erie and commenced a fort. "The river of Chadakoins" 
was found too shallow for vessels, and they went 15 leagues west. 
Then they determined to build "two forts at Chadakoin, one of 
them by Lake Erie, the other at the end of the carrying place at 
Lake Chadakoin," indicating that the name was of a general char- 
acter. D. Cusick wrote it Geattahgweah. 

Co-ne-wan'-go creek and river, or Ga'-no-wun-go, in the rapids 
These are sometimes Conewango river and Chautauqua creek. 
This was spelled Kanaaiagon on De Celoron "s lead plate buried in 
[74c;. but Chanougon in his journal. On Bonnecamps' map it is 
Kananouangon. There was a village near its mouth bearing the 
latter name. 

Con-non-dau-we-ge'-a, a creek south of Cattaraugus creek, is 
mentioned in land purchases and is Canadaway. 
Di-on-ta-ro'-go was a name for Attoniat. 
Ga-a-nUn-da'-ta, a mountain leveled, is Silver Creek. 
Gen-tai-e'-ton was an Erie village where Catharine Gandiak- 
tena was born. She was a convert at Oneida, where she was 
married. The town may have been here or in the south part of 
Erie county. 

Gus-da'-go, under the rocks, is Morgan's name for Cassadaga 
lake and creek. It is Cosdauga on Dwight's map. 

Gus-ha'-wa-ga, on the body, was Morgan's name for Erie, Pa. 
Jo-nas'-ky or Ka-sa-no-ti-a-yo-go, a carrying place where the 
French intended building a fort at one end. 

Ka-no-a-go'-a, a great door, is on Pouchot's map of 1758, but 


seems south of the line, and may be meant for Conewango. This 
would be defined differently. 

Kau-quat'-kay, principal Erie fort according to D. Cusick. 

Ke-on-to-na or Ca-yon-to-na, an Indian village of 1789, was 
on the west branch of Conewango river. From this comes Kian- 

Ko-sha-nu-a-de-a-go, a stream flowing south across the Penn- 
sylvania, seems the Kasanotiayogo of the French writers. 

Oregon postoffice. This introduced name is used elsewhere in 
New York, and the meaning has been much discussed. Jonathan 
Carver heard of such a river in 1766, but it does not belong to the 
Oregon dialects, though there is an Okanagan river in that state. 
The name may be Algonquin, with the meaning of great water, 
but is more probably a Dakota word. Carver mentioned it as a 
great river flowing into the Pacific, and called it " Oregon, or the 
river of the West." Bryant first used it after Carver, in his poem 
of Thanatopsis, written in 1817: "Lose thyself in the continuous 
woods where rolls the Oregon." Some have derived it from Ori- 
ganum, an herb, but this is an error. Nor does it come from 
the Spanish word, huracan, a wind, originally from the Mexican 
and familiar to us as a hurricane- A popular interpretation has 
been from the Spanish word ore j on, a pulling of the car, or lop 
ears, but Carver undoubtedly had it from the Indians, and this 
source should be accepted. This is partly Bancroft's decision in 
the full discussion in his Pacific States, and his words may be 
quoted : 

Therefore the summing of the evidence would read Oregon, in- 
vented by Carver, made famous by Bryant, and fastened upon the 
Columbia river territory, first by Kelley, through his memorials to 
Congress and numerous published writings, begun as early as 1817, 
and secondly, by other English and American authors, who adopted 
it from the three sources here given. 

Wan'-go is shortened from Conewango. 


Mount Ach-sin'-ing, standing stones, was south of the Chemung 
and opposite Sing Sing creek. It is a Delaware name. 

Ach-sin-nes'-sink, Assinissink, Asinsan or Atsinsink, place of 
small stones, was a Monsey or Delaware village on the east side of 


Sing Sing creek, in the town of Big Mats. French says it was 
called after John Sing Sing, a friendly Indian, hut it was known 
by this name in 1758. Gen. J. S. Clark would seem to extend it 
farther up the river, into Steuben count}-, making it a scattering 
settlement. It is usually defined stone upon stone, in allusion to 
the peculiar rocks along the river. On Guy Johnson's map of 1771 
it is Sin Sink- 

Cayuga branch was a frequent name for Chemung river. 

Ca-yu'-ta creek and postoffice. This may he from Gahato, log in 
the water. 

Che-mung' has various forms, as that of Skeemonk in 1777, and 
Shimango in 1779. In 1757 the French spoke of the " Loups of 
Chaamonaque' or Theoga." meaning the Delawares living at Tioga. 
It was written Shamunk in 1767, but usually Chemung. The river 
and an Indian village bore this name, which meant big horn. The 
village was burned in 1779. Zeisberger has Wschummo for Jwrn, 
and the locative may be added. Spafford said : " Chemung is said 
to mean big horn, or great horn, in the dialect of the Indian tribes 
that anciently possessed this country. And that a very large horn 
was found in the Tioga or Chemung river is well ascertained." 
This was a Delaware name, and the river had another of similar 
meaning. In Schoolcraft's larger work [5:609] is a communica- 
tion from Thomas Maxwell, who gave the usual definition and 
said that the name came from a large horn or tusk found in the 
river. Of corrse this must have been in colonial times to have 
originated the Delaware name. The early settlers found a similar 
one in the stream in 179*). It was sent to England, and an eminent 
scientist called it the tusk of an elephant or some similar animal. 
In 1855 Mr Maxwell added : 

One pi much the same character was found on an island in the 
river below Flmira. a few weeks since, and it is now here. I have 
recently examined it. It is about 4 feet in length, of the crescent 
form, perhaps 3 to 4 inches in diameter. Capt. Eastman saw it yes- 
terday and with others who have seen it pronounced it to be ivory, 
and a tusk of some large animal, probably now extinct. This is 
the third horn or tusk which has been found in the Chemung so that 
the name is likely to be perpetual. 

Con-e-wa-wa-wa, Ka-no-wa-lo-hale, and Ka-na-wa-hol-la., head 

on a pole, are different forms of a favorite name given to a village 


which was burned at Elmira in i//g. It was mentioned in 1778 
as Kannakalo, a town on the Tioga branch. 

Con-on-gue, according to French a Delaware name for the Che- 
mung-, signifying big horn or horn in the water, in that language, 
but Gallatin says that konnongah is horn in Seneca. I do not recall 
such a word. 

Eh-la-ne'-unt, a place above Tioga Point, where French Mar- 
garet's son-in-law lived in 1758. She was one of the Montour 

Ga-ha'-to, log in the -water, is given by Morgan as a Seneca name 
for Chemung river. 

Gan-ho'-tak creek was mentioned by Cammerhoff in 1750. Gen- 
eral Clark thought this Newtown creek, which is too far west. 
Wynkoop creek seems better. It may be derived from the last 

Ka-his-sack'-e was a place mentioned in the same journal, and 
so called from the number of very tall trees. It was between Gan- 
hotak c'reek and Cayuta lake, and may be compounded of garhison, 
to make a forest, and hetke, high.- 

Ko'-bus town was called after one of its noted Indian warriors, 
and was on the north side of Chemung river, opposite Hendey's 
creek and in the southwest of the town of Elmira. It seems 
a contraction of the name of Jacheabus, a noted chief who lived 

Ru-non-ve'-a, place of the Icing, according to A. Cusick, perhaps 
because the British arms were there displayed. It was a village 
at Big Flats, burned in 1779. 

She-ag'-gen or Theaggen. on the Susquehanna east of Elmira, 
is on Pouchot's map and is probably Tioga. 

Skwe'-do-wa, great plain, is Morgan's name for Elmira. This 
is a frequent name, but of varying form. 

Tu'-te-lo was an Indian village on the Chemung, near Waverly. 
The inhabitants were southern Indians, sometimes called Toderigh- 

Wil'-le-wa'-na or Wilewana is a Delaware word, meaning horn, 
and the name of a village on the Chemung in 1768, when it was 
mentioned by Zeisberger. The people there tried to make his 
party return. In the Sullivan campaign a town but not the river 


was called Chemung. From Tioga to Elmira the stream was called 
either the Tioga or the Allegany branch. Several journals men- 
tion the union of the Cayuga branch with this at Elmira. This 
branch had its name from the Cayuga village of Ganatocherat, 
near Waverly. For a long time all this territory belonged to the 


An-a-jot'-a. This name appears in the Moravian journals for 
the Chenango river above Chenango Forks. By it they could reach 
the Oneida villages, the largest of which they called Anajot, equiv- 
alent to Oneiyout. 

Ca-na-sa-was'-ta or Canasaweta is a creek in Plymouth, running 
to Norwich. It might be from Gannonsawetarhon, a cabin between 
two others. 

Che-nan'-go is called O-che-nang or bull thistles by Morgan and 
the Onondagas. The name has many local applications. 

Ga-na'-so-wa-di is Morgan's name for Norwich, and A. Cusick 
defined it as the other side of the sand. It is the same as Canasa- 

Ga-na'-da-dele, steep hill, is Sherburne. 

Gen-e-ganst-let creek and lake. According to A. Cusick this 
may be San-ne-ganst-let, at the sulphur spring or marshy place. 
This is probably correct. There are suggestive words in Bruyas, 
as Gannegastha, to love to drink, and gaiagense, to go out by or 
on anything- 

Ot'-se-lic river and town. The name has been variously inter- 
preted, and definitions will be found under the head of Broome 

Schi'-o is another name for this river in a Moravian journal of 


So-de-ah'-lo-wa'-nake, thick-necked giant, is Morgan's name for 
Oxford. It may be a reference to D. Cusick's story of a trouble- 
some giant who lived on the Susquehanna. 

Ti-en-a-der'-ha. "Teyonnoderro, or the fork, the Indian word 
signifying the meeting of the branches." 1756. Pa. Col. Res. 

U-na-dil'-la is the usual Oneida form, given in Morgan as 
De-u-na'-dil-lo, place of meeting. 



Cher-n-bus-co is a Mexican name applied to a village in the 
town of Clinton. 

Og-ha-ron'-de was a place on the west shore of Lake Cham- 
plain, mentioned in Capt. John Schuyler's journal of 1690. It seems 
to have been considerably north of Plattsburg, and may refer to 
some notable tree. 

Pa-pa-qua-ne-tuck, river of cranberries, according to Sabattis, 
an Indian hunter and guide, is Ausable river. Pakihm is Delaware 
for cranberries and po-po-kwa the Abenaki form. 

Pe-ru, a town so called from its mountainous character. 

Sal-a-sa'-nac is the name for Saranac river on Sauthier's map. 

Sar'-a-nac river, town, pond and falls. Xo meaning has ever 
been assigned to this, and it is probably but part of the original 
name, the terminal of which, saranne, means to ascend. The refer- 
ence might be to the river or the gradual rise of the land. 

R. Serindac, 1755, on the map of French grants, is the Saranac. 

R. Scomotion and cape on the map of New Hampshire grants, 
are at Cumberland Head. This name is a corruption of the next. 

Squin-an-ton or Squeononton, a deer, is the name of Cumber- 
land Head. It was called Point Squewonton or Squenonton in 
1756, and is derived from the old Mohawk word Oskennonton, 
deer, as given by Bruyas. He thought this came from Gaakennon- 
ton, to go to the land of souls, " because it is a timid animal, which 
always thinks itself dead." Schoolcraft has oskoneantea for deer 
in Mohawk. It differed in other dialects. Cap Scononton, 1748, 
on the map of French grants, is the same. 

Sen-hah-lo-ne is a name for Plattsburg. This was from Sabat- 
tis, and from the source might be considered Algonquin, though it 
has every indication of an Oneida word. So strong is this appear- 
ance that A. Cusick interpreted it, he is still building, but it is 

There were no Indian towns in this region. For two centuries 
at least it was a border land, traversed mostly by hostile parties. 
Even earlier it was mainly frequented by hunters and fishermen 
It may be remarked that though Champlain gave his own name to 
the lake, the country east of it was known as Irocoisia in 1616 


and the lake itself shared in the name. In 1609 the Indians told 
Champlain that the Vermont shore and mountains belonged to the 
Iroquois. Yates and Moulton cite a map of 167 1 in which the lake 
was called Lacus Irocoisi, a description in 1662 in which it appears 
as Lacus Irocoiensis, and a later map calling it Lac Champlain 
on mcr dc Iroquois. Van der Donck called it the lake of the Ira- 
coys in 1655, but confused it with Lake Ontario. That lake, the 
Richelieu and St Lawrence river, were often called after the same 


Most of the Indian names of this county are in old patents, 
mainly that of Livingston manor. All are Algonquin. A few sur- 
vive, but the early ones are variously written, even in the same 
document. Some variations probably came in transcribing. 

Ac-a-wai-sic, or boundary rock, was the great stone in the south- 
east corner of the boundary of Livingston manor. 

Ac-a-wan-uck, boundary place, is another name for the same 


Ack-kook-peek lake, or snake lake, was on the Taghkanick tract. 

From this Copake was derived. 

A-hash-e-wagh-kick or Ahashewaghkameek, is a creek in the 
northeast part of the manor, distinguished by a stone heap. There 
was a hill of the same name. 

Che-co-min-go kill, on a map of 1798, was place of eels, being 
one form of Shekomeko. 

Copake or Cookpake, the first being the present name of a town 
and lake. This was Kookpake on the map just mentioned, being 
derived from achkook, snake, and paug, pond, making it snake lake, 

as above. 

Gogh-komck-o-ko, in N. Y. Colonial Laws, 1723, seems another 

form of Shekomeko. 

Kach-ka-wy-ick west of a mountain on the manor. It was 
also written Kachkawayick, Kachkanick and Kachtawagick. 

Kah-se-way or Kesieway creek, near Claverack. It is said to 
be the Dutch name of the Indian owner of adjoining land, variously 
spelled. He often appears in early Dutch records. Kiessiewey's 
kill was mentioned in a land sale at Schodack in 1678. 

Ke-han-tick was a tract of corn land bought in that year. 


Ke-nagh-te-quat was a small creek. 

Kick-ua or Kickpa, one of three tracts of flat lands on the manor 
and near the Hudson, in 1683. This was on Roeloff Jansen's kill 

Ma-chack-o-esk was land on both sides of Kinderhook creek 

Ma-hask-a-kook, a cripple-bush at some distance east of the 
river and opposite Saugerties creek. I find no definition of this 
bush in any dictionary or botany, but it means a creeping or sprawl- 
ing bush, perhaps a species of Viburnum. The name often appears 
m early papers, and some of the natives were Cripple Indians. The 
Indian name here used refers to a snake, and probably the copper- 

Man-an-o-sick, a hill on the south line of the manor. The name 
may be from manoonsk, clay, with locative. 

Mat-tash-uck hills in Gallatin may be derived from mattasu, not 
far off, with note of location. 

Ma-wa-na-gua-sick, or Wawanaquasick, was on the north line 
of the manor, " where the heapes of stone lie . . . which the 
Indians throw upon another as they pass from an ancient custom 
amongst them." It is also written Alawanapquassek. Ruttenber 
defines it thus: Wawa is plural, na is good, quas is stone or stones, 
ick is place. In the map and patent Mawanaquasick is clearly pre- 
ferred, and it may be rendered Mawuni, gathered, and quassick. 
stones, referring to the heaps. 

Ma-wich-nack, where two streams meet, the junction of Nacha- 
wawachkano and Twastaweekak creeks. It was the name of the 

Ma-wi-eg-nunk or Mawighunk patent in 1743. It may mean 
place of assembly. 

Min-nis-sich-tan-ock. where the boundary of the Taghkanick 
patent began, on the northwest side of Roeloff Jansen's kill. It is 
also written Misnisschtanock and Minnischtanock. It seems de- 
rived from minneash, nuts or fruits, with locative. 

^a-cha-wa-wach-ka-no creek, flowing into Twastaweekak or 
Claverack creek, in the south part of the manor. 

Xa-ka-o-va-e-wich or Nakawiawick was land at the southeast 
corner of the manor. There is mentioned also, "A rock or great 
stone on the south corner of another flatt or piece of low land, 
called by the Indians Nakaowasick." This might apply either to 


the flat or .tone, the word here suggesting the latter. The same 
" elsewhere called Acawaisic, requiring only the addmon of 
an init ial letter to make it identical with the form last gtven 

Na-na-pen-a-he-kan, a stream near the stone heaps, which ,. 
called Xa-nah-pan-a-ha-kin on a map of 1798. 

Ne-kan-kook or Nickan Hooke was one of the three flats 
Roeloff [ansen's kill. Called also Nichankook. 

No-wan-ag-quas-ick is east of Claverack kill on hand,,,- s map. 
It is the same as Mawanaquasick. 

Xuh-pa, one of the three flats, was also called K.chua and 
Kichpa. It may be from nuppe, water. 

O-va-tuck or Ovataak, He dwells at the river, is menfoned » the 
^Jlork Colonial Laws of ,7,3. It was east of the manor and 
the people living there were to work on the road. 

Pa-ne-schen-a-kas-sick was a piece of woodland bought m ,678. 

The name alludes to stones. 

Patt-kook was a tract mentioned in 1685. Ruttenber said The 
vil ,age of Claverack was 5 "riles from the Hudson. It was know* 
hv the Indians name of Pottkoke." 
-pom-pon-ick creek was near Kinderhook. and the name may 
have been derived from pompuonk, playing or recreate*. 

Qnee-chy postoffice. The name seems abbrev.ated from the next 

g Isicn-lok, a small creek northeast of Roeloff anser, s k, b 

Sa-as-ka-hamp-ka or Sackahampa was a place east of the Hudson 

and opposite Saugertres creek in ,68., In 1684 it was wntten 

Swaskahamuka. The map called it a dry gully. 

Sa-kah-qua, Sahkaqna and Sakackqua are — of *e «« 
of the eastern angle of Livingston manor. A large pme tree 
marked there, and this was about 2 m.les north of Acquaatk tf* 
lit rock It was a flat piece of land near ' five lmde or hmclr es. 

S k he-nak or Roeloff Jansen's kill in .683. This may be from 

sonk ippog eool water. Ru.enber said it was the boundary between 

, M hfc'ans and Wappingers, bringing a change in 


S om-pa-muck was on the site of the village of Ghe Ac *ord- 
ing to Schoolcraft Scompomick was a stream and valley ^te 
Spafford said: "There is yet in some use. parUcularly among the 
o, i hioned Dutch people, a very odd name for tlus ne.ghbor- 


hood, say the Van Ness place and J. C. Hageboom's, Squampanoc, 
or Squampaaniac, but nobody knows its origin." Squam usually 
refers to a rocky summit, but the whole word might also be applied 
to a fishing place of some kind. 

Ska-an-kook or Skaanpook was a creek which became the Tawas- 
tawekak lower down. 

Tagh-ka-nick or Tacahkanick lay east of Roeloff Jansen's kill. 
Ruttenber says that it was at first a local name, though now having 
a wide range. Locally it is pronounced Toh-kon-ick, and is said to 
have been the name of a spring on the west side of the mountain 
in Copake. This has suggested the interpretation as water enough. 
It is now usually applied to the mountains and town, and from the 
former geologists have the term Taconic. Some have denned this 
as forest or wilderness. ' Zeisberger has Tachannike, full of timber, 
and this seems a good definition for the local name. Mr Tooker 
discussed the name at some length, with a different conclusion. 
He said that a place near Shekomeko was called K'takanatshau, 
the big mountain, and that Ket-takone-adchu, a great woody moun- 
tain, is the proper title of this range. 

Tak-ki-che-non was a meadow bought in 1678. 

To-was-ta-we-kak or Twastaweekak is now Claverack creek. The 
upper part was called Skaankook. 

Wa-cha-ne-kas-sick was a creek opposite Catskill in 1683, when 
the first purchase for the Livingston manor was made. The name 
may be from Wadchinat, to come out of, and quassick, stones, i. e., 
a stream from a stony place. It is also written Wackanhasseck, 
Wachankasigh and Wackanekasseck, suggestive of other names. 

Wa-peem Wats-joe, east mountain, is said by Mr Tooker to have 
been the Indian name of Karstenge Bergh, a place called from an 
Indian to whom the Dutch had given a name. Wadchu is 

Wash-bum mountains are on a map of 1798. 

Wa-wa-na-quas-sick, at the heaps of stones, may differ from the 
other form in meaning by deriving it from wauwanot, witness, and 
quassick, stones, thus making it stones of witness. 

Wa-we-igh-nunck patent, 1743. 

Wa-wi-jeh-tan-ock, land about a hill, is Tooker's name for a 
place in this county. 


Wa-wy-ach-ton-ock is the same. A path led across the manor 
to this, but the place is not given. 

We-ba-tuck postoffice may be from wompatuck, a goose. 

Which-quo-puh-bau was the southwest corner of Massachusetts. 

\\ ich-qua-pak-kat, at the south end of Taghkanick hills, and also 
Wichquapuchat in the southeast corner of the main part of the 
manor, are other forms of the same name. 

Wich-qua-ska-ha was one of the three flats mentioned. Written 
also Wicquaskaka and Wuhquaska. 

Wy-o-man-ock or Lebanon creek. 



Che-nin'-go creek, bull thistles, is a variation of Chenango, nearly 
approaching the earlier Otsiningo. 

Gan-i-a-ta-re-gach-ra-e-tont or Ganiataragachrachat is men- 
tioned in Spangenberg's journal of 1745. J. W. Jordan placed the 
name at Crandall's pond, southwest of Cortland, and A. Cusick 
defined it as long lake. I am inclined to think it means at the end 
of the lakes, being, of a considerable group of ponds, the farthest 
from Onondaga. 

Gan-i-a-ta-res'-k-- or Gannerataraske is Big lake in Preble. 
Spangenberg passed it twice in 1745. A. Cusick interpreted this 
on the way to the long lake, a larger one lying farther north. It is 
much like the next. 

0-nan'-no-gi-is'4<a, shagbark hickory, is Morgan's name for 
Cortland and the upper part of Tioughnioga river. It has other 

O-nas-ga-rix'-sus seems the same word and was probably Mount 
Toppin. It is on Evans' map of 1743, and is not distinct. Gen. J. 
S. Clark read it Onegarechny, but the likeness will be seen in 
either case. A legend belongs to it of the descent of the daughter 
of the Great Spirit on its summit to give the Indians tobacco, 
pumpkins and corn. It is quite near Ganiatareske or Big lake. 

O-no-ga-ris'-ke creek rises as an early navigable stream in the 
lake just mentioned, and first appears in Zeisberger's journal of 
1753. It is the west branch of the Tioughnioga, and the name 
may be compared with some already given. 

0-no4ca'-ris, between Onondaga and Binghamton, seems the 
same, and was mentioned by Zeisberger. 


O-no-wa-no-ga-wen-se was mentioned in a land treaty as a tribu- 
tary of the river from the west, and suggests preceding names. 

Ot'-se-lic river flows through the southeast towns. 

O-we'-go creek and hills are in Harford. 

Ragh'-shongh creek was north of Onowanogawense, perhaps 
referring to a child. 

Schi'-o, a name in a Moravian journal for Otselic river, has been 

Skaneateles lake and inlet, long lake. 

Te-wis'-ta-no-ont-sa'-ne-a-ha, place of the silversmith, is the name 
of Homer. Owheesta is used by the Onondagas for any metal, 
but they had a special liking for silver ornaments. 

Texas Valley is a postoffice in Marathon, called after a southern 
tribe first mentioned by La Salle in 1689. 

Ti-ough'-ni'-o-ga river was called Tiohujodha by the Moravians 
m I 753- There are various forms of the name, and its meaning of 
forks of the river, or meeting of waters, is as significant at Cortland 
and elsewhere as at Binghamton. Ascending the river in 1753, 
Zeisberger came to Chenango Forks and said : " The branch on 
the left, turning to the northwest, is the largest and is called 
Tiohujodha." Near Cortland he took the northeast branch, saying, 
" we continued our course in the Tiohujodha." The other branch 
was the Onogariske. On Dwight's map it is the Tionioga, which 
may be followed in pronunciation. It may well be termed 
a river of forks, and Zeisberger mentioned four of these, beginning 
at the Susquehanna [sec Broome county]. At one time it was 
called the Onondaga, as leading to that town, and Teyoghagoga 
was an early form. 


This county has a mixture of Delaware and Iroquois names, the 
former being most frequent. 

An-des, an introduced name for a town and mountains. Though 
used for a great mountain range the name is said to be from the 
Peruvian word anti, signifying copper or metal in general. 

Ad-a-quag-ti-na, Adagughtingag, Adiquitanga and Adagegtin- 
gue are some of the various forms of the Delaware name of 
Charlotte river and its branches in Davenport and Kortwright. 


There are many early references to it by these names. Sir William 
Johnson named it Charlotte in honor of that queen. 

As-tra-gun-te-ra was a tributary of the Mohawk branch of the 
Delaware. The name may be from the Mohawk word atrakwenda, 
a Hint. 

A-wan'-cka creek, an affluent of the Susquehanna. A wan is Zeis- 
berger's Delaware word for fog or dew, but the name is suggestive 
of Iroquois origin, and possibly contracted from Tonawanda. 

Ca-do'-si-a was defined by A. Cusick as covered with a blanket. 

Can-ni-us-kut-ty has been interpreted a creek, and is a tributary 
of the Delaware in some land papers. French wrote it Camskutty. 

Che-hoc'-ton or Sho-ka-kin, at the forks of the Delaware in 
Hancock, is said to mean union of streams, but there seems no good 
reason for this. The first name may be from Geihuhacta, a river 

Chil'-o-way is from the name of a Moravian "Indian convert. 

Coke-ose. or ozul's nest, was a name for Deposit. Gokhoos, how- 
ever, is the Delaware word for owl, without reference to a nest. 
Cookhouse is said to have come from this, being written Kook- 
house in 1777. 

Cole-ti-en. Some Indians had gone to this place or Auquago in 
1777. I think they were different places, and that this was called 
Kloltin, lie contends, originating the local name of Croton. 

Cook-qua-go or Cacquago, place of a woman's or girl's skirt, 
according to A. Cusick, was a branch of the Delaware river. This 
name may have been used because the Iroquois called the Dela- 
ware's women, and often made figurative allusions to their clothing. 
As before said, Boyd derived it from Kekoa, owl, and gowa, great. 

Cro'-ton creek and village, in Franklin, ma}- have had this name 
from Westchester county, or it may have had a local origin. It has 
been derived from kenotin, the wind, and also from kloltin, he 

Keht-han-ne, principal or largest river, was a name for the 
.Mohawk branch of the Delaware, distinguishing it from the other. 

Len-a-pe-wi-hit-tuck is the river of the Lenape or Delawares, 
Lenape being their word for man, adding wak to express men. 
Jt gave the idea that they were men surpassing all others, a feature 
oi several national titles. The Iroquois called them women, claim- 


ing- the name of real men for themselves. Hittnck is a river whose 
waters may be driven in waves. Names and settlements on this 
river were mostly of the Delaware nation. It is remarkable how 
a British nobleman's name has become so identified with this people 
as to seem native to the soil. Their various tribes now share the 

The Mohawk branch is so called because it comes from the 
Mohawk country. One derivation is from mohwhau, he eats him. 

Mon-gaup valley. This name has been defined several streams, 
but not with certainty. 

Ne-hack-a-mack, an old name for a branch of the Delaware, 
may mean a point where they fish. 

On-o-wa-da-gegh, a Mohawk village of 1766. A. Cusick defined 
this white clay or muddy place. 

Ou-le-out creek and postoffice. This was called Au-ly-ou-let in 
the purchase of 1768, and Owl-i-hout in 1791. A. Cusick rendered 
this a continuing voice, as though of flowing water. 

O-wa-ri-o-neck, a tributary of the Susquehanna on Sauthier's 

Pa-ka-tagh-kan was an Indian village a mile from Margarets- 
ville, at the mouth of Bush kill. This was on the Popachton or 
Papotnnk branch on Sauthier's map. Under the head of Middle- 
town SpafTord said: " There is a local designation of a part of this 
town, by the name of Pakatakan, little used." It may be derived 
from pahketeau, he makes it clean. 

Pe-pach-ton river and Pepacton postoffice. Also called Popac- 
ton, Papakunk and Papatunk. Colonel Bradstreet claimed lands 
at Popaughtunk in 1 771 , and the river was thus called a little later. 
It may be derived from popocus, partridges, with note of location. 

Pas-cack river is mentioned in New York Colonial Laws, 1742, 
and may be here or in Orange county. It may come from pachsa- 
jeek. a valley. 

Shin-hop-ple is a Delaware name, suggestive of Pennsylvania 

Sho-ka-ken was mentioned in 1777. and is an Algonquin word. 
It may have its root in sokanon, it rains, or in its primary meaning 
of pouring out water, in allusion to its site at the forks of the 
Deleware, where one stream was poured into the other. 


Ska-hun-do'-wa, in the plains, for the Delaware according to 
Morgan. Great plain is better. 

Ska-wagh-es-ten'-ras, now Bennett's creek, is on Santhier's map. 

Ta-co'-ma is a western name introduced. 

Te-whe'-ack, a tributary of the Mohawk branch of the Delaware, 
is on Sauthier's map. It may be derived from tauwatawik, a 
Delaware term for uninhabited land. 

Ut-sy-ant'-hi-a lake, or Ote-se-ont-e-o* beautiful spring, i. e. 
cold and pure, at the head of Delaware river. It was often men- 
tioned in early documents and was once an angle of Albany county. 
Halsey calls it Summit lake, but French distinguishes the two names, 
making the former a lake 1900, and the latter one 2150 feet above 
tide. Though not in the place indicated. Ut-sy-ant'-hia is probably 
the Sateiyienon of Pouchot's map. 


Ac-qua-sik, the big rock at one corner of the Livingston manor, 
was used as a starting point in the survey of 1743. but is a little 
outside of this county. 

A-quas-ing hardly differs from the last in form, but refers to 
a stony place or creek in another place. In the survey of the Great 
Nine Partners' tract a spot was mentioned " At the creek called 
Aquasing by the Indians, and by the Christians Fish creek." There 
the line began. 

A-po-qua-gue is round lake according to Ruttenber. It is now 
called Silver lake and is in the west part of Beekman township. 

Au-sa-te-nog valley, mentioned in these surveys-, seems a form of 

Ca-brick-se* NNas a place in the Little Nine Partners' tract. 

Qil-ko-e-whock was over against Metambesem in 1722. 

Canoe is the inappropriate name of a hill in Washington township. 

Che-kom'-i-ko is Shekomeko creek in the towns of Northeast and 
Pine Plains. 

Cro'-ton river is partly in this county. 

Ea-qua-quan-nes-sinck. the land adjoining the next and on the 
Hudson, is nearly the same in form. 

Ea-qua-ry-sink or Equorsingh, a name of Crum Elbow creek, 
may be from ahquae and mean a place at the border. A more 
probable derivation would be Eghquaons, high sandy banks. 


Grand Sachem mountain, in the town of Fishkill, retains an 
Indian title. 

New Hackensack village is in Fishkill. This New Jersey name 
means lowland. 

K'tah-ka-nah-shau has heen translated big mountains, and is 
sometimes applied to those in this country. 

Man-ca-pa-wi-wick was a small stream near Mansakin meadow. 

Man-sa-ken-ning, 1686, is now Jackomyntie's Fly. It seems the 
same as the next. 

"A fresh meadow called Mansakin " was part of the line of the 
Eaquaquannessinck tract. 

Mat-a-pan, near Poughkeepsie and on the line of the Veil tract, 
seems referred to in a purchase of June 15, 1680. These tracts 
were sold on Mynachkee ( ?) kill. One included the creek from 
the river to the second fall, called Matapan, 3 miles from the Hud- 
son, and Papakaing kill among others. Trumbull said that Mata- 
pan meant sitting dozen place, referring to a portage. Such a 
meaning seems improbable here. 

Mat-te-a-wan mountains, village and creek. Ruttenber thought 
Moulton wrong in calling the Highlands by this name, and said it 
was the Indian name for Fishkill creek, usually defined good furs. 
He preferred little zeater or motion, or else large water in the valley, 
for the lower part of the creek. The definitions are far apart. 
Schoolcraft made the meaning enchanted furs or skins, not merely 
good furs. Brodhead derived it from metai, magician, and wian, 
skin; that is, charmed skin or fur. It has been also defined as 
council of good fire. Spafford said of the Matteawan mountains: 
" These were called Matteawan by the aborigines, the country of 
good fur, their name also for the creek, that we now call Vis-kill, 
and Fishkill, a Dutch name old enough to be legitimate, but not half 
so old or so appropriate for a range of mountains as Matteawan." 

Ma-wen-a-wa-sigh, Great Wappinger's kill. Maevenawasigh is 
the same. Ruttenber defined this as a large waterfall, while others 
make it large and good stream and cascade. 

Me-tam-be-sem, 1688, is now Sawmill creek. 

A tract called Mi-nis-singh and a waterfall called Pooghkepe- 
singh, in the Highlands, were a free gift from an Indian, May 5, 


1683. The former seems equivalent to Minisink, and the latter 
interferes with the usual definition of Poughkeepsie. 

My-nach-kee is an erroneous rendering of Wynachkee. 

Nan-ca-po-nick was another name for the small ereek near 

Na-ni-o-pa-co-ni-oc, Schoolcraft's name for Crum Elbow creek, 
is much like the last. 

O-swe-go village is in the town of Union Yale. 

O-was-si-tan-nuck was a place on the south bounds of Spragg's 
land. It may be derived from awosachtene, over the hill. 

The Pachany Indians were placed at Fisher's Hook in 1632, by 

Pan-do- wick-ra-in is one of Schoolcraft's names for Fallkill. It 
is elsewhere mentioned as a fall called Pendanick Reen. It Thay be 
related to pindalanak, white pine. 

Pa-pa-ke-ing kill has been referred to in connection with the Viel 
tract in 1680. It may be from paupock, partridge, with locative. 

Pi-et-a-wick-quas-ick was a name for Poughkeepsie creek, from 
pehteau, it foams, and quassic, stone. Schoolcraft said that Pie- 
tawisquassic was the name of Caspar creek below Barnegat. 

Pogh-quag is a village and the name is said to be one formerly 
borne by Silver lake. It is also called Poughgaick. Rutenber 
defines the name as round lake. Poqnag by itself means merely 
a hole or hollow, while petuhki is round. Trumbull has cleared 
land for poquaig, and this seems the meaning here. It might also 
be corrupted from Pohkepaug, clear pond. 

Pops-ick pond was on one line of the Little Nine Partners' tract, 
and may refer to a place for recreation. 

Pough-keep'-sie was called safe harbor by Schoolcraft from Apo- 
keepsing, but this derivation and meaning have been much doubted. 
Spafford gave the same meaning and origin, this definition being 
evidently of early date. The boundary was described in 1680 as 
" beginning at a creek called Pacaksing. by the riverside." In 
1683 an Indian made a free gift of a waterfall in the Highlands, 
called Pooghkepesingh, and certainly safe harbor would not apply 
to this. Pogkeepke, Pokeepsinck, Poghkeepke, Picipsi and Pokip- 
sie are other early forms. At one time the name was applied to a 


pond near the city, and defined as muddy. This has little support, 
hut the name may have some relation to water. 

Qua-ne-los, a creek in Rhinebeck in 1686, suggests the following 

Qua-ning-quois was mentioned over against the "Klyne Esopus 
effly" in 1703. In the same year it was called Ouaningquious, a 
tract in Beekman then patented. The first part of the name refers 
to anything long or high, as trees or animals. Qimnuhque means 
simply it is high. 

Quer-a-po-quett was the beginning of the Sackett tract. 

Sa-ka-qua, in svrveying the Little Nine Partners' tract, was men- 
tioned as a corner of Livingston manor, where a pine tree was 

Se-pas-co lake in Rhinebeck. In 1695 Beekman asked for a 
patent for land opposite Esopv.s creek and called Sepeskenot. This 
was in Rhinebeck, and some have placed Sepascot Indians there. 
The original name suggests a derivation from sepagenum, it spreads 

She-nan-do' -ah, an Iroquois name for great plains, has been given 
to a hamlet in Fishkill. Boyd, however, derives it from a schind- 
han-dowi, the sprucy stream, or stream passing through spruce 
pines, suggesting also a derivation from ononda, hill, and goa, 
great, making it stream fiozcing by a great mountain. Both these 
ingenious conjectures are without foundation. 

She-ko-me-ko is also written Shakameco and Chekomiko. It 
was the seat of a noted Moravian Indian misssion in 1743, with 
others near in Connecticut. Zeisberger defines schachhameek as 
eels, and its name, place of eels, is appropriate. The original word 
has been derived from schachachgeu, straight, and namees, fish. 
Boyd derives Chicomico from che, great, and comoco, house or 
inclosed place. 

Stis-sing movntain and pond are in the town of Pine Plains. On 
Sarthier's map the mountain is Slising hill, on the line of the Great 
and Little Nine Partners' tracts. It was sometimes called Teesink 
mountain, and Tishasinks is another form, from tahshin, he raises 

Tagh-ka-nick mountains have also been termed K'takanahshau. 
big mountains. 


Ta-sham-mick was a flat on Spragg's land. 

Tank-han-nc, a stream in a gorge at Bash Bich, has been 
translated small river, without good reasons. The name is probably 
a corruption of Tagh-ka-nick. 

Tau-quash-qui-eck, 1688, is now Schuyler's Vly. A recent 
history of this county speaks of it as a meadow called .Tauquash- 

Ti-o-run-da, place where two streams meet, an Iroquois -word 
applied by Boyd to Fishkill. While appropriate it is not historic, 
and he probably erred in placing it there. 

Ti-sha-sinks mountain was Stissing. The name may be derived 
from tahshin, he raises himself. 

Wam-munt-ing was a place on the Little Nine Partners' tract. 

Wappingers falls, creek and village, from the name of an Indian 
tribe. It is usually derived from Wabun, east, and ahki, land; i. e.. 
Wapanachki, east land, or people living there, east of the Hudson. 
It has several forms and applications. Ruttenber thought the Dutch 
might have written it Wappinger from their own word wepen, half 
armed. It has been translated opossum, from waping [Zeisberger], 
the name of that animal in the Delaware dialect. In 1885 some 
Canadian Delawares said: "We often speak of ourselves as the 
Wapanachki, or people of the morning, in allusion to our supposed 
eastern origin.'" The Senecas also called them Dyo-hens-govola, 
From Whence the Morning Springs. 

War-au-ka-meek is now Ferer Cot or Pine swamp, and was 
called Warachkameek in 1722. In 1688 it was a pond in Red Hook, 
3 miles east of Upper Red Hook. There may be an allusion to 
fishing in the name. 

War-en-eck-er Indians lived at Fisher's Hook in 1632. They 
were also called Warrawannankonck Indians the same year. 

War-es-kee-hin, a marsh north of Wynogkee creek. 

Was-sa-ic creek is in Amenia. O'Callaghan thought this 
Wissayck, rocky from gussuk, a rock, and ick, a place. Ruttenber 
preferred wassa. light ( ?) and ick, place; i. e. the light or bright 
waters. The former is preferable. Wishshiag was an early form. 

Wa-yaugh-tan-ock was a tract of land in this county. 

\\'e-ba-tuck pond and village. The name is also applied to 
Oblong creek. Boyd derives Wepatuck from weepwoiunt-ohki, 


place at the narrow pass. It might as well be from wompatuck, 
a goose, referring to the pond and creek, and this is its probable 

Wech-quad-nach is a name for Indian pond in the town of 
Northeast. The Indian village of that name was not far off in 
Connecticut, and was the seat of a Moravian mission in 1749. 

We-put-ing or Tooth mountain. In land patents it was written 
Wimpeting and Wimpoting. Weputing was also the name of 
Sackett's lake. The name is usually derived from weepit, a tooth, 
with the note of locality, but Mr Tooker thought this wrong, and 
denned it a ruinous heap. 

We-que-hach-ke is defined people of the hill country by Rut- 
tenber. It may be from YVehquohke, end of the laud, i. e. at the 
end of the tribe's territory. 

Wi-an-te-ick river was on the same tract, on the east side of 
Sackett's land. It was also called Wiantenuck. 

Wic-co-pee was the Indian name for the highest peak of the 
Fishkill mountains, and also for the pass or trail near this. It might 
be derived from Wehquohke, end of the land, or tribal territory. 

Win-na-kee was a name for Fall creek, defined as leaping stream, 
but this seems an error. Winachk means birch, and with the 
locative would be place of birch trees. The name has been 
erroneously written Mynachkee. 

A road on the Little Nine Partners' tract led to Witauck, and 
this may be derived from wuttaonk, a path. 

Wy-nog-kee creek. Ruttenber said that a meadow "slanting 
to the dancing chamber," and north of Wappinger's creek, had a 
stream called Wynogkee for its eastern lines. Wonogque means 
holes and there may have been potholes in this, suggesting the 
name. YVeenohke also means a grave, and this may have marked 
the spot, tombs being sometimes conspicuous. 


Lewis H. Morgan gave quite a list * of names in Erie county, 
and O. H. Marshall did the same in the appendix to The Niagara 
Frontier, 1865. The latter followed the system of the Rev. Asher 
Wright in the use of accents and letters, as being best for repre- 
senting the sound. The long-continued residence of a large part 


of the Senecas at Buffalo creek occasioned many local names, and 
led to their preservation. In 1863 a discussion of the name of the 
city of Buffalo elicited some facts not commonly known, and 
Hon-non-de-uh or Nathaniel T. Strong, a Seneca chief of good 
education, took part in the debate. As the name of an Indian came 
into the question it may be well to give the leading features of the 

As regards the present name of the city there is nothing very 
improbable in the occasional presence of the buffalo there. That 
it was known to the New York aborigines is certain. Wassenaer, 
1621-32, in describing the Indians in the Highlands of the Hudson 
said : "On seeing the head of Taurus, one of the signs of the 
Zodiac, the women know how to explain that it is a horned head 
of a big, wild animal, which inhabits the distant country, but not 
theirs." In Van der Donck's Xezc N etherland, not much later, he 
said that '"Buffalos are also plenty. The animals keep toward the 
southwest, where few people go." His account of them is quite 
good. In 1688 Lahontan said that at the foot of Lake Erie "We 
find wild beeves, upon the banks of two rivers that discharge into 
it without cataracts or rapid currents." That Cattaraugus creek 
was one of these is certain, and that Buffalo creek was intended 
for the other is probable. In 17 18 M. de Yandreuil said that 
"Buffalos abound on the south shore of Lake Erie, but not on the 
north." Oak Orchard was Buffalo creek in 1721, and there were 
others of this name, though a mere name proves little. These 
animals were abundant in the open forests of Ohio and West 
Virginia 150 years ago, and there were suitable spots for their 
grazing in the western parts of Xew York. Bishop Cammerhoff's 
words have never been quoted and are therefore given here. He 
was a few miles east of the Genesee river and the town of Geneseo, 
Jul} - 2. 1750. and said: "As we continued we saw many tracks of 
elks : they, as well as buffalos abound in these parts." but he saw 
neither of these animals. However rare east of the Apalachian 
range. Lawson relates that two were killed in one year on the 
Appomattox, a branch of the lames river. That a few may have 
followed the shore of Lake Erie to Buffalo creek is every way 
probable, though without distinct record. 

Regarding the present name of the creek and city Mr Ketchum 


said : ''The Senecas were conversant with the fact that the buffalo 
formerly visited the salt lick or spring (on the bank of the creek) 
in this vicinity, and hence they called Buffalo creek Tick-e-ack- 
gou-ga-ha-un-da, and Buffalo village Tick-e-ack-gou-ga," the 
latter meaning buffalo, and the former adding creek. To 
this Mr Strong replied, allowing the name and definition, but 
adding that the Senecas said one of their people lived on Buffalo 
creek and became a great fisherman. He was of the Wolf clan 
and his name was De-gi-yah-go, or the buffalo. The whites found 
him there, learned his name and its meaning and called the creek 
by this. The explanation is simple and probable, all the more when 
the author is considered. He added : "I have been trying in vain 
to find a river, creek, lake or mountain, that now bears the name 
of any herbivorous animal in our State." He referred, of course, 
to Iroquois names, for moose is very common. 

Ca-ha-qua-ra-gha was the name of the upper part of Niagara 
river in 1726, and David Cusick applied the same term to Lake 
Erie, writing it Kau-ha-gwa-rah-ka. or a cap, which is a correct 
translation. Lake Erie was called Cahiquage in 1706, so that the 
name is old. Marshall gave the Indian account of the origin of 
the name, applying it to Fort Erie and translating it place of hats. 
"Seneca tradition relates, as its origin, that in olden time, soon after 
the first visit.of the white man, a battle occurred on the lake between 
a party of French in bateaux and Indians in canoes. The latter 
were victorious, and the French boats were sunk and the crews 
drowned. Their hats Moated ashore where the fort was subse- 
quently built, and attracting the attention of the Indians from their 
novelty, they called the locality the place of hats." Though there 
appears no historic basis for the story, it is the only one accounting 
for this curious name. Canquaga, Schoolcraft's name for a stream 
here, may be from this. 

Ca-yu-ga creek was so called from a recent Cayuga village on 
its banks. According to Mr Morgan its Seneca name was quite 
different, being Ga-da'-geh, through the oak openings. Mr Marshall 
also called the Cayuga or north branch of Buffalo creek, Gah- 
dah'-geh, but translated it fishing with a scoop basket, a frequent 
thing there. I am not sure which is right, but both can not well b 
in this case. 


Chic-ta-wau-ga or Cheektowaga is now the name of a town, but 
according to Marshall it was originally Jiik'-do-waah'-geh, place of 
the crab apple, a tree which abounds on Indian reservations. 

Da-deo'-da-na-suk'-to, bend in the shore, is Morgan's name for 
Smoke's creek, differing but slightly from Marshall's in sound. The 
latter has De-dyo'-deh-neh'-sak-do for the lake shore above the 
creek, defined as gravel bend. 

De-as-gwah-da-ga'-neh, place of the lampcr eel, is Marshall's 
name for Lancaster village, after the name of a person who died 
there. Morgan gave it as Ga-squen'-da-geh, place of the lizard, 
and it is nearly the same word. This may allude to D. Cusick's 
story of the furious lizard, which was only destroyed by casting 
its detached flesh into the fire. This was a Seneca story and the 
scene was farther west. 

De-dyo'-na-wah'h, the ripple. Middle Ebenezer village. 

De-dyo'-we-no'-guh-do, divided island. Squaw island, from its 
division by Smuggler's Run. 

De-on'-gote, place of hearing. Murderer's creek at Akron. 
Seungut is another form of this word. 

De-ose'-lole is the Oneida name for Buffalo. The Tuscaroras call 
it Ne-o-thro'-ra and the Cayugas De-o-tro'-weh. 

De-yeh'-ho-ga'-da-ses, the oblique ford, is Marshall's name for 
the old ford at the iron bridge. It must be remembered that his 
names are of 1865 and Morgan's of 1851, making local references 
now obscure. 

De-yoh'-ho-gah, forks of the river, the junction of Cayuga and 
<^azenove creek. This common name is equivalent to Tioga. 

Do'-syo-wa, place of basswoods, which abounded at Buffalo. 
On Pouchot's map the creek appears as R. au boiblanc, equivalent 
to river of basswoods, and Buffalo may be a corruption of this. 
the Rev. Asher Wright said this Indian name was shortened from 
Ti-yoos-yo-wa, Oo-sah being the Seneca word for the basswood, 
often called Whitewood by the French. Mr Strong derived it from 
o-o-sah, basswood, and de-ya-oh, cluster; making De-ya-oh-sa-oh 
the original name of Buffalo creek, and Das-sho-wa the present. 
This would mean basswoods clustered along the edge of the creek. 
This is the name of the middle branch passing Jack Berrytown's, 
once a well known place. It is sometimes rendered Toseoway, 


Tehoseroron, etc., which are variants of the same word. Mr 
Ketchum said that Te-osah-way was the Seneca and Te-hos-o- 
ra-ron the Mohawk form of the same word. On the other hand 
Morgan defined Do'-sho-weh, splitting the fork, which is clearly 

Dyo-e'-oh-gwes, tall grass or flag island. Rattlesnake island. 

Dyos'-hoh, the sulphur spring, is Marshall's name for one near 

Dyo-nah'-da-eeh, hemlock elevation. Upper Ebenezer village for- 
merly Jack Berrytown. 

Dyos-daah'-ga-eh, rocky bank, Black Rock. Morgan gives it a 
little differently : De-o'-steh-ga-a, rocky shore. There is an out- 
crop of limestone there. 

Dyu'-ne-ga-nooh', cold zoater- Cold Spring. 

Dyos-da'-o-doh, rocky island. Bird island. The stone of which 
it was composed has been removed and utilized. 

Dyo'-ge-oh-ja-eh, wet grass. Red Bridge. 

E-rie, a cat, was formerly E-ri-eh', a nation destroyed by the 
Iroquois in 1654. Charlevoix said of the lake: 

The name it bears is that of an Indian nation of the Huron lan- 
guage, which was formerly seated on its banks, and who have been 
entirely destroyed by the Iroquois. Erie in that language signifies 
cat, and in some accounts this nation is called the Cat nation. This 
name comes probably from the large quantity of these animals 
formerly found in this country. 

Some French maps have given Lake Erie the name of Conti, but 
with no better success than those of Conde, Tracy and Orleans, 
applied to the great lakes farther west. It has several Indian names, 
as might have been expected. 

Ga-an-na-da-dah, creek that has slate stone bottom-, is the east 
branch of Buffalo creek, passing through the old Onondaga village. 
The name suggests that people. Marshall said : 

The Senecas, with a few kindred Onondagas and Cayugas, on 
their arrival here, in 1780, established themselves on the banks of 
the Buffalo creek. The former chose the south side, and the level 
bottoms beyond the present iron bridge, east of what is now known 
as Martin's corners. The Onondagas went higher up, as far as the 
elevated table-land, near where the southern Ebenezer village was 
subsequently located. The Cayugas settled north of the Onon- 


dagas, along that branch of the creek which bears their name. 
Marshall, p. t> 2 

Ga-da'-o-ya-deh, level heavens, is Morgan's name for Ellicott, 
and in sound is the same as one given for Williamsville, with a 
different interpretation, which follows. 

Gah-da'-ya-deh, place of misery, is Marshall's name for Williams- 
ville, in allusion to the open meadows, so bleak in winter. Chief 
Blacksmith, however, said the name referred to the open sky, seen 
where the path crossed the creek. This resembles Morgan's defini- 

Ga-gah-doh-ga, white oak creek, according to Mr Strong, was 
the north branch of Buffalo creek, above Sulphur spring. 

Gah-gwah-ge'-ga-aah, residence of the Kah-kwas, is Marshall's 
name for Eighteenmile creek, sometimes called Gah-gwah'-geh. 
Morgan gives it as Ga'-gwa-ga, which is nearly the same as the 
last. He defines it Creek of Cat nation. It is also written Caugwa, 
and appears as " Eighteen Mile or Koughquaugu Creek " in the 
contract between Robert Morris and the Senecas in 1797. D wight's 
map has it Cauquaga. Whether the Kah-kwas were Eries or Neu- 
trals is an open question. " Kakouagoga, a nation destroyed," is 
placed near Buffalo on a map of 1680, and this would seem to 
identify the Kah-kwas with the Neutrals. On the other hand the 
Neutrals withdrew their New York villages and were destroyed 
in Canada. If the reference is to them, then the map takes no 
notice of the strong and warlike Eries, which is not likely. Albert 
Cusick defines Kahkwa as an eye skellcd like a cat, and the promi- 
nent eye may have been a noticeable feature of that people. 

Gai-gwaah-geh, place of hats, is a name of Fort Erie, and the 
tale of the hats floating ashore has already been noticed. 

Go-nah'-gwaht-geh, wild grass of a particular kind, is Ken-jock- 
e-ty creek. 

Ga-noh'-ho-geh, place tilled up, is a name for Long Point in 
Canada, sometimes applied to Lake Erie. It alludes to the legend 
that the Great Beaver built a dam across the lake, of which Presque 
Isle and Long Point are the remains. 

Ga-nun-da-sey, new town, the Seneca name for the Indian village, 
Newtown, near Lawton Station. Mr Parker furnishes this name 
and the next. 


Ga-nus-sus-geh, place of the long house, the Seneca name of the 
council house square at Newtown. Both of these names are com- 
monly known to the white people in the vicinity of the reservation. 

Ga-sko'-sa-da, falls, was the name of an Indian village. 

Ga-sko'-sa-da-ne-o, many falls, was Williamsville. 

Ga-wah'-no-geh, on the island, was Morgan's name for Grand 
Island. Marshall, however, called it Ga-we'-not, great island. 

Ga-ya-gua'-doh, smoke has disappeared, includes the meaning of 
Old Smoke's name, after whom the creek was called. Marshall 
wrote it Ga-yah-gaawh'-doh. 

Gwa'-u-gweh, or Carrying Place village, place of taking out boats. 
Except in accent this does not differ from the name which Morgan 
gives to Cayuga, and to which others give the above meaning. 

Hah-do'-neh, place of June berries. Seneca creek, or the south 
fork of Buffalo creek. This and the next are from Marshall. 

He-yont-gat-hwat'-hah, picturesque spot. Cazenovia Bluff, east 
of Lower Ebenezer. 

I-o-si-o-ha is mentioned in the Pennsylvania Archives, under date 
of 1783, as the Onondaga village at Buffalo creek. It will be rec- 
ognized as a form of Do'-syo-wa. 

Ka-e-oua-ge-gein appears on Pouchot's map as Eighteenmile 

Kan-ha-i-ta-neek-ge, place of many streams, as translated by 
Albert Cusick. It was mentioned by David Cusick, in the reign 
of Atotarho 9, as " Kanhaitauneekay, east of Onondaga village, 
Buffalo Reservation." David Cusick said, also, that the sixth Iro- 
quois family, in going westward, " Touched the bank of a great 
lake, and named Kau-ha-gwa-rah-ka, i. e. A. Cap, now Erie." The 
translation is correct, and the sixth family was that of the Tus- 

Ken-jock-e-ty creek was so called by early settlers from an Indian 
family living on it. John Kenjockety, its head, was said to be the 
son of a Kah-kwa Indian, and lived on the creek a little east of 
Niagara street. His Seneca name was Sga-dynh'-gwa-dih, accord- 
ing to Marshall, or Sken-dyough-gwat-ti, according to Asher 
Wright, meaning beyond the multitude. French gave the creek's 
name as Scajaquady, and in a treaty it appeared as Scoy-gu-quoi- 


des, flowing into Niagara river cast of Grand Island. The present 
name is a corrupt form. 

Mas-ki-non-gez, from the fish of that name, written and pro- 
nounced in many different ways. This was an early Chippewa n<;me 
for Tonawanda creek, some of these Indians having lived on the 
New York line nearly two centuries ago. It is usually treated as 
an Indian name, and occurs in vocabularies as such, but H. W. 
Herbert (Frank Forester) speaks of "the mascalonge, which owes 
its name to the formation of the head — masque allonge, long face 
or snout, Canadian French — but which has been translated from 
dialect to dialect, maskinonge, muscalunge, and muscalinga, until 
every trace of true derivation has been lost." The Onondagas 
call the pickerel Che-go-sis, long face. 

Ni-dyio'-nyah-a'-ah, narrow point, is Farmer's Brother's point. 

Ni-ga'-we-nah'-a-ah, small island. Tonawanda island. 

O-gah'-gwaah'-geh, residence of the sitnfish. The mouth of Cor- 
nelius creek was so called from one of two negro brothers living 
there. The Indians named this one from a red spot in his eye, 
O-gah'-gwaah having this meaning. The negro Sunfish is men- 
tioned in one journal of Sullivan's campaign as being in command 
of the Indian town of Conesus. 

On-on'-dah-ge'-gah'-geh, place of the Onondagas, according to 
Marshall. It was at the west end of Lower Ebenezer, and about 
half of the New York Onondagas lived there for a long time. 

On-ta-ro-go, a place 2^2 miles southwest of Akron. 

O-swee-go appeared for Lake Erie in 1726, and was also applied 
to Grand river in Canada. 

Pon-ti-ac village was so called from a noted western chief. 

Sa-hi-qua-ge was an Iroquois name for Lake Erie in 1701. It 
was also called Cahiquage. 

See-un-gut, roar of distant waters, is given by French as a name 
for Murderer's creek at Akron. Morgan called it place of hearing. 

West Seneca is a village and town. 

Sha-ga-nah'-gah-geh, place of the Stockbridges, is Marshall's 
name for the east end of Lower Ebenezer. 

Swee'-ge, a name by which Lake Erie was known to the English 
in 1700, and which is equivalent to Oswego. The name may have 


come from Grand river in Canada, or may have referred to the 
flowing out of the water at Buffalo. In the beaver land deed of 
1701 there is mentioned "The lake called by the natives Sahiquage, 
and by the Christians the lake of Sweege." That of 1726 speaks 
of a line " Beginning from a creek called Canahogue on the Lake 
Osweego." The creek was Cuyahoga river. 

Ta-nun'-no-ga-o, full of hickory bark. Eighteenmile creek. This 
word, with the same meaning, belongs to Clarence Hollow. 

Te-car'-na-ga-ge, black zvaters. Two Sister's .creek. These two 
are from Morgan. 

Te-cha-ron-ki-on. Under date of 167 1 mention was made of 
" Lake Erie, called by the Indians Techaronkion." 

Tga-des', long prairie, is applied to meadows above Upper 

Tga-noh'-so-doh, place of houses, was an old village in the forks 
of Smoke's creek. 

Tga'-non-da-ga'-yos-hah, old village. Flats embracing Twichell's 
farm and the site of the first Seneca village on Buffalo creek. 

Tga-sgoh'-sa-deh, place of the falls. Falls above Jack Berry- 

Tga-is'-da-ni-yont, place of the suspended bell. Seneca mission 

Tgah'-si-ya-deh, rope ferry, was the old ferry over Buffalo creek. 

Te-kise'-da-ne-yout, place of the bell, given by Morgan for Red 
Jacket village, differs slightly from Marshall's name, given above. 

To'-na-wan-da or Ta'-na-wun-da creek, swift zvater and at the 
rapids, which are much the same. 

Yo-da'-nyah-gwah', fishing place unth hook and line. Sandy town, 
the old name for the beach above Black Rock. 

Wa-na-kah suggests a recent made up name, perhaps founded 
on gawannka, to frolic, but probably from wunnegen, it is good, 
and ahki, land, the latter derivation being Algonquin. 


The Adirondack mountains perpetuate the common name of an 
important part of the Algonquin family, though they did not choose 
it for themselves. The Adirondacks, or Tree Eaters, were so 
termed in derision by their enemies, as though they had no better 


food, and the Onondagas still use the word Ha-te-en-tox with the 
same meaning. Roger Williams gave the Algonquin name : "Mih- 
tukme'-chakick, Tree-eaters. A people so called (living between 
three and four hundred miles West into the land) from their eat- 
ing only Michtu'chquash, that is, Trees! They are Tree-eaters, 
they set no corne, but live on the bark of Chesnut and Walnut, and 
other fine trees." He confused these with the Mohawks. To live 
thus implied poverty or lack of skill, and hence the Iroquois use 
of the name. Colden considered them the Algonquins proper, 
those who treacherously killed their Mohawk friends at Montreal. 
In the war that followed the latter were shrewd and well disciplined. 
"The Adirondacks, by this Means, wasted away, and their boldest 
Soldiers were almost intirely destroy'd." The village of Adiron- 
dack is in Newcomb. 

A-gan-us-chi-on was applied to the Adirondack mountains, ac- 
cording to B. J. Lossing, but this may be doubted, as well as his 
definition of black mountain range. It is evidently the Pennsyl- 
vania name of the Iroquois, or Aquanuschioni, now rendered long 
house. The whole region belonged to them, and in this way the 
name might be thus applied, though having no reference to moun- 
tains as such. This use of the name certainly lacks proof. 

Al-gon'-quin mountain is a recent local name, but is that of one 
of the two great eastern families. It was at first the name of a 
tribe on the Ottawa river. Colden made it the alternative of Adiron- 
dack, and Charlevoix used it for the Canadian Indians around Mon- 
treal and lower down. The Five Nations soon overthrew them, 
and Charlevoix said : " We have seen with astonishment one of 
the most populous and warlike nations on this continent, and the 
most esteemed of them all either for wisdom or good sense, almost 
wholly disappear in a few years." The meaning of the name is 
uncertain, but it is often translated lake, and has also been derived 
from Algommequin, those on the other side of the river, or the St 
Lawrence, by Major Powell, but this is clearly erroneous. 

Andiatarocte' was first recorded as a local name by Father 
Jogues in 1646: "They arrived the eve of S. Sacrement at the end 
of the lake which is joined to the great lake of Champlain. The 
Iroquois call it Andiatarocte', as one might say, there where the 


lake is shut in. The Father named it the lake of S. Sacrement." 
O'Callaghan rendered it the place where the lake contracts, which 
would be descriptive of Lake Champlain south of Ticonderoga, Jaut 
not of Lake George, to which Jogues distinctly applied it. There 
are variants of this to be noticed. 

Ca-ni-a-de-ri-oit is given by Spafford for Lake George : " The 
Indians call it Canideri-oit, or the tail of the lake," a name more 
applicable to the contraction south of Ticonderoga, on Lake Cham- 

Ca-ni-a-de-ri-gua-run-te was a name for Lake Champlain. In T. 
Pownall's description of the colonies he said : '-' The Indians call it 
Caniaderiguarunte, the lake that is the gate of the country." Mouth 
would be more exact, but the meaning is that it was the way of 
entrance, a fact apparent in military operations. Spafford applied 
the name to Ticonderoga: " It was called by the Indians, Cania- 
deri-Guarunte, signifying the mouth or door of the country." It 
is derived from kaniatare, lake, and the latter part of jiraskaronte, 

Cay-wa'-not is given by Lossing as the Indian name of Isola 
Bella in Schroon lake. The interpretation of island is correct, 
the Seneca form being gawenot and the Mohawk kawenote. 

Chi-non-de-ro'-ga was a name for Ticonderoga in 1691. Holder! 
quotes Pownall as writing this as Cheonderoga, three rivers, but I 
do not find this in the text of that writer. The meaning undoubt- 
edly is where waters meet, as at the forks of a river. Sylvester 
gives it as Chenonderoga, sounding waters, which is clearly errone- 
ous. It differs from some forms only in the initial letters, as will 
be seen later. 

Co-e'-sa is one of Schoolcraft's names for the Kayaderosseras 
mountains, probably originated by him from cous, a pine tree, an 
Algonquin word. 

Couchsachraga, the country about Mt Seward, though it includes 
a large region farther west. Sylvester thought it meant beaver- 
hunting country in Iroquois. A. Cusick defined it as their hunting 
grounds, and it has been called the great and dismal wilderness 
The name may be from Koghserage, winter, in allusion to the cold 
climate or the hunting season there. Governor Pownall said : " This 


vast Tract of Land, which is the Antient Couchsachrage, one of 
ZfZ Beaver Hunting Grounds of the Six Nations, ,s not vet 

Tyo'h-je-ga-go, place where the stonn Cone's meet in battle 
ua. yon jc gd b > r c„w P cter's names for Indian 

«Ak the great serpents, >s one of Sylvesters ™" 
Pass and is probably extreme in interpretat.on. The word seems 
Item of Tioga, a meeting of paths by land or water and but l.tde 
chang d from Tejothahogen, where there are two roads forking, as 
X en by Bruyas This is an appropriate name for a mountain 
pT The conflicts of the thunders and serpents are favorite Iro- 
quois tales, but this name does not suggest them. 

D on-o, -do-ro-ge closely resembles one of the names applied to 
the mouth of Schoharie creek, as well as to Chinonderoga, and m 
to o i^nal form probably referred to the of waters a 
T co f roga with an allusion to the hills. In .69, the provmca 

commander in chief was asked to "get the Indians to goe as fa 
commanoer whlch ls 

as Dionondoroge, 4 miles on this sme 01 

the beginning of Corlaer's Lake." Svlvester 

Ga nos'-gwah, giants clothed with stone, ,s given by Sylvester 
Ua-nos gwai , ,, Ga-nos'-gwah or Ga-nyus'-gwah is 

as one name for Indian **J%£ S The Mohawk namc 

the well known Seneca word tor stonisn giiut 
tlhe Stone Giants was Ot-ne-yar-heh, and the pass was , Hto 
territorv The Oneidas retained the same name, while the Onon 
: r7a„ them Oot-ne-yah-hah, which is the same. T e word given 
may mean to lie down, as if to rest, the way being hard 

Ga-nu-da-yu, handsome lake, is a Seneca name recently applied 
toLa™ Henderson. It was the titular chief name of the founder 
of the new religion, being one of the original list 

Ga-wis-da-ga-o is Smith's name for the Ausable ponds, defined 
bv him s two goblets set side by sUe. There seems no good rea- 
son for so unlifely a meaning, and the name is of recent applica- 
tion It is derived from the Mohawk gawisa, ,ce. 

Gwi-en-dau'-qua, hanging spear, is the shortened form of ! Sto- 
gwil-daw-kwe, the fall of Opalescent river. Lossing gives the 

13 He-no-da-wa-da, pass of the thunders, is given by Sylvester as 
, name for Indian Pass. This name is of recent formation, and is 


derived from He-no, thunder, the Seneca name for one of the Iro- 
quois divinities. The Thunders, however, were more than one and 
were styled grandfathers by the Iroquois, who still burn tobacco 
as an offering to them. 

He-no'-ga, home of the thunder, is applied by Sylvester to Mt 
Mclntyre, and has the same age and origin. 

Hunck-soock, place where everybody lights, is given by Holden 
as a name for the upper falls at Ticonderoga, and suiting the his- 
tory. It is an Algonquin name, received from Sabattis. From its 
sound the word is suggestive of a place of wild geese, and this is 
the probable meaning. 

Mount Iroquois is a name of recent application from that people. 

Ka-non-do'-ro was a place between Crown Point and Corlaer's 
bay, which was visited by Capt. John Schuyler, August 16, 1690. 
It was some miles north of the former, and W. L. Stone placed it 
at Westport, but it seems to have been on the west shore a little 
north of Split Rock. 

Ka-skong-sha'-di, broken water, a name for a rapid on Opalescent 
river as given by Lossing. This frequent Iroquois word properly 
refers to a succession of falls. Lossing introduced or formed sev- 
eral Indian names, mostly sound and appropriate. 

Ka-ya-de-ros'-se-ras mountains and country, variously written in 
the long controversy over this large tract. It lay around and north 
of Saratoga, a grant being fraudulently obtained from the Mohawks 
and successfully contested by them. A. Cusick interpreted the 
word as it stands as a long deep hole. Others, like Sylvester, refer 
it to a lake country, and are well sustained by some variants. Thus, 
in 1760, the Mohawks spoke to Sir William Johnson "about that 
large tract called Kaniadarusseras," which plainly includes the 
word for lake. Sylvester, however, in applying this name to the 
mountains said: "They derive their name from the old Indian 
hunting ground of which they form so conspicuous a feature." 

Kur-loo'-nah, now interpreted place of the death song, but men- 
tioned by Hoffman merely as a deep valley, is now assigned to White 
Clove, from the murmuring of the pine trees there. Kurloonuh is 
a death song in Gallatin's list. 

Me'-tauk, enchanted wood, has been given by Hoffman as derived 


from metai and awuk for some place, but the word simply means 
a tree. 

Xo-do-ne'-yo, interpreted hill of the wind by some, is another of 
Hoffman's names now given to Hurricane Peak. Both these inter- 
pretations must allow for some corruption of the names, and the 
last may be simply a great hill. 

O-je-en-rud'-de, where the French proposed a fort in 1700, seems 
to be Ticonderoga, and the next a variant of this name. 

O-chi-a-ren'-ty. In 1686 Governor Dongan recalled the emigrant 
Mohawks from the Sault St Louis, and offered to " give them land 
at the fishery of Ochiarenty." The name closely resembles Ojeen- 
rudde, and the fishery might naturally be at Ticonderoga falls. 
Ochia, by itself, means fruit of any kind. 

Ogh-ra'-ro, probably Mt Trembleau point or the mouth of the 
Ausable, was a place at which Capt. John Schuyler stopped in 1690. 
It may be corrupted from owarough, meat, referring to a place 
where this was abundant. 

On-de'-wa, for Mt Pharaoh on Schroon lake, has been inter- 
preted black mountain, a palpable error. A good authority defines 
it coming again, in its use elsewhere. 

O-ne-a-da'-lote was the Oneida name for Lake Champlain accord- 
ing to Morgan, but he said the meaning was lost. The whole word, 
however, is simply a lake. 

O-no-ro-no'-rum, bald head, is now applied to Bald Peak in North 
Hudson. It is from the name of an early Mohawk chief, the last 
syllable of which has been persistently misspelled. He was some- 
times called Bald Pate. 

On-nis'-ske is a new name for Pharaoh lake, and has been inter- 
preted white or silver lake. The word used is far away from the 
Mohawk, but may have been first written in Onondaga and 
changed in transmission. In that dialect o-whees-tah is silver, and 
o-wi-ka-ish-ta, white. Of course no Indian ever called a lake silver, 
in early days. . 

Os-ten-wan'-ne, literally great rock, is a recent name for Indian 

Ot-ne-yar'-heh, stone giants, is Hoffman's name for the same 
place. This is the name by which the Iroquois called these invul- 


nerable beings. They figure in many early tales, sometimes appear- 
ing quite close to the Indian villages. 

Ou-no-war'-lah, scalp mountain, is Hoffman's name for Mount 
Whiteface. The word, however, has more direct reference to the 
head, but Gallatin has oonoowarluh for scalp. 

Pa-pa-quan-e-tuck, river of cranberries, is applied to Ausable 
river by Sabittis. Poh-po-kwa, is Abenaki for cranberries. 

Pit-tow-ba-gonk was an Algonquin name for Lake Champlain 
according to the same Indian guide, and it may be a corruption of 
the next. Palmer has it Petawa-bouque, defined as alternate land 
and water, and another form of Petow-pargow or great water. 
Watson made it Petaonbough, lake branching into two. These will 
be noticed more fully. 

Pe-to-wah-co is Sabele's name for Lake Champlain and seems the 
original form of the last. It may be derived from petau, entering, 
and wadchu, a mountain. Hoffman makes pahcho a lake. 

Poke-o-moonshine mountain. I suspect that this odd name is 
corrupted from the Algonquin pohqui, it is broken, and moosi, 
smooth. Without contraction it would then be Pohqui-moosi, where 
the rocks are smoothly broken off. 

Re-gi-ogh'-ne is one form of a name on Lake Champlain. In 
1763, after ceding a large tract to their Canadian relations, Johnson 
said the Iroquois claimed " from Regioghne a Rock at the East 
side of said lake to Oswegatche." Pownall called it Regiochne. 

Rod-si-o — Ca-ny-a-ta-re, Lake Champlain, i. e., Lake Rodsio. 
This was mentioned in 1704 as " Corlaer's lake, or the Lake Rod- 

Ro'-ge-o is the same word, and was the name of a rock which 
marked the boundary of the home territory of the Mohawks on 
Lake Champlain. All beyond was held by the Iroquois as a body. 
John H. Lydius testified about' this in 1750. For 25 years he had 
heard from the Mohawks " that the Northward of Saraghtoga as 
far as the Rock Rogeo did & does belong to the Mohawks which 
Rock is scituated on the Lake Champlain about ten leagues North 
from Crown Point, neither hath he ever heard of any other Rock 
called by the Indians Rogeo, Rogeo being a Mohawk word, & the 
name of a Mohawk Indian who was drown'd as the Indians say in 
the Lake Champlain near that Rock long before the Christians came 


amongst them from whence the Mohawks call both the Rock and 
the Lake Rogeo." 

Peter Whine, of Albany, also testified about the route to Canada, 
saying " that rock Rogeo is on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, 
opposite Corlear's island ; that the purchase made by Godfrey Del- 
hus extended to that rock; and that the Indians, in passing, call out 
Rogeo, and make offerings to the rock, by throwing pipes, tobacco, 
etc., into the lake." The Rev. Henry Barclay said, at the same 
time, that " the Mohawks have a word in their language called 
rotsio, corruptly pronounced rogeo ; it is the name of a rock in 
Corlaer's lake, or Lake Champlain." 

Rott-si-ich-ni, coward spirit, a recent name for the lake, seems 
also derived from this. The story is of an evil spirit that lived and 
died on one of the islands. This would derive the name from 
ratsio, he is infirm or sick. 

Rogh-qua-non-da-go, child of the mountain, a fanciful name re- 
cently formed and applied to Schroon lake. 

San-da-no'-na was Hoffman's name for a mountain near Lake 
Henderson. Some have thought this corrupted from St Anthony, 
which is not likely there. A. Cusick defined it big mountain. 

Schroon mountain and lake have had many interpretations for 
their name, and a French origin has been claimed for it. Spafford 
said : "A northern Indian, a tolerable English scholar, says the 
Indian name of this Lake is Ska-ne-tah-ro-wah-na, merely ' the 
largest lake,' but somebody has told me the lake was named in 
honor of a French lady, Madame Skaron." The Indian name as 
thus given is correctly defined and is Iroquois. Sknoo-na-pus is an 
Algonquin name given by Sabele. In this the first syllable seems to 
represent the present name, and the others a pond or lake. The 
first may be from Sequnneau, it is left behind. Thus it is left be- 
hind or away from other lakes. The derivation is uncertain. 

Skon-o-wah'-co has also been given for the river and village, but 
refers to a mountain. 

She-gwi-en-daw'-kwe, hanging spear. Falls of the Opalescent 

Ta-ha'-wus, he splits the sky, according to Hoffman. This is the 
original and present name of Mount Mjrcy, from Twaweston, to 


Ta-ne-o-da'-eh, lake high up, is a new and fanciful name for Ava- 
lanche lake, 2900 feet above tide, but it does not seem well defined. 

Ta-wis'-ta-a, defined as mountain cap, is Smith's name for Lake 
Colden. The definition is erroneous, but if the name belongs to the 
lake it suggests Tawistawis, or the snipe. 

Teckyadough Nigarige, the narrows south of Crown Point ac- 
cording to Pownall. Sylvester applies the name to Crown Point, 
defining it as two points. A better definition would be zvhere the 
shores arc near together. 

Tei-o-ho-ho-gen, forks of the river. Ausable Forks. 

Thei-a-no-guen, white head. This is King Hendrick's later name 
applied to Mt Whiteface. He was thus called by the Canadian In- 
dians from the remarkable whiteness of his scalp. The French form 
of this name was Theyanoguen, etc., and the terminal letter is not 
sounded, but at his condolence at Canajoharie it appears as Tiya- 
noga, which is the English form. 

Ti-con-de-ro-ga has been written in many ways and with many 
interpretations. One name for the place has been already men- 
tioned. Morgan wrote it Je-hone-ta-lo'-ga, defining it noisy, a 
more popular than sound definition. Colden said : " Tienderoga, 
tho' to us the proper name of the Fort between Lake George and 
Lake Champlain, signifies the place where two rivers meet, and 
many places are called by that name in the Indian language." In 
1755 it was written Tianderrogoe, Tianarago, Tenonderoga, etc. 
making it evident that this was the meaning then. Spafford said : 
" The name derived to us from the Indians, Frenchified, and sig- 
nified noisy; Che-on-der-o-ga, probably in allusion to the water." 
Schoolcraft gave one of his characteristic interpretations, saying : 
" Dionderoga, place of the inflozving waters: Ticonderoga, from 
ti, water; on, hills; dar, precipitous rocks, and aga, place." Tsinon- 
cirosie was another name. In 1744 the French called it Tiondion- 
doguin and applied the name to Lake Champlain. Their own name 
was Carillon, the falls suggesting a chime of bells. On the map of 
the New Hampshire grants it is " R. Tyconderoge, or tale of the 
lake." One might there " a tale unfold." 

Tsi-nagh-she, place of beavers. Upper works at the Iron dam. 

Wa-ho-par-te-nie, an Algonquin name for Mt Whiteface. It may 
be from Waapenot, it goes upward, or woapen, it is white — prob- 


ably the latter. The guidebooks make Whiteface "Mountain of the 
White Star." 

Somewhere in the northern part of New York Indian tradition 
placed the haunts of the Yagesho or Naked Bear, a creature long 
a scourge to the red men, who united to destroy him. According 
to Yates and Moulton : "At or near a lake whence the water flowed 
two ways (or has two different outlets) one on the northerly and 
the other on the southerly end, this beast had its residence, of which 
the Indians were well informed. This lake they call Hoossink. 
(Hoos is a kettle; Hoossink, at the kettle.") This suggests Paradox 
lake, but it does not exactly describe it. The name and other re- 
marks of the other authors indicate some pond much farther south. 


Al-gon'-quin, an old name^»f recent application here, is a con- 
traction of the name of a people living on the Ottawa river in 
Champlain's time, and has been already noticed. No satisfactory 
meaning has been suggested for it, and few attempts at definition 
have been made. Algonquin Lodge bears the name here. Major 
Powell derived it from Algomequin, those on the other side of the 
river, or St Lawrence, but the name was used in Canada, and the 
Algoumequins lived on the Ottawa. These facts destroy this inter- 

Ak-wis-sas'-ne, where the partridges drum, is the name of the 
Indian village of St Regis. Usually the natural interpretation is 
accepted, of the abundance of these birds there, but some have 
found another reason in the booming of the ice in the river. The 
simpler meaning is to be preferred, as in most other cases. The 
name varies in spelling, yet but little in sound. It was written 
Aghquessaine in 1768; Hough wrote it Ah-qua-sus-ne, and Morgan 
Ah-qua-sos'-ne. Schoolcraft gave Oghkwesea as the Mohawk 
word for partridge, and it was sometimes used as a personal name, 
as in the case of the interpreter for Le Moyne, at La Famine in 1684, 
Lahontan wrote his name Akoesan, and Colden Ohguesse, or the 
partridge. The Onondaga name for this bird is Noon-yeah-ki-e, 
loud or noisy step. 

Chateaugay, a name given to the town at its erection, seems 
French, but for no historic reason. A note on the name is therefore 


quoted from the New York Historical Society 182 1, page 337. Hon. 
Samuel Jones said: "The true name is Chateuaga which was the 
name given the town when first erected, but I remember one of the 
members of the Assembly then observed to me that the town would 
soon lose its name, for that it was of Indian origin, and very few of 
the members of the Legislature gave it the proper pronunciation, 
the most of them calling it Chateaugay." In sound it suggests an 
Iroquois quite as much as a French word. It is pronounced 

Con-gam'-muck is the name given by Sabattis for Lower Saranac 
lake, gammuck being old Algonquin for lake. The first syllable 
might be from kon or gun, meaning snow, but this is hardly prob- 
able. It is more likely to be a contraction of qunni, meaning it is 
long. In the Abenaki dialect caucongomock is simply a lake. The 
guidebooks say the Indians call Lower Saranac lake Lake of the 
Clustered Stars, from its many islands. A very pretty idea, but 
hardly Indian in character. 

Ey-en-saw'-yee is at the foot of .Long Sault and head of St Regis 
island, on Sauthier's map, and seems a corruption of the Indian 
name of St Regis. 

Ga-na-sa-da'-go, or side hill, is Morgan's name for Lake St 
Francis. It seems the same as that of Canassatego, the Onondaga 
chief, defined for me as upsetting a house which has been put in 

Gau-je-ah-go-na'-ne, sturgeon river, is Morgan's name for Salmon 
river in the Oneida dialect. In Onondaga the sturgeon is Ken-jea- 
go-na, or big fish. The last syllable given by Morgan may be super- 
fluous, or the full termination may be gowane, great. There seems to 
be an error in his first syllable. The Mohawks gave the name of 
Kinshon, or fish, to the Massachusetts colony at one council. 

Hi-a-wat'-ha Lodge has this name from the celebrated Onondaga 
chief who proposed the league of the Five Nations, and around 
whom cluster many legends. He was adopted by the Mohawks and 
his name comes second in their list of chiefs, with a dialectal change. 
It has been borne by his successors to the present day. The inter- 
pretations have been many, as the river maker, the man who combs, 
the very wise man, he who makes the wampiun belt, and last and 
probably the best, he who seems to have lost his mind but seeks it. 


knowing where to find it. The latter is the present Onondaga defi- 
nition. The name belongs to that dialect and is divided as above. 

Kar-is-tau'-tee, an island in the St Lawrence, near St Regis 
and off the mouth of Salmon river. It is said to have been called 
after an Indian banished there by his tribe, and is probably derived 
from the Mohawk word Karistaji, iron. This has been corrupted 
into Cristutu. 

Ka-wan'-na Lodge, from the Onondaga word kahwhanoo, an 
island. Schoolcraft makes the Mohawk form of this word kawenote. 

Ken-tsi-a-ka-wa'-ne, big fish river. Salmon river as above. 

Ki-wasa lake, at Saranac lake village. This means a new word, 
but may have been intended for another similar word for a new 

Ku-sha'-qua lake, in the town of Franklin, has a recently intro- 
duced name derived from Gaw-she-gweh, a spear. The guidebooks 
improve on this and make it a beautiful resting place. 

Mad-a-was'-ka lake and camp have another introduced name. 

Mas-ta'-qua has been defined largest river, and is an Algonquin 
name for Raquette river. Rather irregularly derived from mohsag, 
great, and tuk, river. 

Xi-gen-tsi-a-go-a, big fish, for Salmon river, as in a preceding 
name. In 1754 Father Billiard asked that the St Regis Indians 
might have a tract from this river on the northeast, to Nigentsiagi 
river on the southwest. 

Xi-ha-na-w'a'-te, rapid river, is a name for Raquette river derived 
from Tanawadeh. 

( )n-chi-o'-ta, the rainbow, is Zeisberger's form of an Onondaga 
word now applied to a railroad station near Rainbow pond. 

O-sar-he'-han, difficult place, where one is worse off for strug- 
gling. This is Hough's name for Chateaugay, but Sylvester defined 
it narrow gorge- 

O-see-tah lake, gray willow. This is a new name for an expanse 
of water below Lower Saranac lake. 

Ou-kor'-lah is a name for Mt Seward, usually defined big or 
great eye. Albert Cusick defined it its eye, and the idea of size 
does not seem to enter into the word, Schoolcraft giving okara as 
the Mohawk for eye, and other Iroquois dialects differing little 
from this. 


Ou-lus'-ka pass has been interpreted place of shadozvs, probably 
derived from the Mohawk word Yokoraskha, evening. The mean- 
ing as given me was inarching through burs and grass. This might 
come from the Oneida word ole-hisk, meaning nettles or any large 
weed. This pass is placed between Mt Seward and Ragged moun- 
tain by Sylvester. 

Pas-kon-gam-muck, pleasant or beautiful lakes, is the name and 
interpretation given to the Saranac lakes as a group by Sabattis. 
The derivation of this is by no means clear, but if the first part were 
pachgeen, to turn out of the road, an appropriate meaning would 
appear. The upper and lower lakes are nearly parallel, the middle 
one occupying a space at right angles to these. As a group there- 
fore, Pachgeengamuck would express lakes which turn out of the 
road, or direct course. Hough gives the same name to Tupper's 
lake, defining it a lake going out from a river. 

The same Indian guide was the authority for the name of the 
Middle Saranac lake, calling this Pat-tou-gam-muck, but without 
defining it. The first part seems from Petuhki, it is round, and 
the appropriate meaning would be round lake, in contrast with the 

Que-bec' pond is a recently applied name, very much out of place. 
Various origins and meanings have been given to this. Webster's 
dictionary properly makes it an Algonquin word, but defines it 
take care of the rock. Charlevoix spoke of the sudden narrowing 
of the river above the island of Orleans, " from which circum- 
stance this place has been called Quebeio or Quebec, which in the 
Algonquin language signifies a strait or narrowing. The Abena- 
quis, whose language is a dialect of the. Algonquin, call it Quelibec, 
that is to say, shut up, because as they came Point Levi cut off a 
view of one channel and the river seemed a great bay." School- 
craft said : " Is not the Quebec a derivative from the Algonquin 
phrase Kebic — a term uttered in passing by a dangerous and rocky 
coast?" That place had other Indian names. Bruyas gave the 
Mohawk as Tegiatontaragon, tzvo rivers which reunite. The Cayu- 
gas called it Tiochtidge in talking with the Moravians, but prob- 
ably meant Montreal by this. The Ojibwa name was Kebekong, 
and the Montagnais termed it Opistikoiats. 

Sa-ko-ron-ta-keh-tas, zuhere small trees are carried on the shouU 


der. This is Hough's name for Moira, and several are from his 
history of Franklin county, mostly contributed by Rev. F. X. Mar- 

Sar'-a-nac lakes. No meaning has been definitely assigned this 

Sin-ha-lo-nen-ne-pus, large and beautiful lake, is the name as- 
signed by Sabattis to Upper Saranac. This seems a very doubtful 
interpretation, though nepus is used for lake or water at rest. Ac- 
cording to the same Indian Senhahlone was the name of Platts- 
burg, making this interpretation yet more doubtful. The guide- 
books say the Indians called Upper Saranac lake " The Lake of the 
Silver Sky." What an improvement on sky of brass. Unluckily 
the Indian word is not given. The same authority says the Indians 
call the Spectacle lakes, not far off, Wampum waters. Ote-ko-a, for 
wampum, would make a pretty name, but the application may be 
doubted, there being no reason for the use of wampum here. 

Ta-na-wa'-deh, swift water, is Morgan's name for Raquette river. 

Te-ka-no-ta-ron'-we, village crossing a river, that is, lying on 
both sides of it, is Hough's name for Malone. 

Te-ka-swen-ka-ro-rens, where they saw boards, is Hogansburg. 

Tsi-tri-as-ten-ron-we, natural dam. Lower falls of Raquette river. 

Wah-pole Sin-e-ga-hu is the name given by Sabattis for the por- 
tage from Saranac lake to Raquette river. Dr Hough said the 
latter name, used for a snowshoe, was first applied to the river by 
the French, from the shape of a wild meadow at its mouth. 

Wau-ke-sha village on Big Tupper lake has a western name. 

Waw-beek Lodge and postoffice on Upper Saranac lake have an 
Ojibwa name, to which an adjective is often prefixed. It means a 

Win-ne-ba'-go pond has also a western name, usually translated 
stinking water, but meaning water which has an odor of any kind, 
offensive or the reverse. The Relation of 1648 said of the nation 
so named : " These peoples are so called Puants, not by reason of 
any bad odor which is particularly theirs, but because they report 
themselves to have come from the shores of a sea very far away, 
toward the north, the water of which being salt, they named them- 
selves the people of the stinking water." The eastern Indians used no 
salt till taught to do so by Europeans, thinking it an evil substance. 



Ca'-na-da lake is a name inappropriately applied, and Canada 
island is on Sauthier's map. The word usually refers to a village, 
but sometimes to a creek. Several New York creeks flowing from 
the direction of Canada had this name. 

Ca-ni-a-dut'-ta, Caijutha, Caniatudd and Cayadutha are variants 
of the name of a tributary of Garoga creek. 

Ca-ya-dut-ta creek, stone standing out of the water, flows through 
this county. 

Chuc-te-nun'-da is the name of a creek flowing south here, but 
occurring elsewhere as a name. It will be treated under the head 
of Montgomery county, where there are two streams so called. 

De-ag-jo-har-o-we was one name of East Canada creek. 

Des-kon'-ta, now West Stony creek, is on Sauthier's map as a 
tributary to the west branch of the Hudson, and is now in the town 
of Bleecker. 

Ga-ro'-ga lake is in Garoga. This village of Garoga is in Ephra- 
tah, while the creek flows through several towns. It may be derived 
from garo, on this side, adding the locative, or from garogon, to 
make something of wood. The more probable origin is kaihogha, 
a creek. 

Ken-ne-at-too, stone lying flat in the water, as interpreted by A. 
Cusick, is Fonda's creek in Mayfield. 

Ken-ny-et-to, sometimes applied to Vlaie creek, or Sacondaga 
lake or vlaie, scarcely differs from the last. Simms wrote it Ken- 
inyitto and defined it little water. 

Ko-la-ne'-ka is Morgan's name for Johnstown, and he merely 
makes it Indian superintendent. A. Cusick defined it, where he 
tilled his bowl, either with food or drink, probably alluding to John- 
son's hospitality. The name was in use in 1750. 

Moose creek, here and elsewhere, has the Indian name of that 

Oregon, a western name applied to a small village [see Chautau- 
qua county]. 

Sa-con-da'-ga, called Sachendaga in 1750, is often defined much 
zvater, or drowned lands, which is not literal, but conveys the in- 
tended meaning. Spafford defined it swamp; A. Cusick, swampy or 


cedar lands. W. L. Stone differed widely from these, erroneously 
making it place of roaring waters. 

Te-car'-hu-har-lo'-da, visible over the creek, is Morgan's name 
for East Canada creek. 

\Yas-sont'-ha, a stream near Johnstown, was defined fall creek 
by A. Cusick. It is derived from twasentha, a waterfall. 


Al-a-ba-ma, a southern name applied to a town here, is usually 
defined the place of rest, or here we rest. In this case the primary 
reference may be to the sluggish water in the lower part of the 
Alabama river. It has also been interpreted thicket clearers, as 
though made ready for a settlement by these. 

Canada, a village, is a hamlet in the town of Bethany. 

Check-a-nan-go or Black creek, was given me also as Chuck- 
un-hah, and was interpreted place of the Penobscots, or some other 
eastern Indians. It probably is a corruption of Morgan's name for 
that stream. . The next four are from his list. 

Da-o-sa-no'-geh, place without a name. Alexander. 

De-o-on'-go-wa, great hearing place. Batavia. 

Ga'-swa-dak, by the cedar swamp. Alabama. 

Gau'-dak, by the plains. Caryville. 

Ge-ne-un-dah-sa-is-ka is Batavia, and has been translated mos- 
quito. This insect's Onondaga name is Kah-yah-ta-ne, troublesome 

Gen-nis'-he-yo or Genesee, beautiful valley, once known as Big 
Tree town. This and the next two are from Morgan. 

Gweh'-ta-a-ne-te-car'-nun-do-deh, the red village. Attica. 

Ja'-go-o-geh, place of hearing. Black creek. This word is of 
the feminine gender, and thus differs slightly from that for Stafford, 
given by the same author as Ya'-go-o-geh. 

Jo-a-i-ka, raccoon, was Kirkland's name for Batavia. 

Kentucky is an introduced name and may be Algonquin, as the 
ending suggests, but the Iroquois word kentahkee, among the mead- 
ows, or lowlands, is satisfactory. Webster's dictionary defines it 
at the head of a river, but in any case it does not mean the dark 
and bloody ground, as some suppose. 


Ke-ti-yen-goo-wah, big swamp, is near Tonawanda. D. Cusick 
gave it as the fort Kea-dan-yee-ko-wa, now Tonawanda plains. 

O'-at-ka creek, the opening, is also called Allen's creek. This and 
the next two are from Morgan. 

O-a'-geh, on the road. Pembroke. 

O-so'-ont-geh, place of turkeys. Darien. 

Roanoke is the name of a village in Stafford, introduced from 
Virginia. In 1722 the Iroquois called the Roanoke river Konent- 
cheneke. The disk shell beads are termed Roanoke. 

Ta'-na-wun-da or Tonawanda creek, swift water, from the rapid 
current for 10 miles below Batavia. There is also a Little Tona- 
wanda creek. This and the next two are from Morgan's list. 

Te-car'-da-na-duk, place of many trenches. Oakfield. This is in 
allusion to the old earthworks there. 

Te-car'-no-wun-na-da'-ne-o, many rapids. Leroy. 

Te-ga'-tain-e-a-agh-gwe, double fort. The Rev. Samuel Kirk- 
land received this name in 1788, at a place near Batavia. " He ar- 
rived at a place called by the Senecas, Tegataineaaghgwe, which 
imports a double-fortified town, or a town with a fort at each end. 
Here he walked about V* mile with one of the Seneca chiefs, to 
view one of the vestiges of this double-fortified town. They were 
the remains of two forts," which he thought were 2 miles apart. 


As-sis-ko-wach-keek or As-sis-ko-wach-kok, was the fourth of 
five plains mentioned in the Catskill patents of 1678 and 1680, just 
beyond the stone bridge at Leeds. It may mean place of three 
fires. Arthur C. Parker says that as'-sis-ko-wach-kek is rush land in 
Abenaki, a-sis-ko-wach meaning scouring rushes and kek or ki land 
or place. 

Ba-sic creek is a variant of a frequent name. 

Can-is-kek, a plain west of Athens, was sold in 1664, and is some- 
times written Kaniskek. It was opposite Claverack and behind 
Baeren or Machawameck island. 

Chough-tig-hig-nick, in Windham, is given by French as the 
original name of Batavia kill. 

. Cox-sack-ie, now applied to a creek and town, has been written 
Kuxakee and Coxackie. Ruttenber derived it from co, object, and 


aki, land, referring to the conspicuous high banks. French pro- 
nounced it Cook-sock-y and defined it owl hoot. Spafford also de- 
rived it from an Indian word meaning the hooting of owls. One 
Delaware name for owl is gokhoos, and if this is combined with 
ahki we have owl land as a fair definition. Schoolcraft interpreted 
it cut banks, or those cut off by water, and O'Callaghan suggested 
that it might be a corruption of kaaks-aki, country of the wild goose, 
deriving this from kaak, goose, and aki, place. Neither of these 
two is probable. It might be from kussohkoi, a point of earth or 
rock. The reference to owls is as well sustained as any. 

Kis-ka-tom, hickory nuts, is now the name of a creek and post- 
office. There seems little to sustain this definition, and it might 
better be derived from kishketuk, by the riverside. As Kisketon it 
was an Indian town on the Catskill. Zeisberger's nearest word is 
quechquatonk, a concealer, perhaps by pits or caches, but Trumbull 
indorses the definition first given, and his support has great value. 

Kis-ka-tom-e-na-kook was rendered place of thin-shelled hickory 
nuts by Trumbull. It was on the west side of a round hill called 
Wawantepekook, at the junction of the Kiskatom and Kaaterskill. 
This was in 1708. The name is now applied to a large tract on both 
sides of the Kiskatom. Ruttenber said that Henry Beekman had 
a tract under the great mountains," by a place called Kiskatameck," 
which seems the same. 

Kox-hack-ung was sold in 1661, and was on the west side of the 
river, between Van Bergen island and Neuten Hook. It seems a 
variant of Coxsackie, and as Kockhachingh was a name for Nutten 
Hook at Catskill. 

Ma-chach-keek or Wa-chach-keek has been defined house land, or 
place of wigwams, and also hilly land, but neither of these seems 
satisfactory. It may be from mohchi, unoccopied, adding the ter- 
minal fire land. It was the first of the five plains sold in 1678. 

Ma-cha-wa-nick was at the Sluyt Hoeck or Flying Corner of the 
Dutch in 1687. It was at the northeast corner of the Corlaer's kill 
patent and the southeast corner of the Loonenburg patent. 

Mag-quam-ka-sick was a tract mentioned in 1691. It is one of 
the two called Sandy Plains in South Cairo, and has been derived 
from mogqui, great, and quasick, stone. 

Manch-we-he-nock may be a variant of the next. 


Ma-wig-nack has been defined place where two streams meet, 
but the derivation is not clear. In 1789 this was the name of the 
lowlands at the junction of the Katskill and Katerskill. 

Xa-pees-tock or Nip-pis-auke, small lake place, at a pond in the 
west part of Cairo. 

Och-quich-tok, Ac-quit-ack or Acquickak, a small plain on the 
west side of the Catskill, described as being nearly opposite Austin's 
paper mill, and mentioned in 1789. It has been defined as stony or 
rocky place. A better derivation would be from ahque, to leave off, 
tuk, at the river, referring to a boundary. 

On-ti-o-ra, mountains of the sky, is Schoolcraft's name for the 
Catskills in a paper read in 1844. It does not appear before that 
time, and may have originated with him, being the only Iroquois 
name in the county. A. Cusick defined it very high mountain, and 
it is now applied to Onteora Park. 

Pach-qui-ack or Pachquayack, the third of the five plains, prob- 
ably meant clear land or open country- 

Pa-sa-ma-coo-sick was a small fort. Pissaumatoonk is a matter 
of business, and the full meaning may be place where business is 

In 1675 land was sold on the north side of the creek called 
Paskoecq, in Catskill. It was at the present site of Leeds, and was 
also called Pascakook, Pastakook and Pistakook. 

Pe-o-quan-ack-qua or Pesquanachqua was the southeast corner 
of the Loveridge patent, or Maquaas Hook. Lockerman's tract 
had the creek Canasenix (Saugerties) on the south, " east on the 
river in the Great Imbocht where Loveridge leaves off, called by the 
Indians Peoquanackqua." This may be from Peokonat, to throzv 
down, alluding to the laying down of burdens there, or possibly to 
games of wrestling. 

Po-tam-is-kas-sick, a plain above the sandy plains, South Cairo. 
This may be from pootoemoo, projecting, and quasick, stone. 

Po-tick was the fifth of the plains bought in 1678. The Mahican 
village of Potick was west of Athens, and Potick hill and creek 
are yet known. The root of the name may be petuhqui, it is round, 
or pohki, it is clear. The former is preferable but it has been de- 
fined waterfall. 


Qua-cha-nock was a tract west of Lockerman's land. It may 
mean a running place. 

Qua- jack was a general name for the first four plains at Catskill, 
which were termed the Christian com land. 

Qua-ta-wich-na-ack is a waterfall far up the Kaaterskill, on the 
west line of a tract south of Catskill, which was sold in 1682. Rut- 
tehber speaks of this as a small tributary of the Katskill from the 
south, called Quatawichnaack, understanding a fall to be simply a 
rapidly descending stream. Elsewhere it is given as Katawignack 
or Quitquekeenock, a waterfall at the southwest corner of Lov- 
eridge patent, near the bridge over the Kaaterskill, on the road to 
High Falls. It has been derived from Ket-ich-u-an, greatest How 
of water, adding auke or ack to signify the place of this. 

Sa-pa-na-kock. Ruttenber says the boundary of the Coeymans 
tract began at Sieskasin, "opposite the middle of the island called 
by the Indians Sapanakock." This is one of the frequent names 
derived from roots, and the reference here seems to be to those of 
the yellow water lily. 

Si-es-ka-sin is a place just mentioned, and may be derived from 
the word schauxsin, to be weak or exhausted. 

Stich-te-kook or Stighkook was a plain west of Coxsackie. 

Ta-bi-gicht or Tag-po-kigt was one of the two tracts now called 
Sandy Plains in South Cairo, mentioned in 1691. It may be de- 
rived from tapi, there is enough, or topi, an alder. 

In 1674 Count Frontenac spoke of the depredations of " the 
Mohegans of Taracton, a Nation bordering on New Netherland." 
Father Bruyas wrote also, in 1678, that some Mahingans Tarak- 
tons had passed one of the Mohawk towns with prisoners. This 
should be stopped. They are considered Catskill Indians. 

Wa-wan-te-pe-kook is a high round hill in the town of Catskill. 
The name is also applied to Round Top, a mountain in the south- 
west part of Cairo, and has been derived from Wo-we-an-tup-auke, 
round head place. 

Wich-qua-nach-te-kak or Wichquanachtchack was the second of 
the five tracts. 


We owe some names of the northern wilderness to the taste and 
care of Charles Fenno Hoffman, who defined a number in a note 


to his Vigil of Faith, published in 1842 and reaching the fourth 
edition in 1845. ^ n enthusiastic woodman and man of letters, he 
gathered much from his Indian guides. The poem in question is 
founded on the death of an Indian girl, whose assassin hopes to be 
slain in turn that he may become her companion in the spirit land, 
rather than his favored rival. The latter follows and guards him 
everywhere lest he should die first and have his wish. This gave 
Hoffman an opportunity for an attractive array of wilderness names. 
The faithful guardian followed his guilty foe. 

Midst dripping crags where, foaming soon, 

Through soaking mosses steals the Schroon, 

To where Peseka's waters lave 

Its silvery strand and sloping hills ; 

From hoarse Ausable's caverned wave 

To Saranac's most northern rills; 

Mid Retina's hundred isles of green; 

By Tunesasah's pebbly pools ; 

And where through many a dark ravine 

The triple crown of rocks is seen, 

By which grim Towarloondah rules, 

Each rocky glen and swampy lair 

Has heard his howlings of despair. 

Beneath Oukorla's upward eye, 

Daring at times to lift his own — 

My sudden glance upon him thrown 

Has changed into a whispered moan 

His gasping prayer "to die" — ■ "to die!" 

Where naked Ounowarlah towers, 

Where wind-swept Nodoneyo lowers, 

From Nessingh's sluggish waters, red 

With alder roots that line their bed, 

To hoary Wahopartenie — 

As still from spot to spot we fled, 

How often his despairing sigh 

The very air has thickened 

On which that fruitless prayer was sped ! 

Oft in that barren hollow where 

Through moss-hung hemlocks blasted there 

Whirl the dark rapids of Yowhayle ; 

Oft. too, by Tioratie blue. 

And where the silent wave that slides 

Tessuya's cedar islets through, 

Cahogaronta's cliff divides 

In foam through deep Kurloonah's vale ; 

Where great Tahawus splits the sky; 

Where Borr-has greets his melting snows ; 

By those linked lakes that shining lie 

Where Metauk's haunted forest grows ; 

And where through many a grassy vlie 

The winding Atatea flows ; 

Through, often through the fearful pass, ' 

Reft by Otneyarh's giant band. 

Where splinters of the mountain vast, 

Though lashed by birchen roots, aghast, 

Toppling amid their ruin stand, 


And where upon the bay of glass 
That mirrors him on either hand, 
His shadow Sandanona throws : 
By Gwiendauqua's bristling fall, 
Through Twen-ungasko's echoing glen, 
To wild Ouluska's inmost den, 
Alone — alone with that poor thrall, 
I wrestled life away in alll 

It will be readily seen that Hoffman took liberties with some 
names in these lines, but he unites local names and features in a 
very striking way. He also spoke of a feature of this region easily 
seen, and which is frequent elsewhere: "The geographical names, 
often traceable to at least four different languages, are necessarily 
much confused ; while from occasional similarity of physical fea- 
tures in lake and mountain, none but our habitual dwellers in these 
solitudes could properly identify the Indian terms with the local- 
ities to which they refer." In these names he followed Gallatin 
closely and seems to have adapted some from him. 

Ad-i-ron-dacks, tree eaters, is a name now applied to a large 
group of mountains, and pronounced Ha-te-en-tox by the Onon- 
dagas. It was the name of a Canadian people who were formidable 
foes of the Iroquois and often invaded their territory. 

All-na-pook-na-pus is Sabele's name for Indian lake, and it may 
be defined the lake which is very clear. 

At-a-te-a, abbreviated from geihuhatatie, a river, is usually ap- 
plied in whole or part to the Hudson, but is given here to the 
Sacondaga, one of its large branches. 

Ca-ho-ga-ron-ta, torrent in the woods, is thus defined by Hoff- 
man, but the only suggestion of locality is in the poem quoted above. 
It is derived from kaihogha, a creek or small river, and garonta, a 
tree, and might be applied to any considerable forest stream. 

Con-gam-unck creek is a new name in this county, referring to a 
lake and not a stream. It is thus out of place. 

Cough-sa-ra-ge, the dismal wilderness according to French, or 
Cough-sa-gra-ge, rendered the beaver-hunting grounds of the Five 
Nations by others, covers more than Essex county on early maps, 
and mention has already been made of the name. The name seems 
to refer to winter. In the third edition of his account of the colo- 
nies, 1766, Governor Pownall mentioned one great hunting ground 
of the Five Nations as " Couchsachraga, a tract lying on the south- 


east side of Canada, or St Lawrence river, bounded eastward by 
Saragtoga and the drowned lands ; northward by a line from 
Regiochne point (on Lake Champlain, or, as the Indians call it, 
Caniaderiguarunte, the lake that is the gate of the country) through 
the Cloven Rock, on the same lake, to Oswegatchie, or la Galette ; 
southwestward by the dwelling lands of the Mohawks, Oneidas and 
Tuscaroras." The second hunting ground was the Ohio country- 

Thirdly, Tieucksouckrondtie, all that tract of country lying be- 
tween the Lakes Erie and O'illinois. Fourthly, ' Scaniaderiada, or 
the country beyond the lake; all that tract of country lying on the 
north of Lake Erie, and northwest of Lake Ontario, and between 
the lakes Ontario and Huron." 

" Inca-pah'-co (anglice, Lindermere) is so called by the Indians 
from its forests of basswood, or American linden. It is better 
known, perhaps, by the insipid name of Long lake." Thus Hoff- 
man commented on the scene of his story. I do not elsewhere find 
this name for the tree. 

Ju-to-west'-hah, hunting place, is the present Onondaga name for 
the whole wilderness. 

Kag-ga-is is now the name for a small lake. 

Kil'-lo-quaw. Hoffman gave this as a Mohawk name, meaning 
rayed like the sun, and called it Ragged lake, but from his account 
it was evidently Racket or Raquette lake. This is corrupted from 
Karaghqua, the su)i, and the guidebooks translate it lake of the great 
star- Kelau-quaw is Gallatin's word for the sun, and Hoffman 
followed him. 

Mi-a'-mi creek. A western name has been applied to this stream, 
which is said to mean mother in the Ottawa dialect. This seems 

Mo-ha'-gan pond, near Raquette lake has a name corrupted from 

Ne-ha-sa'-ne lake and park, crossitig on a stick of timber. This 
name has been introduced from Lewis county, where Morgan 
assigns it to Beaver river. It is singularly inappropriate here, but 
there are many such names for hotels, camps and lodges, as Neodak, 
Neoskaleeta, etc. 

Xes'-singh, a sluggish stream mentioned by Hoffman, and appar- 


ently between Hurricane mountain and White Face. It may have 
its name from nashin, it makes an angle. 

Nu-shi-o'-na was a valley mentioned by Hoffman between Long 
lake and the head waters of the Sacondaga. Nehsoha is Gallatin's 
word for night. 

Pi-se'-co lake is said to have been thus called from an Indian 
named Pezeeko, from pisco, a fish. If so the word is seldom found 
with this meaning, but agrees better with a word referring to miry 
places. Spaff ord said : " Peezeko lake bears the name of a singu- 
lar and venerable old Indian, who lived alone, for a long time, on 
its shores, a sort of hermit from the ranks of savage life, for some 
cause unknown to the few white people who knew him." French 
said it was named by Joshua Brown, a surveyor, from an Indian 
chief of his acquaintance. The name is Algonquin, and the Ojib- 
was call the buffalo Pe-zhe-ke. 

Pi-wa-ket or Pickwacket lake, from pewe, little, and ohkit, place. 

Sabattis mountain has its name from an Indian guide, but is not 
an Indian word, being abbreviated from St Baptist. 

Sa-con-da'-ga, the drowned or swampy land, has been mentioned, 
and the river had its name from this. 

Ta-co-la'-go lake has an introduced name. 

Tes-su'-ya is described by Hoffman as having cedar islands, and 
the name is contracted from that for white cedar, termed by the 
Onondagas feather leaf. 

Ti-o-ra-tie, the sky or skylike, as defined by Hoffman, who calls 
it a Mohawk word and refers it to a lake. The word for sky is 
quite different, but the Cayuga word teyohate, or light, is probably 
the one intended, differing from the equivalent Mohawk word 
teyoswathe. Zeisberger defines the Onondaga word tiorate as a 
small wind. 

To-war-loon'-dah, hill of storms, Hoffman said was supposed to 
be Mt Emmons, and to this the name is now usually assigned, 
though Sylvester applies it to Blue mountain. Towaloondeh is 
simply storm in Gallatin's list. 

Tu-ne-sa'-sah, place of pebbles, is one of Hoffman's names which 
occurs elsewhere; Twe-nun-gas-ko, double voice, is another of Hoff- 
man's referring to the echo in a glen. 


U-to-wan'-ne lake, big waves, is Oo-ta-wan'-ne in the Onondaga 
dialect. This is near the head waters of Raquette river. 

West Canada creek retains an Indian name, but has several others. 

Yow-hayle, dead ground, is applied by Hoffman to the rapids of 
some river unnamed by him. If correctly given by him as an exist- 
ing name, it may have been corrupted, either from the Oneida yawu- 
hayah, death, or the Mohawk yaweaheyea, dead. His poetic pro- 
nunciation is followed here, but there should be more syllables. 
Zeisberger wrote it jawoheje, and allowance must be made for his 
use of letters. Yowhayyou is Gallatin's word for the dead, and 
reference should be made to him in Hoffman's names. 


The grant to Dellius, vacated in 1699, extended up the Mohawk 
river to Arach Soghne, in this count}-. It might be derived from 
aresen, to be fat, in allusion to the fertile German Flats, but forcibly 
suggests Oriskany, another place where everything grew to a large 

As-to-ren'-ga, on the stone, from ostenra, rock, with locative, has 
been applied to the hills at Little Falls. Another form. Astonrogon 
or Astenrogen, place of rocks, has also been interpreted rock in the 
water, as well as under the rock. In the last case it is applied to a 
rock at the foot of the falls, but is usually a name for the whole 

Ca-na-cha-ga'-la, one-sided kettle, was a clearing near Moose and 
Woodhull lakes, but the name is now applied to a lake at one of 
the heads of Moose river. It was formerly a noted spring hole, 
and the name may have come from this. 

Both East and West Canada creeks are important streams, thus 
called from trails leading to Canada. 

Ca-no-we-da'-ge appears on the map of the New Hampshire 
grants as the name of Nowadaga creek. In this case, as in many 
athers, the second syllable of the prefix Teka was retained and the 
first dropped. In an Albany document it was called Onnawadage, 
the western terminus of the fraudulent Dellius grant, obtained in 
1697, and vacated two years later. 

Cat-ha-tach-ua or Cathecane is also known as Plum creek. It 
has been defined she had a path. 


Che-pach-et, an applied name, is said to mean where they separate. 

Ci-o-ha-na, large creek, is East Canada creek on Sauthier's map. 
As another name on this map for this is Gayohara, this name might 
be thought a natural but erroneous rendering of Giohara. Cai-o- 
ha-hon Te-ga-hi-ha-ha-ough-we, however, appears on an indenture 
of 1763, and as the latter name stands for East Canada creek, the 
former may be a place on it, corresponding to Ciohana. Tegahi- 
haroughwe is on George Klock's patent of 1754. French gives 
both Ci-o-ha-na and Sag-o-ha-ra. 

Da-ya'-hoo-wa'-quat, carrying place, is Morgan's name for the 
Mohawk above Little Falls. A. Cusick interpreted this as lifting 
the boat, but added another definition, in the valley. The former is 
to be preferred. 

De-ka'-yo-ha-ron'-we, a creek flowing into the Mohawk about 200 
yards below Fort Hendrick, at Canajoharie Castle. In 1761 John- 
son and others wished to buy a tract beginning on the north bank 
of this creek, 13 miles from the Mohawk. This was East Canada 
creek, and variants of the name are given. The Indian village of 
Canajoharie was then a little farther west and on the south side of 
the Mohawk, the country adjoining being called Canajoharrees. 

De-yosh-to-ra-ron. In this petition it was asked that the line 
might run west to a creek called Deyoshtoraron, or West Canada 
creek to Burnetsfield. 

Morgan said that Ga-ne'-ga-ha'-ga was the upper Mohawk castle, 
in the town of Danube and nearly opposite East Canada creek, de- 
fining this as possessor of the Hint, which is the national name of 
the Mohawks. This village was really the Indian Canajoharie of 
1750, the name being retained as the Mohawks moved up the river. 
At that time they had but two castles, while in 1634 they had four 
east of the present Canajoharie. 

Ga-ron'-da-ga-ra'-on, big tree, was the western limit of the Bur- 
netsfield patent of 1725. The latter part of the name is incorrectly 

Ga-yo-ha'-ra or Sa-go-ha'-ra, where I washed, was one name of 
East Canada creek, having the former form on Sauthier's map. It 
has also been written Kuyahoora. 

Hon-ne-da'-ga, hilly place, is a name recently applied to Jock's 


In-cha-nan'-do, fish under water, according to A. Cusick, was one 
name for Nowadaga creek in Danube. 

Ka-na-ta is the name given by Sylvester for West Canada creek, 
and he called this Amber creek from its color. The word Canada 
is often used as merely referring to a creek, especially if there was 
a village on it, as in this case. The proper name of this stream 
also refers to the color of the water, as will appear. 

Koua'-ri, from Oquari, a bear, was an Indian name for Fort 
Herkimer in 1757, as mentioned by the French. This name does 
not otherwise appear. 

Min-ne-ha-ha station. A western name introduced from the 
falls of that name, and the bride of Hiawatha in Longfellow's poem. 
It is usually rendered laughing water, which will answer in a poem. 
"Minnehaha, Laughing Water, loveliest of Dacotah women." 

Mo-hawk river. The name comes from moho to eat living things, 
and this Algonquin word came into use to the exclusion of the name 
by which the Mohawks called themselves. By the Dutch they were 
termed Maquas, or bears. There is a village of this name in Ger- 
man Flats. 

Moose lake has the Indian name of one of the deer family. 

Nor-ridge-wock, a place of deer according to Webster's diction- 
ary, is an introduced name. It seems to mean forks of a river. 

No-wa-da-ga creek is an abbreviated form of Canowedage, mean- 
ing place of mud turtles according to A. Cusick. On this stream 
was the Indian village of Canajoharie in the later colonial period. 

O-hi-o, beautiful river, a name now applied to a town. The word 
implies more than mere beauty and, when used as an adjective, may 
often be rendered great or very fine. 

Ogh-regh-e-roon-ge, a named for East Canada creek in 17 14. It 
must be remembered that any village or person could originate local 

O-ne-ki-o is a name coined for a railroad station, from ganne- 
gio, good water. 

Ot-squa'-go, under a bridge. Morgan wrote it O-squa'-go. 

Rax'-e-toth or Ras'-se-dot, from raxaa, a boy, was the name for a 
creek in Schuyler in 1757. It may have been so called from the 
son of Kash, the first settler. 

Ron-doxe lake and station have this name from Adirondack. 


Sken-so-wa'-ne, a place on Fourth lake. With the change of one 
letter this would mean great peace. 

Squash pond has a New England Indian name, whose derivation 
was often mentioned by early writers. Thus Roger Williams spoke 
of the " Askuttasquash, their Vine aples, which the English from 
them call Squashes, about the bignesse of Apples of severall colours, 
a sweet, light, wholesome refreshing." Many Indian words are 
thus now in common use, but they are rarely Iroquois. 

Squaw lake has the Algonquin name of woman. The New Eng- 
land Indians also used nunksquaw for girl, and sunksquaw for 
queen. The latter often occurs in early chronicles. 

Ta-la-que'-ga, small bushes, is a name applied to Little Falls by 

Te-car'-hu-har-lo'-da, visible over the creek, is his name for East 
Canada creek, being a variant of the next. 

Te-ga'-hi-ha-rough'-we is the name for this stream on George 
Klock's patent of J 754, and the names of the two creeks are often 
much alike, as in the next. 

Te-ga'-hu-ha-rough-wa'-e is almost the same as the last, but 
was applied to West Canada creek in 1786. 

Te-ugh'-ta-ra'-row suggests a variant of the last for the same 
stream but has been differently defined as meaning its waters are 
discolored; in this case from flowing through forests. Hence it 
has been termed Amber creek. 

Ti-o'-ga creek was another name for this in 1768, and was much 
used for several years before that date, with the usual meaning at 
the forks. Te-a-ho'-ge and Te-uge'-ga are other forms. The Mo- 
ravian missionaries sometimes wrote it Diaoga. Morgan applied the 
name to the Mohawk river below Herkimer, as well as to the creek, 
which the Senecas considered the main branch. It properly be- 
longed to Herkimer, and there early usage placed it. 

Te-non-an-at'-che, river flowing through a mountain, is School- 
craft's name for the Mohawk. He derived this from David Cusick's 
history, who said the Iroquois came to a river " named Yenona- 
natche, i. e. going round a mountain (now Mohawk)." School- 
craft's spelling may be preferred, but he changed the sense as well. 
Of some of Cusick's names he said : " I abbreviate these words 


from the originals, for the sole purpose of making them readable 
to the ordinary reader." 

Wa-co-ni-na was interpreted for me as there used to be a bridge. 
It is the name of the Little lakes on the map of the New Hamp- 
shire grants. 

Wa-i-ont-ha lakes on Santhier's map are now Little lakes in the 
town of Warren. This seems the original form of the name. 

Witchopple is a name now given to a small lake. 

Yon-dut-de-nogh-scha-re creek, in 1714, suggests Cusick's name 
of Yenonanatche for the Mohawk river. 

Many Indian names have been recently applied to camps and 
summer houses in the wilderness, as Cohasset, Manhasset, Mohawk 
and Onondaga camps, and Iroquois and Hiawatha lodges. 


Indian names in this county are mostly of Iroquois origin, but 
are few in number. When its bays, rivers and fort sites were well 
peopled it must have had many, but this was in prehistoric days. 
For more than three centuries at least it has not been inhabited by 
its former owners, yet some names still refer to early times. It is 
every way probable that this was long the home of the Onondagas, 
but most of the territory at last fell to the Oneidas. 

At-en-ha-ra-kweh-ta-re, where the wall fell down, has been given 
as a name for French creek at Clayton. Hough said that on Penet's 
patent French creek is called Weteringhare Guentere, meaning a 
fallen fort and referring to an Oneida tradition of a fort they 
captured there. Fort sites are frequent in the county but none have 
been reported at Clayton. 

Hough said a French map, in Yale College library, called Carle- 
ton island Cahihououage, but this is probably an error of place, as 
the word means large creek or river, and belongs to Salmon river, 
once known as La Famine. 

Cat-ar-ga-ren-re, Catagaren and Cadranghie are variants of the 
name of Sandy creek recorded in 1687. It was written Et-cat-ar- 
a-gar-en-re in 1755, and is Catagaren on Sauthier's map. A. Cusick 
defined this as mud raised like a chimney/ but slanting to one side. 
This might refer to the many prehistoric earthworks along its 
course. Te-ka'-da-o-ga'-he is another name, meaning sloping banks 
and perhaps but a variant of those above. 


De-a-wone'-da-ga-han'-da is Morgan's name for Wolfe island. 

Ga-hu'-a-go-je-twa-da-a'-lote, fort at the mouth of the great river, 
is his name for Sacketts Harbor, referring to the military post there. 
The first four syllables refer to the river, which is not expressly 
called great. 

Ga-na-wa'-ga, the rapid river, is applied to the St Lawrence by 
Morgan. David Cusick called it Kanawage, and it has other slightly 
differing forms, the name being used in many places. 

Ga-nen-tou'-ta, or Assumption river of the French, is on Sauthier's 
map and seems to be Stony creek, south of Traverse bay. Genen- 
tota varies but slightly from this. A. Cusick defines this as pine 
trees standing up, a name closely resembling that of Canastota. 

Ka-hen-gouet-ta, mentioned on Gallinee's map of 1669, is now 
Chaumont bay. It is sometimes written Kohenguetta. A. Cusick 
translated this where they smoked tobacco, fishing and hunting 
parties often meeting there. 

Ka-hu-ah'-go, great or wide river, is Morgan's name for Black 
river and Watertown. In this simple form it is the river, great by 
implication rather than expression. The Onondagas add the 
adjective and make it Ka-hu-wa-go'-na, great river. The Tusca- 
roras call it Ka-sha-ka'-ka. It is probable that Kaghiohage, an 
Oneida fishing place in 1700, which was 12 miles from Lake Oniculc 
and one and one-half days' journey from Oneida, may have been 
the same. The name is often used for a large river, as the Cuya- 
hoga in Ohio. Through a misprint in Squier's account of local 
antiquities, it was given as Ka-me-har-go, afterward condensed by 
others into kamargo, thus changing an Iroquois into an Algonquin 
word and utterly destroying the sense. 

Ka-wen-i-oun-i-oun is on Gallinee's map, south of and near the 
Thousand islands. 

Mus-ca-longe lake and bay are called from that fish, and both an 
Indian and French origin have been claimed for the name. 

Ni-a-ou-re bay was so called in 1756, but this appears in several 
forms. It is now called Chaumont after Le Ray de Chaumont, who 
was a French gentleman owning large tracts of land. On the 
map of the New Hampshire grants it is Niawerne, while Sauthier 
makes it Niaouenre or Nivernois bay. The last name is supposed 


to refer to the Due de Nivernois, but the earlier French usage 
makes it an Iroquois name. 

Ni-ka-hi-on-ha-ko-wa has been translated big river, and applied to 
Black river. If so it is a very corrupt form of the word. It is more 
likely to have been corrupted from the name of the sturgeon, 
nikeanjiakowa, big fish, which abounded there. 

On-on-to-hen, hill unth the same river on each side. Oxbow bend 
on the Oswegatchie river. This is the very sharp bend just within 
the county- 
Hough said that on the Yale College map mentioned was a town 
at the mouth of Black river called Otihanague. He seems to have 
mistaken the location, for this name belongs to the mouth of Salmon 
river in Oswego county, and is often mentioned in the Jesuit 

Out-en-nes-son-e-ta was interpreted by A. Cusick as where the 
Iroquois league began to form. On Pouchot's map this is a stream 
north of Sandy creek and in the town of Henderson. This would 
make the first thought of union one among the Onondagas, as in the 
Hiawatha tradition, and before the removal of all to their later 
homes. Some certainly lingered awhile. The name harmonizes 
with an old tradition of a neighboring stream. If Hiawatha first 
lived here this would account for his white canoe. 

Pee-tee-wee-mow-que-se-po, wide river, is given as an Algonquin 
name of Black river. This is certainly not a good definition. The 
prefix to sepo, here used for river, suggests Trumbull's pehteau- 
wuttoon, he foams at the mouth, and Zeisberger's pitey for foam. 
The meaning would then be river which foams, perhaps near the 
mouth, and becomes strikingly descriptive. 

Te-ca-nan-ouar-on-e-si, a long time ago this swamp zvas divided, 
according to A. Cusick, was a name for the south branch of Sandy 
creek in 1755. Pouchot said traditionally the Iroquois came out of 
the ground there. This is an expression used for a first settlement 
and there were early towns along the stream. 

Te-ka'-da-o-ga'-he, sloping banks, is Morgan's name for Sandy 
creek. It might refer to the sides of the creek, or to the unequal 
slope of an earthwork, bounded outside by a deep ditch. 

Wi-no'-na, an introduced western name, is said to mean the first- 
born, if a daughter. 



In dealing with old names and records the arrangement by 
counties is arbitrary and a mere matter of convenience. On Long 
Island nearly all published matter is on the old division of towns 
and counties, and thus it is easier to refer to local names in this way. 
Those belonging to Nassau now will be included in Kings and 
Queens. In fact, but for its great length, it would be almost as 
well to treat Long Island as one natural division as to divide it 
midway. The Indians there were in several groups, under petty 
chiefs, but they acknowledged the rule of one greater than the rest. 
All local names are Algonquin. The Iroquois had some general 
ones for the island and ocean. 

Can-ar-sie is generally supposed to be called after an Indian tribe, 
but Mr W. W. Tooker said it was not at first a tribal designation or 
a description of their place of abode, but was only applied to part of 
their possessions. Kanarsingh was one Dutch spelling of this word, 
meaning at or in the vicinity of the fence, or boundary which 
divided their lands from the colonists. In 1656 the sachem of 
Canarsie was under Dutch protection. Canarsie Indian Fields are 
on an old map, east of Flatbush and near the head of Canarsie bay. 
The present village is in Flatlands. Mr Tooker carefully dis- 
tinguished between locally descriptive and personal names, though 
the names of owners were often given to places which they 

Cas-tu-tee-uw is Kestateuw, the central one of three flats, was 
sold in 1636. It was called Cashuteyie in 1639. 

E-quen-di-to, or Barren island, was sold in 1664, and is in the 
town of Flatlands. The English called it broken lands. 

Ga'-wa-nase-geh, a long island, is Morgan's Iroquois name for 
Long Island. 

Go-wa-nus suggests how near an Algonquin name may approach 
an Iroquois word in sight and sound. Mr Tooker rejected Mr 
Jones' interpretation of the shallows, flowing down, etc., but said : 
" the land probably takes its name from an Indian who lived and 
planted there, Gau-wa-ne's plantation. His name may be trans- 
lated as ' the sleeper,' or ' he rests,' related to the Delaware gauwi- 
han, sleep, gauwin, to sleep" Mr Tooker is a critical student of 
Algonquin dialects and an excellent authority. Stiles also con- 


sidered it an Indian name. Egbert Benson said : " The bay between 
the geele, yellow, and the roode, red, Hooks, still retains its Indian 
name of Gawamus." Mrs Martha B. Flint thought the name doubt- 
ful, saying that Gouwee was a Dutch word meaning bay, and in- 
stancing its use in the Komme Gouw of eastern Long Island. 

Hoop-an-mak or Hoopaninak was an island near Equendito in 
1664. This -may be from hopuonck, a tobacco pipe, or anything 
much curved. 

Ih-pe-ton-ga is Schoolcraft's name for Brooklyn Heights, defined 
high sandy bank, and without historic foundation. Mr Tooker says 
it is found only in Schcx lcraft. who took the word bodily from the 
Ojibwa. Its parallel in the Delaware, achwowangeu, high sandy 
banks, is not applicable to that place, but is varied in the Indian 
name of Aquehonga or Staten Island. Mrs Flint accepts School- 
craft's name and locality. 

The tribe at Ke-sha-ech-pue-rem sold Governor's island in 1637. 
This was a name for Canarsie in 1636, and meant the council fire. 

Ma-cut-te-ris or Macuthris, an island near Equendito in 1664. 

Ma-ke-o-pa-ca was a tract of land at Gravesend, for which a 
confirmatory deed was given in 1684. This may be from mahche- 
poo, he has eaten, in allusion to an eating place on the shore. 

Man-a-han-ning, a place at or near the island, was a neck sold 
with Coney island. 

Me-rey-cha-wick is usually defined sandy place, and was a part 
of Brooklyn. It was written Marychkenwikingh in 1637, and Ma- 
reckkawick in 1642, being at R.ed Hook in the 12th ward. Rutten- 
ber derived it from me, definite article, reckwa, sand, and ick, place. 
This is hardly satisfactory, and Tooker thought it erroneous, sup- 
posing that Merechkawink would be more correctly defined at his 
fortified house, like Zeisberger's mechmauwikenk, a camp, or a 
similar word for a great gathering in his he use. Wallabout bay 
was known as " the boght of Mareckawick." 

Mer-i-to-wacks, variously written, was used by the Xew England 
Indians for Long Island, meaning land of the periwinkle or ear- 
shell, the principal supply coming thence for making wampum. 

Mes-pa-ech-tes was a name for Maspeth kill in 1638, being i l / 2 
leagues from Wallabout bay. The land next to Mespatchis Neck 
was patented in 1642. 


Mo-e-ung, the beach at the east end of which the Makeopaca 
tract began. It may be derived from monaonk, an abundance of 

Xar-ri-och has been defined the island by some, and was the name 
of Coney island. 

Nay-ack means a point or angle, and appeared as Najack, now 
Fort Hamilton, in 1680. The sachem of Niocko (Nayack) certified 
to the sale of Coney island made in 1649. Land was sold at 
Nayeck or Naieck in 1652. 

Ni-eu-we-sings is equivalent to Xeversink, to which some give 
the same meaning, here derived from naihaue, in the middle, and ing, 
place, alluding to its situation between Jamaica and Gravesend bays. 
The " English of Gravesend at Nieuwehings " were mentioned in 

O-jik'-ha-da-ge'-ga, salt water, is Morgan's form of one Iroquois 
name for the ocean. 

Pek-ke-meck. The Indians of this place were mentioned in 1717. 

Rin-ne-gack-onck or Rennegaconck was at Wallabout bay, and 
was sold in 1637, the patent being given in 1641. It was bought 
by Gearge Rapalje. Tooker thought the name meant on the 
pleasant land. 

Resk-ke-wack or Rechkewick was mentioned in Brooklyn in 1647 
and 1652, and is an abbreviation of a name already given. 

Sa-po-rack-am was in the south part of Brooklyn, near Gowanus, 
in 1639 Tooker said it meant a cultivated field in lowland. It 
was also called Sapokanickan. 

Sas-si-an's cornfields were called after him, his name meaning 
planter or sower- They were near Gowanus. Personal names were 
sometimes given to places. 

Se-wan-hac-ky was a name for Long Island in 1636, more prop- 
erly belonging to the eastern half. It does not mean land of shells, 
but land of loose or scattered shell beads, properly the black variety. 

Shans-co-ma-cocke was an island near Equendito. 

Wer-pos is rendered Warpoes, place of rabbits, but this is an 
uncertain definition. It was in the 10th ward of Brooklyn. 

Wey-witt-spritt-ner was in the south port of Brooklyn, near 
Coney Island. 



Da-ween'-net, an otter, is Morgan's name for Otter creek. The 
Oneida word for otter is towene. 

Ga-ne'-ga-to'-do, com pounder, is his name for Deer river. In 
the Onondaga dialect the wooden pestle is ote-ha-tok'-wah. 

Ka-hu-ah'-go, great river, is Morgan's name for Black river, and 
has been mentioned. Strictly it is the river, as surpassing others. 

Mohawk Hill has an introduced name, elsewhere defined. 

Moose river has the Indian name of that animal. It is derived 
from moosu, he trims or cuts smooth, from its habit of stripping the 
lower branches and bark from trees while feeding. 

Ne-ha-se / -ne, crossing on a stick of timber, is Morgan's name for 
Beaver river. 

Oi-e-ka-ront-ne, trout river, has been given as another Indian 
name for Deer river. The Oneidas call the trout dodiahto, and 
the Onondaga name is nah-wan-hon-tah. A St Regis name seems 

O-je' -quack, nut river, is Margan's name for Indian river. The 
Onondaga word for nut is oo-sook'-wah. 

Os-ce-o'-la is the name of a town and village called after a 
noted Seminole chief. It has been translated black drink. 

O-swe-gatch'-ie is rendered O'-swa-gatch by Morgan, who says 
the meaning is lost. It has been defined black river- 

Te-ka'-hun-di-an'-do, clearing an opening, is Morgan's name for 
Moose river. 


When first known the Senecas lived mostly in Ontario county, 
but after the overthrow of the Hurons and Eries some returned to 
former homes in the Genesee valley, and gradually occupied all the 
western part of New York. Though their villages were often 
removed to new sites their names sometimes went with them. Many 
of these will be found in the various journals of Sullivan's campaign, 
but some of these were copied by soldiers from those kept by others. 

Ad-jus-te, Ad-jut-so, Ad-yut-ro are given in these journals as 
forms of one name of Conesus in 1779, applied to both the town 
and lake. Other forms are Ajulsa, Agusta, Adjutoa and Adjuton. 
Big Tree, a noted Seneca chief, lived at this place and favored the 


Adjutsa lake is on Lodge's map, made at this time, and the name 
is defined : " English the lake between the hills." His definitions 
seem quite correct. Ajudishta is spear in the Onondaga dialect. 

Ca-i-a-di-on, a Seneca village of 1767, may be Caneadea, which 
would be south of this county. 

Ca-na-se-ra'-ga, is rendered Ga-nus'-ga-go or Ga-nos'-ga-go, 
among the milkweeds, by Morgan. He applied this to the creek 
and also to Dansville, where there was a Seneca village called 
Kanuskago, in colonial days. It will be observed that Morgan gave 
the word and meaning quite differently in Madison county, nor are 
the words primarily the same. ]n the life of Mary Jemison, the 
editor has notes on Caniskrauga creek, near Mount Morris, inter- 
preting it slippery elms, and saying there was a village of this name 
at Dansville. French followed this definition. Judging from the 
( hiondaga dialect this seems the more correct. 

Ca-na-wau'-gus, fetid waters, a name for Avon Springs, was 
written Ga-no-wau'-ges by Morgan, and was applied to the sur- 
rounding country. Canawagoris and Canawagoras were other 
forms in 1779. The name is retained in the town of Caledonia. 

Ca-sa-wa-val-at-e-tah or Gagh-cheg-wa-la-hale was on the east 
side of the Canaseraga creek, near its mouth, and the name has 
many forms in the journals of Sullivan's campaign. Fogg and 
Lodge are perhaps as reliable as any, but they had most names in 
the dialect of the Oneida guides. Major Fogg spoke of this as 
"Gohseolahulee (which signifies spear laid up)." On Lodge's map 
it is "Cossawauloughley, English, the Spear lay'd up." Among the 
forms in these journals are Gaghaheywarahera, Gaghehewarahare 
2 miles from Genesee river, Gathtsegwarohare, Gessauraloughin, 
Gaghsuquilahery, Costeroholly and Kasawassahya. So differently 
do men hear and write. 

Doty gives the name as Gaw-she-gweh-oh, at the confluence of 
the Genesee river and Canaseraga creek. Gaw-she-gweh is a spear, 
and ( )-she-gweh-ont is a rattlesnake. There were many of these 
reptiles there, but the allusion may be to the point between the 
streams. This was the site of the earlier Geneseo. 

Che-nus-sio was a frequent form of Geneseo in colonial days, and 
it thus appeared in 1759. In 1757 it was Cenosio, but the Moravians 
wrote it Zonesschio in 1750, saying: "The river Zonesschio, from 


which the town derives its name, flows through it." There is the 
usual variety in the journals of Sullivan's campaign, but no one 
changes the meaning of beautiful valley. 

Che-non-da-nah of 1754 was written Che-nan-doa-nes in 1774. 
At that date and later it was called Little Beard's town quite often. 
after its chief. On Pownall's map it is on the west side of Genesee 
river, about 15 miles from Lake Ontario, which is too far north. 
At first it was east of the river. The name comes from the national 
title of the Senecas. 

Co-ne-sus is now the name of a creek, lake and town. Morgan 
gave Ga-ne-a'-sos for the lake and outlet, place of nannyberries. 
A. Cusick defined it long stri)igs of berries. Doty gives it as 
Gah 'nyuh-sas, but places the name l /> mile south of the head of the 
lake, where sheepberries (V i b u rn u m n u d u m ) are abundant. 
The name is also said to have come from the old mode of scooping 
np fish at the outlet, but this lacks support. The variants of the 
alternate name of Adjuste have been given. In the journals of 1779 
the name of the town also appears as Canexa. Canesaah, Canneh- 
sawes, Canough, Canaghsoos, Keneghses, Kanaghsas. Kagnegasas, 
Kanaghsaws, Kanieghsas, Kanegsas or Quicksea, Kaneysas or 
Yucksea, Yoxsaw and Yorkjough. Some are alternate names. 

Sullivan's army encamped at Kanaghsaws, September 16, 1779. 
"This place, it is said, was commanded by a negro, who was titled 
Capt. Sunfish, a very bold, enterprising fellow." It was also the 
home of Big Tree, who favored the Americans and tried to keep the 
Senecas neutral. The story goes that he saw the destruction of 
the place, and some of his companions told him that was how the 
Americans treated their friends. He replied that it was the common 
fortune of war. and that they could not distinguish between the 
property of friends and foes. There is no question as to his 
friendship, but he is commonly supposed to have taken part with 
his nation. While here one of Sullivan's officers wrote : "At this 
town liv'd a very noted warrior called the Great Tree, who has made 
great pretensions of friendship to us & has been to Phyladelphia & 
to Genl Washingtons head Quarters since the war commenced & 
has received a number of Presents from Genl "Washington & from 
Congress yet we suppose he is with Butler against us." 


Con-hoc-ton river has its head in Stillwater. Morgan gives 
Ga-nak'-to as the Tuscarora form, meaning log in the water. 

Con-nect-xio, a village on Pouchot's map east of the river, seems 
the earlier Geneseo, but the name also stfongly suggests Conesus, 
some forms of which it resembles. 

Da-non-ca-ri-ta-oui on Kitchin's map, on the west side of Genesee 
river, and as this was after Lahontan's date of the same name men- 
tioned by him, it may have been another place. In 1672, however, 
Father Gamier spoke of a Seneca chief who was called On-non-ken- 
ri-ta-oui, saying: " he is the most distinguished chief of the Senecas." 
He afterward called him Sho-non-ke-ri-ta-oui, and the town may 
have been named from him or his successor, as was often done. 

De-o'-na-ga-no, cold water, is Morgan's name for Caledonia. 
Doty has it Dyu'-ne-ga-nooh, clear cold water, placing it on the 
northwest margin of the great spring at Caledonia. These springs 
were well known to the Iroquois and near them the abundant cal- 
careous tufa is much employed. The Rev. Samuel Kirkland men- 
tioned them in 1788, speaking of " the magic spring as denominated 
by the Indians because its water was said to petrify almost every- 
thing that obstructed its current. A pagan tradition prevailed, of 
an evil spirit having resided here in former times, bellowing with 
a horrid noise, and ejecting balls of liquid fire. The spring emptied 
into the Genesee, and its fountain was about 3 miles north of 
Kanawageas." As in other similar cases no name indicating evil 
influences has come down to us, though such names doubtless ex- 

De-o-nun'-da-ga-a, where the hill is near, was the name of Little 
Beard's town according to Morgan. Doty has it Dyu-non-dah- 
ga'-eeh, steep hill creek, in the east part of Cuylerville. 

De-o-wes'-ta is now Portageville or a neck of land below it. 

De-yu'-it-ga'-oh, where the valley begins to widen, according to 
Doty, is a name for Squakie Hill, opposite Mount Morris. He had 
his name and meaning from Marshall. Morgan has Da-yo'-it-ga-o, 
where the river comes out of the hills. Both definitions express the 
same general idea without being literal, and this is often the case. 

Dyu-do'-o-sot', at the spring, is on the Douglass farm in Avon. 
2 miles north of Livonia station and a few rods from the town line. 
It is at the source of Little Conesus or Gore brook, and the name is 


pronounced De-o-dou-sote. Morgan gave it simply as De- 
o'-de-sote, the spring, Indian pronunciation not being exact. 
This place is identified by Doty as the Gan-nou-na-ta of De 
Nonville, styled Gannondata in the act of possession. Belmont 
called it Ounenaba, which would be an Algonquin word if correctly 
given, but he probably intended the Iroquois name. Doty thought 
it the Keinthe of Greenhalgh. Viele termed it Kaunonada, and 
Lahontan Danoncaritarui, which is west of the Genesee on Kitchin's 
map. Marshall placed it 2 miles southeast of East Avon and 
thought it might be Gannounata. Its identification will not now be 
discussed. [See Ontario county]. 

Dyu-hah-gaih, the current bites the bank, or eats it atvay, is Doty's 
name for a former Oneida village on the Genesee. Some Oneidas 
and Tuscaroras espoused the royal cause. 

Ga-hah-dae-ont-hwah, the hemlock was poured out; i. e. the fine 
leaves of the tree or a drink made from them. Doty gave this as 
one name of Squakie Hill. Morgan wrote it Ga-neh'-da-on-tweh, 
where hemlock was spilled, applying it to Moscow or an Indian 
village there. 

Gah-ni'-gah'-dot, the pestle stands there, was a recent village near 
East Avon. 

Ga-ne-o-de'-ya, clear small lake, is Doty's name for the great 
spring at Caledonia. This name is usually translated handsome lake. 
though it has also a reference to greatness. 

Gan-nou-na-ta, an early Seneca town already mentioned and 
usually identified with Keinthe. It has been placed in the town of 
Avon and also at the village of Lima. 

Ga-non'-da-seeh, new town, near Moscow, was a resort for pigeon 
shooting but was not occupied in the winter. 

Ga-nus'-ga-go, among the milkweeds, has already been mentioned 
as Morgan's name for a Seneca village at Dansville. He makes it 
equivalent to the Seneca Canaseraga. 

Ga-on-do-wa-nuh, big tree, was a Seneca village in Leicester, 2 
miles west of the river. Morgan made it Ga-un-do'-wa-neh, or big 
tree, on a hill a mile north of Cuylerville. French has the meaning 
from an immense oak on the river bank near Geneseo. It was a 
favorite personal name. 


Gar-dow or Gardeau should be Ga-da'-o, bank in front, according 
to Morgan. Marshall and Doty wrote it Ga-dah'-oh, meaning a 
bhtff. The tract was in Livingston and Wyoming counties, and was 
reserved for Alary Jemison, the White Woman. In the account 
of her life it is said that her Indian husband did not like his nick- 
name of Gardeau, and that the land was not called from him but 
from containing a hill known as Kautam. This is misspelled, like 
many other names in the book, and should be Kautaw. This ex- 
planation was given: " Kutam . . . signifies up and down, or 
dozen and up, and is applied to a hill that you ascend and descend 
in passing ; or to a valley." This is not satisfactory. 

Gaw-she-gweh-oh. spear laid ap, has already been noticed under 
Casawavalatetah. Another imperfect form is_ Gagh-a-hey-wa-ra- 

Gen-e-see or Gen-e-se-o, beautiful valley, is a popular Indian 
name, at first written in many ways and now applied to many places. 
Most New York cities and villages, west of Albany, have a Genesee 
street, so great became its fame through Sullivan's campaign, and 
so rapid was its settlement soon after. All roads led there for a 
long time. Spafford said : "Genesee, in the language of the In- 
digenes of this region is formed from their name for Pleasant 
Valley, brt I know not what was the aboriginal name." It was 
probably the same, but it attracted no attention till their later villages 
were built. 

Morgan said: "It is worthy of remark that the root of the word 
Genesee was the name of the valley and not of the river, the latter 
deriving its name from the former. Gcn-nis -hc-yo. signifies 'the 
beautiful valley,' a name most fitly bestowed." Mr George H. 
Harris said: "Genesee is the modern form of Gen-nus-hee-o. beau- 
tiful valley. The term originally referred to the neighborhood of 
the Seneca towns near Fall brook, but was recognized as applicable 
to all the ' pleasant open valley,' between Mount Morris and the 
rapids of South Rochester." Doty made it Jo-nis-hi-yuh or Geneseo, 
the full name being De-gah-chi-nos-hi-yooh, beautiful valley, but 
he did not say that Degah, at the, is but a locative prefix. Pouchot 
called it Sonrechio, and the Moravians Zonesshio. David Cusick 
placed the Kahkwah battle there. In the journals of Sullivan's 
campaign it is called Jenessee, Canisee, Chenisee, Chenussio or 


Beautiful Valley, and other slightly varying names. In early days 
the stream was often termed the Little Seneca river. 

Ho-ne-oye creek, finger lying, is on the east line of the county, 
having its name from the lake and town. 

"Kanuskago, the Door of the Five Nations," was at Dansville 
and first mentioned in 1756. The Mohawks kept the eastern and 
the Senecas the western door of the Long House. The name often 
appears in colonial history and has been already noticed. Kenon- 
skegon is Pouchot's form of this name about the same time, but this 
would mean an empty house, and this would not be appropriate for 
an important town. 

Kan-va-gen, a Seneca village on Pouchot's map, seems Cana- 

Ka-yen-ge-de-ragh-te was mentioned in the Revolutionary Wai 
as a village about 10 miles from an unnamed Seneca town. Its 
location is uncertain and it may have been Karathyadirha. 

Ke-int-he was first mentioned by Greenhalgh in 1677, and was 
near the line of Livingston and Ontario counties, having been as- 
signed to both. It had other names, but its own survives in the Bay 
of Quinte. in Canada. 

Ke-sha-qua or Coshaqua creek has its name from gah-she-gweh, 
a spear. Ka-sa-wa-sa-hy-a, the first of tie Genesee towns, was near 
this in 1779. 

Ko-ho-se-ra-ghe, a Seneca village of 1687, may be Canaseraga, 
but it appears elsewhere, as might be expected. As here written the 
word would mean winter in Mohawk, but no1 in Seneca. 

Little Seneke river was a name often given to the Genesee to 
distinguish it from the Seneca river farther east. 

Lima is said to be a corruption, by the Indians or Spaniards, of 
the aboriginal South American word Rimac. 

Xa-ga-noose. clear running water, the outlet of the great Cale- 
donia spring, is derived from ogh-ne-ka-nos, water. 

No-ehn-ta was a name used by the Moravians in 1750 for Hem- 
lock lake and outlet. In their hurried journey they may have mis- 
taken this for the true name of O-neh-da, hemlock spruce, from the 
abundance of this tree there. Marshall approaches the Moravian 
form, calling it Nah'-daeh, hemlock, from o-nah-dah, hemlock, and 
ga-ah', it is upon. 


Nun-da is Xun-da'-o, hilly, according to Morgan. Doty gives 
it as O'-non-da'-oh, where many hills come together, which is much 
the same. The village was 2 miles nearer the river than the present 
village of Nunda. Earlier it was called Nundow and Nundey 
Though this definition seems sound Spafford questioned it for some 
good reasons. A Seneca hunter told him in 1817 : "That this Nunda 
was an attempt of the Yankees to preserve the Indian sound of the 
name they had given to the rich alluvial mold of this country, sig- 
nifying potato ground, a name they applied to lands of this descrip- 
tion above the falls." There is much plausibility in this, as School- 
craft gives ononnuhda as the Seneca word for potato, while Gal- 
latin's is ononenundaw. This seems the place mentioned by Proctor 
as Xondas in 1791, and which he thought 8 miles from Squakie Hill. 

O-ha'-di is a name given by Morgan to Geneseo or a village near 
there, meaning trees burned. Doty wrote it ( )h-ha-daih, burnt trees; 
i. e., those which had been girdled. 

O-ha'-gi, crowding the bank, was a Tuscarora village on the 
Genesee, mentioned by Morgan. It suggests the Oneida village re- 
corded by Doty and the name seems the same. 

O-he-gech-rage was the name by which the Moravians called 
Conesus lake in 1750. 

O-neh'-da, the hemlock, is Morgan's name for Hemlock lake and 
outlet. In Cayuga it is De-o-neh'-dah, with the same meaning. 
Marshall called is Nah'-daeh. 

O-ne-o'-ta-de appears on Pouchot's map for the same lake. 

Ou-nen-a-ba is said by Doty to have been Belmont's name for 
Gannounata in 1687. It is probably the latter name misspelled. 
As given it suggests an Algonquin word, having one labial sound. 

Quicksea, a name for Conesus in 1779, seems the same as Yucksea. 

Sho-no'-jo-waah-geh, big kettle, is Doty's name for Mount Morris. 
He said it was so called by the Indians from a copper still, or large 
kettle, used there by the whites in making whisky. Marshall's note 
is: "Sho-noh'-jo-waah-geh 'At General Morris's.' The General was 
called by this name, without the suffix geh, which denotes locality." 
Morgan said that So-no'-jo-wau-ga was the name of Big Kettle, a 
Seneca chief who lived there. There were several chiefs who had 
this favorite name. 

Sin-non-do- wae-ne was a Seneca castle in 1720, and had its name 


from the people of the great or many hills. This is not the usual 

Sja-unt was the farthest Seneca castle in 1700, and may be a 
contraction of a common name. 

Ska-hase'-ga-o, once a long creek, is Morgan's name 'for the 
village of Lima, where a Seneca town once stood. Marshall and 
Doty differ but slightly, making it Sga'-his-ga-aah, it was a long 
creek. From Hemlock lake to the Genesee river, the stream on 
which Lima is midway, is yet a long creek. 

Son-nont-ou-an is the usual French form of the name of a castle 
and of the Seneca nation. It has many variants, and means the 
people of the great hills. 

Son 7 -yea is 4 miles southeast of Mont Morris, and the name has 
been defined burning sun and hot valley, both apparently without 
foundation. It is quite likely to have come from the name of 
Soneage or Captain Snow, otherwise Soyeawa ; or it may be from 
son-he, thou arc living there, as a favorite dwelling place. 

Squa'-kie Hill is in Leicester, near the village of Mount Morris, 
and is said to have had this name from the Squatehegas, who lived 
there and who may have been a remnant of the Kahkwahs, adopted 
by the Senecas. David Cusick said they were " a powerful tribe past 
the banks of the Genesee river." After they were subdued " a 
remnant of the Squawkeihows were allowed to remain in the country 
and became vassals to the Five Nations after the conquest. The 
government ordered the Senecas to settle the country and to build 
forts on the Genesee river, so as to keep the Squawkhaws in subjec- 
tion." The place has other names already given, relating to local 

Te-ga-ron-hi-es appears on Kitchin's map of 1756 as a village on 
the west side of Genesee river. Lahontan and Hennepin mentioned 
a Seneca chief of that name, after whom the town may have been 
called, but when they wrote all the Seneca towns were east of 
the river. 

Tus-ca-ro'-ra, shirt wearers, is the name of a village now in Mount 

U-ta-hu'-tan was one of the names of Gawshegwehoh. 

Yox-saw, Yuck-sea, and York-jough were among the names 
given to Conesus in 1779. 


Young-haugh was described as being in the open woods of 
which it was the name in J 779. and 11 miles west of the Indian 
village just named, but it seems the same word, perhaps given to a 
large tract of land. 


Nearly all this county was in the original Oneida territory, but 
for a long time they occupied only the southern part, leaving a 
broad space between them and the Mohawks, which it required 
several days to pass. When the Tuscaroras came north they were 
assigned all the territory between the higher hills and Oneida lake in 
one direction, and reaching from Oneida to Chittenango creek in 
the other. Near each of these streams the Tuscaroras had a large 
town, with smaller ones intervening. The names preserved are 
mostly in the Oneida and Onondaga dialects. Some Algonquin 
tribes also found a refuge here, but they have left no names of their 


Ah-gote'-sa-ga-nage, where the Stockbridges live, refers to a 
people adopted by the Oneidas and given a home. The name given 
refers merely to a fact, its meaning being lost. 

Ah-wa'-gee, perch lake, is Morgan's name for Cazenovia lake and 
village. Variants of this will be given. 

Ca-na-das-se-o-a is on a creek flowing into Oneida lake about 
midway, and not far east of Canassaraga Castle, on Sauthier's map. 
Accounts of travelers would place it but little west of Oneida creek 
in 1752. It may have been removed. A. Cusick defined this as a 
village spread out, somewhat as butter is spread on bread. It was 
a Tuscarora town, and these had wide streets and ample room. I 
am inclined to think this a corruption of Ganatisgoa, the name by 
which the Moravians called the most easterly Tuscarora town. 

Ca-na-se-ra'-ga was a name for Cazenovia lake for quite a time, 
and it thus appears in the act incorporating the village. 

Ca-na-se-ra'-ga creek and village are Ka-na'-so-wa'-ga, several 
strings of beads with a string lying across, according to Morgan and 
Seaver. The Onondagas give the same meaning, and the word may 
allude to some special ceremonial use of wampum. Kanaghseragy 
was the Tuscarora castle in 1756. The Moravians wrote it Ganoch- 
sorage a little before that time, but the sound has been quite uni- 


formly retained, and the present form is much nearer the original 
than the one used in Livingston county. The hills as well as the 
waters were once known by this name. On some early treaties and 
maps it appears as Canassaderaga creek, but the usage of the word 
has been remarkably uniform. ( )ne erroneous definition has been 
big elk horn. Gansevoort's men came there from Sullivan's army, 
September 23, 1779: "Arrived at Canasaraga, a handsome village 
& capital of the Tuscarora tribe." 

Ca-na-sto'-ta is given by Morgan as Ka-ne-to'-ta, pine tree stand- 
ing alone, while another derivation has been made from kniste, a 
group of pines, and stota, standing still. The following statement is 
from Mrs Hammond's history of Madison county : " Captain Per- 
kins repaired one of the blockhouses, which stood on an eminence 
near where Dr Jarvis now lives built on an addition, and moved in 
. . . Not far from Capt. Perkins' house stood the cluster of pines, 
from which it is said, Canastota derived its name." In the same his- 
tory " It is said that the name ' Canastota,' is derived from the Indian 
word ' Kniste,' signifying ' cluster of pines,' and ' stota,' meaning 
' still, silent, motionless,' which has yet greater significance. The 
lands were low, the stream sluggish. To the swamp north of the 
village the Indians gave the name of 'Still Waters.' Col. Caldwell 
remarked (as given in Judge Barlow's sketch) T have many times 
heard the Indians bid their dogs be still by saying, 'stota! stota!' or 
'be still ! be still !' Undoubtedly, both ideas, that of the 'cluster of 
pines' and the 'still waters,' are intended to be conveyed in the word 
' Canastota.' " Undoubtedly is a strong word to use. 

Barber and Howe mentioned part of this interpretation : "The 
village takes its name from a cluster of pine trees that united their 
branches over the creek which passes through the center of the 
village and bears its name, called in the native dialect of the 
Oneidas, Knistee." David Cusick also defined Kaw-na-taw-te-ruh 
as pineries, or pine woods, in another place, and the reference to 
pines seems clear. The Onondagas, however, knew Canastota as 
Kanosta, frame of a house, from their admiration of the first one 
built there. The resemblance of this word to Knistee is also plain, 
and the frame of a house is but a cluster of timbers. Zeisberger 
has Zanaejatote as the Onondaga word for frame, which is more 


like Canastota than the word Knistee. Bruyas defined Gannastont, 
to set the poles of a cabin. 

Ca-nagh-ta-ragh-ta-ragh was given by Mrs Hammond as a name 
for the vicinity of the Oneida Stone in Stockbridge, which she was 
inclined to identify with Cusick's Kaw-na-taw-te-ruh. or pineries. 
That place was too far south, though the resemblance is naturally 
suggestive. The name is almost identical with that of Dean's creek 
in Oneida county. The stone mentioned is now in a cemetery in 

Che-nan-go river. The head waters of this are in this county. 

Chit-te-nan-go creek is rendered Chu-de-naang' by Morgan, 
■where the sun shines out. Sylvester defines it river flowing north, 
as all the neighboring streams do. There is no good derivation for 
this. Another derivation is still weaker, where the waters divide 
and run north. They unite and flow in that direction. A. Cusick 
thought the meaning of one form might be marshy place, the stream 
passing many miles through lowlands before reaching Oneida lake. 
On a map of 1825 it is called Chitening, much like Morgan's form. 
Spafford gave it Chitteningo, and in land treaties it is Chittilingo. 
In early days it was called both Tuscarora and Canaseraga creek. 
Major John Ross thus mentioned it in his expedition in October, 
1781 : "On the nth I left Oswego and proceeded to Oneida lake as 
far as Canasarago creek, where I left some provisions and a guard." 
The Indians now know it as O-wah-ge-nah. or perch creek. 

Da-ude'-no-sa-gwa-nose, roundhouse, is Morgan's name for 

De-ose-la-ta'-gaat, where the cars go fast, is his name for Oneida. 
The word has a fresh significance since a Pullman porter said his 
train did not even hesitate there. 

En-ne-yut'-te-ha'-ge was Van Curler's name for Oneida Castle in 
1634. when it was east of Mannsville, the first three syllables stand- 
ing for Oneida. Other names were included in a song which he 
then heard. 

Ga-na-tis-go-a, big village, a Tuscarora town first mentioned by 
the Moravians in 1752. It was the most easterly of their towns, 
and the name was afterward contracted to Sganatees. In this form 
it is strongly suggestive of a long lake, but the identity of the names 
is certain in spite of the changed form, the adjective being dropped 


from the end. The Moravians give the only account of this town, 
which was two hours west of Old Oneida. 

Ga-no'-a-lo'-hale, head on a pole, the name of the latest Oneida 
Castle, has been applied to Oneida lake from its proximity. This 
favorite name was very variable in recorded forms. It is Ga-no'- 
wi-ha in Onondaga, and Ga-no'-a-o-ha in Mohawk. 

Ga-noch-so-ra-ge, now Canaseraga, was often mentioned by the 
Moravians as the western Tuscarora town. 

Goi-en'-ho was a name for Oneida lake in 1655, Oneida river ap- 
pearing as a stream issuing from it. The word means a crossing 
place, possibly alluding to the passage of the lake in canoes or on 
the ice. In that case necessity might appear: the lake where they 
must cross. It is quite probable, however, that the allusion is to 
the ford or ferry at Brewerton, when, according to Iroquois custom, 
it would be the lake at the crossing place. 

"Hoh-wah-ge-neh (Onondaga) O-wah-ge-ha-gah (Oneida). 
Literally, the lake where the yellow perch swim, or yellow perch 
lake," is J. V. H. Clark's account of the name of Cazenovia lake. 
Both Oneidas and Onondagas have assured me of its essential cor- 
rectness. Of course the word yellow does not enter into the com- 
bination, the word used specifying a well known fish, thus dis- 
tinguished by Clark from the gray perch or pike. In his Gazetteer 
for 1813 Spafford speaks of Cazenovia lake "called by the Indians 
Hawhaghinah, and sometimes by the English Canaseraga." 

Kaw-na-taw-te-ruh. In his account of the Six Nations David 
Cusick said they traveled westward from the Mohawk river and 
came "to a creek which was named Kaw-na-taw-te-ruh, i. e. pineries. 
The second family was directed to make their residence near the 
creek, and the family was named Ne-haw-re-tah-go, i. e. big tree, 
now Oneidas, and likewise their language was altered." Big Tree 
is the council name of the Oneidas. He added a note : "The creek 
now branches off the Susquehanna river at the head generally called 
Col. Allen's lake. 10 miles south of the Oneida Castle." The 
Pineries are now the Pine Woods in Eaton, but he should have said 
Colonel Leland's lake instead of Allen's. 

Ne-wa-gegh-koo, an old name of the bay at the southeast angle 
of Oneida lake, mentioned in a treaty of 1798. A. Cusick inter- 
preted this where I ate heartily. There was a recent Oneida village 


there for a time, and the lake abounded with fish and the shores 
with game. 

O-na-wy-ta, spring of water, is a name I furnished for Hatch's 
lake near West Eaton. 

"The village of Ohiokea, situated west of Oneida creek," was 
mentioned by David Cusick. This would be place of fruit. 

On-ei-da lake, valley and creek. This county was the early home 
of the Oneidas, or people of the stone, as the name signifies. A few 
linger there yet. The name was written Ononjote in 1645, and has 
many and great variations. It will be more fully considered under 
Oneida county, though most of the famous Oneida stones were 

O-ris'-ka-ny is often Orisca in treaties and will appear more at 
length in Oneida county. It means nettles. 

Ot'-se-lic river rises in this county, where French translates it 
a capful. 

O-vir-ka, in the treaty of 181 1, is evidently a mistake for Oriska. 

O-wah-ge'-n'ah is one form of the name of Cazenovia lake. 

S'ganatees, the name of a Tuscarora town in 1752, was contracted 
from Ganatisgoa. 

Sca-ni-a-do-ris, long lake, was the name of Madison lake in the 
land sale of 181 1. This line began "at the west end of the Scania- 
doris or the Long lake, which is at the head of one of the branches 
of Ovirka creek." David Cusick told a story of this spot, the name 
of which must not be confused with the same name elsewhere. A 
party from Ohiokea "encamped near the lake Skonyatales; one 
morning while they were in the camp a noise broke out in the lake ; 
a man was sent immediately to see the tumult ; he saw a great bear 
on the bank rolling down stones and logs ; the monster appeared 
to be in a great rage ; a lion came out of the lake and suddenly fell 
upon the bear, a severe contest ensued, in the meantime the bear was 
beaten and was compelled to leave the bank, the next day the men 
went in search of the bear ; they found the bear ; one of the fore legs 
was so heavy that two men could not lift but a hands high." 

Ska-wais'-la. a point made by bushes, is Morgan's name for 

Te-Miir'-o-quen, Te-chir-o-quen and Tsi-ro-qui are variants of an 


early name of Oneida lake, as used by the French. It refers to 
something white, and will be treated later. 

Ti-ach-soch-ra-to-ta, place of white cedars, was a Tuscarora town 
in 1752, east of Canaseraga. Part of the word suggests Cana- 

Ti-och-run'-gwe, a valley, was a Tuscarora village of 1752. 

Ti-ough-ni-o-ga river had a branch here. 

In 1767 Sir William Johnson wrote: "I met the Indians at Tus- 
carora creek, in Oneida lake." This was Chittenango creek. 


A-o-we-gwa, a river mentioned by Hennepin, about 80 miles east 
of Niagara, seems the Genesee, and the name is equivalent to Owego, 
with the same meaning, where the valley widens, as it does at Mount 

Chi-li, an introduced name for a town, is said to be a Peruvian 
word meaning land of snow. An English pun might be suspected, 
but it is thus given in Webster's dictionary. 

Ga'-doke-na. place of minnows, is Morgan's name for Salmon 
creek in Parma. 

Gan-da-chi-o-ra-gon is mentioned in the Relation of 1672. and 
is placed at Lima, being the same as Keinthe. Tanochioragon is La 
Salle's name for this. Gan-nou-na-ta is the same place. 

Ga-nye'-o-dat-ha, a short distance up Irondequoit creek, was 
De Xonville's landing place according to Marshall. 

Ga'-sko-sa-ga, at the falls, is Morgan's name for Rochester. Gas- 
konchiagon or Gaskonchiagou was a frequent early name for the 
lower part of the Little Seneca or Genesee river, alluding to the falls. 
It was also one frequent name of Oswego Falls and will be found 
elsewhere. From this came Tsinontchiouagon for the mouth of 
the Genesee on early maps. Charlevoix described the lower part 
of the river in 1721, regretting that he knew nothing of the falls 
till he had passed the place. He said : " This river is call Cascon- 
chiagon, and is very narrow and shallow at its discharge into the 
lake. A little higher it is 240 feet in breadth, and it is affirmed that 
there is water enough to float the largest ships. Two leagues from 
its mouth you are stopped by a fall, which seems to be about 60 feet 
high, and 240 feet broad ; a musket shot above this you find a second 


of the same breadth, but not so high by a third ; and X A league higher 
still a third, which is full ioo feet high, and 360 feet broad." 

The name was written Caskonchagon in 1755 and Kaskonchiagou 
in 1756. Morgan gave Ga-sko-sa-go-wa as the Onondaga name of 
Rochester but this means great falls. George T. Harris gave an 
interesting summary, as follows : 

The Seneca word for waterfall is Gah-sko-sa-deh. It has several 
forms of application. Collectively all the falls in Rochester would 
be termed Gah-.sko-sa-deh-ne-o, or many falls. If we wish to say 
" at the falls/' the form would be Gaht-sko-sa-go. Each distinct 
section of the river had its descriptive title. From the State dam 
in Rochester to Court street it was Gah-na-wan-deh, a rough stream 
or rapids. The upper fall, once located where the Erie canal aque- 
duct now crosses the river, was Gah-sko-so-ne-wah, or small falls. 
Tlie fall north of the N. Y. C. Railroad bridge was Gah-sko-so-wa- 
neh, or great falls. The lower fall was called Gah-sko-sah-go, under 
or below the falls. . . The primitive form was Gas-kon-cha-gon, 
another form of Gah-sko-sah-deh. 

Ge-ne-see river, beautiful valley. 

Gi-ni-sa-ga, in the valley, is Allen's creek near Irondequoit bay. 

Gweh'-ta-a-ne-te-car-nun-do'-teh, red village, is Morgan's name 
for Brockport. 

lfo-ne-o'-vc falls and creek. The name signifies finger lying, but 
properly belongs to the lake and an early town near it. The falls 
have a distinct name given below. 

I-ron'-de-quoit has many forms, applying to the bay but not to the 
creek, except in the sense of being at the hay. Morgan gave the 
name of Neo-da-on-da-quat, meaning simply a bay, which comes 
short of the full sense. In his geographical scheme of the Iroquois 
territory the word differs in spelling and accent from that in his list 
of names, but not essentially. Kaniatarontaquat, used in 1684, is 
quite literal. Charlevoix described it as a beautiful place and called 
it the bay of the Tsonnonthouans or Senecas. The ( )nondagas called 
it ( heorontok. and in a journal of [759 it appears as Xidenindequeat. 
On the Jesuit map of [665 it is Andiatarontawat, sometimes incor- 
rectly qi oted as Andiatarontagot. In his Gazetteer of 1813 Spafford 
has a brief note on the name, saying: "The Indian name of this Bay 
is Teoronto ; which signifies in the dialect of the Onondagas almost 
lake; and these people still persist in that name." This is a good 


definition of one of the above forms, and the word may be compared 
with Cheorontok. Mr Spafford, however, was not satisfied with 
this, and in a later edition he said: 

The Teoronto bay, on Lake Ontario, merits more particular 
notice, if for no other reason than to speak of Gerundegut, Irondc- 
quoit, and Irondequot, names by which it was also known. The 
Indians call it Teoronto, a sonorous and purely Indian name, too 
good to be supplanted by such vulgarisms as Gerundegut, or Iron- 
dequot. . . Teoronto, or Tche-o-ron-tok, perhaps rather nearer 
the Indian pronunciation, is the place where the waves breathe and 
die, or gasp and expire. Let a person of as much discernment as 
these " savages," watch the motion of the waters in this bay, facing 
the n., after a storm on the lake, or a vigorous gale, and he will 
admire the aptitude of the name. 

This is ingenious and delightful, but does not apply to the early 
and present name of the bay. There was a Toronto on the shore 
in Orleans county, but none here, and Harris says Spafford had his 
information from Mississaga Indians. 

Marshall said Irondequoit was a Mohawk and not a Seneca name, 
and that it meant a jam of floodwood. It is difficult to sustain this 
meaning. He added : "The Seneca name is O-'nyiu'-da-on'-da-gwat, 
and means a bay or cove ; literally a turning out or going aside of 
the lake ; composed of Ga-nyiu-daeh, lake, and O-da-gwah, it turns 
out or goes aside. The name given by De Nonville (Ganniataron- 
tagouat) is the same in the Mohawk dialect." This is a sound state- 
ment. A few early forms may be added, as Irondegatt and Teron- 
dokat in 1687, Oniadarondaquat in 1701, Jerondoquitt, Ierondoquet 
and Thereondequat in 1720, and Rundigut in 1799. 

Notice should also be taken of an exhaustive paper on the name of 
Toronto, by Gen. J. S. Clark, in the archeological report of Ontario, 
Canada, for 1899. He derives this from the name of Irondequoit 
bay, as signifying a bay, door, or entrance into a country, showing 
that the name of Toronto is contained in this as given by De Lam- 
berville in 1684. To show this more clearly he retains the spelling 
but divides the word into Kania-Taronto-Gouat. This will appear 
in other forms. He quotes with approval O'Callaghan's definition: 
"Literally an opening into or from a lake; an inlet or bay; from 
Kaniatare, a lake, and Hotontogouan, to open." The references to 


Pownall's name of Lake Champlain are good points in this paper, 
and he considers Irondequoit as thus meaning a door of the country, 
and Toronto a derivative. 

Ke-int-he, a Seneca town of 1677. This name was also given to 
a Cayuga village of the same period, on the Bay of Quinte' in 

Ne-a'-ga Wa— a-gwen-ne-yu, Niagara lake footpath is a Seneca 
name given by Morgan for the trail near Lake Ontario. 

O'-at-ka, an opening, is his name for Scottsville, and it is also 
applied to Allen's creek in Genesee county. 

O-hu-de-a-ra is a Seneca name for Lake Ontario, according to 
some, but this seems doubtful. 

O-neh'-chi-geh, long ago, is Morgan's name for Sandy creek. 

Sgo-sa-ist-hoh, where the swell dashes against the precipice, is 
applied by Harris to a rift on Irondequoit creek, above the dugway 
mills. Marshall wrote it Sgoh'-sa-is'-thah, with the same place and 
meaning. The first division is best. 

Sko'-sa-is-to, falls rebounding from an obstruction, is Morgan's 
name for Honeoye Falls. 

Ta-e-ga-ron-di-es, visited by La Mothe and Hennepin in 1678, was 
Totiakton, and was called Thegarondies by Lahontan in 1687. 

To-ti-ak'-ton, a Seneca village mentioned by Greenhalgh in 1677, 
was on an abrupt bend of Honeoye creek, and had ^ts name from its 
situation, the word meaning bend or bending. Greenhalgh called it 
Tiotohatton, and said it "is near the river Tiottehatton. which sig- 
nifies bending." Morgan gave it as Da-yo'-de-hok-to, a bended 
creek. Doty wrote it Totiakto, following Marshall. The French 
sometimes made it Totiakton, but called the last Seneca castle de- 
stroyed in 1687, Theodehacto. It had then been moved to a site 
west of Honeoye Falls. The Seneca chief Blacksmith gave it the 
name of De-yu'-di-haak'-do, the bend. This was the Mission of la 
Concepcion, often called Sonnontouan by the Jesuits. It is doubtful 
whether it was ever so called by the Senecas, as this meant the 
great hill, being their national name and not suited to either site. 

Wah-gah-ah-yeh, the old fort, was the Seneca name for an early 
earthwork at Handford's landing in Rochester. Harris said the full 
descriptive name would be Twah-dah-a-la-ha-la, or fort on a hill. 



All the early Mohawk towns of the historic period in New York 
are in this county, three earlier ones lying north and west. The 
Mahican boundary line followed the hilltops east of Schoharie creek 
and near the line of Albany county, and at one time the western 
Mohawk boundary was at Little Falls. The sites of the towns were 
often changed, and several names might be given to one, or some 
small village might have none on record. In a few instances the 
name followed the town in its removals. 

A-dri-u-cha or A-dri-u-tha is a name applied by W. Max Reid to 
Buttermilk falls near Cranesville and to the vicinity. There were 
no Mohawk towns apparently as far east as this, but the name has 
been connected with that of Adriochten, principal chief of the first 
Mohawk castle in 1634, that being then west of Schoharie creek, 
while Cranesville is far to the east. His name might be derived 
from ateriatha, to be valiant. 

A-ha-rig-do-wa-nigh-an-igh was a name for Timmerman's creek 
in 1754. 

An-da-ra-gue or Andaraque, the town where De Tracy caused 
proclamation to be made, October 17, 1666, of taking possession of 
this Mohawk fort and four others, with all the lands around them. 
The name is contracted from Teandarague, often written Teon- 
doroge. It is closely related to the name of Ticonderoga, lacking 
only the prefix. 

An-ni-es or Agniers, people of the Hint. There are other French 
forms of the national name of the Mohawks, which was not that by 
which they are popularly known. Anniegue' was a name for their 

As-ser-u-e was the first castle and that of the Turtles in 1644, 
according to Megapolensis. It was a little west of Schoharie creek, 
and the name was a variant of another. It might refer to good axes 
owned there, but more probably to putting something into the water, 
to cross the creek or river. 

At-he-dagh-que-was a place at St Johnsville in 1733. 

Ca-daugh-ri-ty, steep banks, or perpendicular wall. On some 
patents it is Ka-da-ro-de, giving a broad sound to the second syl- 
lable. Sauthier's map has it Cadaredie, on both sides of Aries kill. 
Boyd erroneously derived it from Canada, village, and oquari, bear. 
Simms called it a landslide on Schoharie creek, in the town of 


Florida, and added: "About 2 miles up the Schoharie from the 
Mohawk, the eastern shore terminates with a bold bluff to the 
stream, which originated the Indian Ca-daugh-ri-ta, meaning steep 
bank or perpendicular ivall. The aboriginal name still attaches to 
this locality." 

Ca-ha-ni-a-ga was mentioned, as the first town on the river in 
[677. Though this suggests the national name it was intended for 
Caugh-na-wa-ga, on the rapids. 

East Canada creek has other Indian names. 

Ca-na-ge-re may be the later Canagora in another place, being 
the second castle and south of the river in 1^34. It may be derived 
from Gannagare, a great pole. It was west of some great flats and 
was also called Wetdashet by Van Curler. 

Ca-na-go-ra was on the north side of the river in 1677, and was 
the Banagiro of 1644 (an error for Kanagiro), the castle of the 
Bears. The French gave this the name of Gandagaro in 1669. At 
first sight it suggests a large village as a meaning, but this can not 
be sustained. Bruyas, however, says of one of his Mohawk words, 
" ( ianniagwari, a she bear. This is the name of the Mohawk," and 
a word derived from this may well have been applied to a town 
peopled by the Bear clan. It seems the same town as the last in a 
new situation. 

Ca-na-jo-ha-rie is rendered Ga-na-jo-hi'-e by Morgan, and defined 
washing the basin. This should be kctjle, which the first three syl- 
lables signify. Mr Morgan made a note on his interpretation : 
" In the bed of the Canajoharie creek there is said to be a basin, 
several feet in diameter, with a symmetrical concavity, washed out 
in the rock. Hence the name Ca-na-jo'-ha-e. One would naturally 
have expected to have found the Indian village upon this creek, 
instead of the Ot-squa-go." There was an Indian village just west 
( f the creek, but he mistook the location of the Canajoharie of 
King Hendrick's day, which was at Indian Castle in Danube, and 
not at Fort Plain. There may have been several towns of the 

Spafford said: "This name is of Indigene origin. Canajoharie, 
as spoken by the Mohawk Indians, signifies the pot or kettle that 
washes itself. The name was first applied to a whirlpool at the foot 
of one of the falls of the creek that now bears the name." French 
said that the name of the town was " Canajoxharie in the act of 


incorporation. Indian name, Ga-na-jo-hi-e, said to signify ' a kettle- 
shaped hole in the rock,' or 'the pot that washes itself,' and refers 
to a deep hole worn in the rock at the foot of the falls." 

Perhaps the hest early account is that of Professor Dwight, writ- 
ten about a century since : 

We all visited the Canajoharoo, (so the word is spelt by .Mr 
Kirkland), or great boiling pot, as it is called by the Six Nations. 
This pot is a vast cavity in a mass of limestone, forming' the bed 
of the mill stream to which it gives its name. . . When the 
water is high, it pours furiously down the ledge of the same rock. 
crossing the stream just above, into the Canajoharoo, and causing 
it to boil with a singular violence, and to exhibit the appearance 
of a caldron, foaming with vehement agitation over its brim. 

Whatever the origin or connection there is no doubt as to the 
general correctness of the interpretation. In his early list of Mo- 
hawk words Bruyas had Gannatsiohare, to wash the kettle. The 
Canajorha of 1677, on the north side of the Mohawk, suggests this 
name. In 1700 the middle castle had the name, but it eventually 
belonged to the most western of all, and to the lands around. It 
was written Canaedsishore or Canijoharie in 1700, and Connat- 
chocari by the French in 1757. 

Ca-na-jor-ha w r as a village on the north side of the river in 

Ca-ni-yeu-ke or Teyeondarago was the lowest Mohawk castle in 
1756. The first word may be a corruption of the national name. 

In 1810 Dr Samuel Mitchill said he was informed by John 
Bleecker, the Indian interpreter, an Oneida chief and others, that 
Canneoganaka lonita'de was their name for the Mohawk river. A. 
Cusick defined this small continuing sky. This might refer to the 
small but continuous reflection of the sky in the water through the 
trees. The first part of this name also suggests the national name 
of Canniengas or Mohawks. 

Can-ni-un-gaes, possessors of the flint, was a name for the Mo- 

Ca-no-ho-go was a name for the third Mohawk castle in 1700, 
being an abbreviation of Decanohoge. 

Ca-no-wa-ro-de was a small village west of the first castle in 
1634, and on the south side of the river, as all villages of that date 

Caugh-na-wa'-ga is written Ga-na-wa'-da, on the rapids, by Mor- 


gan, who gives it also as ( ia-no'-wau-ga, which on the whole is bet- 
ter. In 1667 Bruyas spoke of the first Mohawk castle as Ganda- 
wague and there Jogues was killed. In 1674 Kaghnewage was also 
mentioned as the first castle. The more recent location was at 
Fonda, where the name was applied to a large tract of land. Spaf- 
ford said : "Caughnawaga, it is well known, was once an Indian 
village, a principal town of the Mohawk Indians. The name sig- 
nifies a coffin, which it receives from the circumstance of there being, 
in the river opposite that place, a large black stone, (still to be 
seen j resembling a coffin, and projecting from the surface at low 
water." The Rev. John Taylor (1802) defined this as cook the 
kettle, probably thinking of Canajoharie. Gallatin derived it from 
Caghnuhwohherleh, a rapid. J. R. Simms objected to interpreting 
Caughnawaga at the rapids, but forgot that the village of this name 
was not always at one spot. He said: " It meant, literally, — stone 
in the water, in the river, opposite to the ancient village of 
Caughnawaga, and, perhaps, 25 feet from the southern or Fulton- 
ville shore is a large boulder, which is the last stone seen when the 
water is rising, and after a freshet, the first one visible when the 
water is falling." This seems the stone alluded to in the name 
Cayadutta. It is sufficient to say that the name followed the town 
in its removals, could not have referred to this stone, and was used 
before the Indians knew much of coffins. When some of the Mo- 
hawks removed to the rapids near Montreal they took the old name 
as an appropriate one for their new home, where it still remains. 

Caugh-ne-was-sa was placed by Schoolcraft in the Mohawk val- 
ley, but it does not otherwise appear. He may have meant the pre- 
ceding name. 

Ca-wa-o-ge or Xa-wa-a-ge was a village east of the fourth castle 
in 1634. Van Curler often gave two names to the Mohawk towns. 

Ca-ya-dut-ta creek, stone standing out of the water, flows through 
the town of Mohawk. Simms says this means muddy creek, but 
this is the definition of another name applied to a stream. 

Chuc-te-nun-da has been erroneously interpreted tzco sisters, per- 
haps because the North and South Chuctenunda creeks are quite, 
near each other, but on opposite sides of the river. A. Cusick de- 
fined this as stony, and Pearson made it stone houses, from the 
sheltering cliffs. It is a name of early occurrence at Amsterdam, 


and Reid quotes from the grant made to Adam Voorhees on both 
sides of the river above Cranesville : " On the south side ten mor- 
gens (20 acres) opposite a place called by the Indians Juchtanunda, 
that is ye stone house, being a hollow rock on ye river bank, where 
ye Indians generally lie under when they travill to and fro their 
country. The other pieces on the north side of the river, are a 
little higher than ye said hollow rock or stone house att a place 
called by the natives Syejodenawadde." At Amsterdam in 1802 
the Rev. John Taylor said : " Near the center of this town Oucta- 
nunda creek empties into the Mohawk." In some documents it is 
written Chucttonaneda. 

Co-wil-li-ga creek was defined Willow creek by French. It is 
in the town of Florida, and the definition may be from the accidental 
resemblance in the sound. It may be a corruption of kahoweya, 
a canoe, or the Oneida word kiowilla, arrow. 

In 1753 the Indians said they had sold land at Stone Arabia, "no 
further than the creek called the Cunstaghrathankre, in English the 
creek that is never dry." 

Da-da-nas-ka-rie is the name given by Simms for a creek in 
Fonda, on the Hansen patent in 1713. 

Da-de-nos-ca-ra is the same name as given by French, who defines 
it as trees having excrescences. It is in the town of Mohawk and 
near Tribes Hill. On the United States contour map it is 

De-ka-no'-ge or Decanohoge was the third castle in 1756, and A. 
Cusick defined the name as where I live. 

Et-a-gra-gon was a rock on the south side of the river. 

Ga-ro-ga creek, creek on this side; i. e. of the wilderness, there 
being no Mohawk towns west of this for a long time. It might 
also be derived from garogon, to make something of zcood. 

Hi-ro-cois or Iroquois was long the French term for the Mohawks 
in particular, and hence of their country. In 1647 the Jesuits spoke 
of the Indians here as " Hiroquois or Maquois, as the Dutch term 

I-can-de-ro-ga or Jeandarage, forks of tzt'o streams, was a name 
for the mouth of Schoharie creek in 1699, this being a variant of 


Ju-ta-la'-ga is Morgan's name for the Amsterdam or Chucte- 
nunda creek, but he thought the meaning was lost. 

Ka-hek-a-nun-da, hill of berries, is in the town of Mohawk. This 
definition is probably erroneous, and a better one may be found in 
karhakoha, hawk, and nunda, hill. Barber and Howe quoted an 
account of Tribes Hill : " The Mohawk name of this elevation is 
Kaheka-nunda.' or ' hill of berries ' ; probably because many berries 
were found there. The ancient Mohawks required their male 
papooses to run up and down this hill, and those who flagged under 
the exercise, were deemed unqualified to endure the fatigues of 

Ka-na-da-rauk creek, bread. Bruyas gives gannatarok this mean- 
ing in Mohawk. In speaking of the town of Palatine, Spafford 
said: "In the S. E. corner of this town, just above the Xose, the 
natives had, from a very remote period of their history, a curious 
kind of Indian corn mill, from which circumstance the little stream, 
now called Bread creek, has its name. . . They called the place 
Can-agh-da-rox, bread creek, and when the Europeans came to their 
country, at an early period, the Mohawks had a gristmill erected 
upon it." This is a good story with doubtful features. 

Ka-naugh-ta Au-ske-ra-da is a name for Canada lake. If the last 
word is a corruption of akaraji this would be elm lake. 

Ka-ya-de-ros-se-ras creek was 3 miles west of Amsterdam, and 
Fort Johnson was on the west side. 

Ken-ha-na-ga-ra, there lies the river, according to A. Cusick, the 
traveler having arrived either at the Mohawk or Schoharie creek. 
It is said to have been an early name for the latter, and suggests 
the next. 

Ken-nen-da-ha-re was a name for the Nose, on the south side of 
the Mohawk. Tooker wrote this Kanendakherie, a high mountain, 
and assigned it to Anthony's Nose on the Hudson, an obvious error. 

Ma-qua, a bear, was the Algonquin name for the Mohawk nation 
used by the Dutch, and hence the river was often called the Maquas 
kill. Mohawk was from moho. to eat living things. In 1676 they 
were mentioned as " Maugwa-wogs, or Mohawks, i. e. man-eaters." 
A later writer supposed the word meant muskrat river, but he also 
derived it from moho, to eat, defining it cannibal river. Most In- 
dians sometimes literallv devoured their enemies. 


Och-ni-on-da-ge was a name for the first castle in 1700, being 
the variant of a frequent name. The first Mohawk church was 
built there. 

Ogh-rack-ie was Auries creek, and French said the latter name 
was from an Indian called Adrian. 

Og-sa-da-go, at the mouth of Schoharie creek, was mentioned as 
the first Mohawk castle in 1700. It had many names. 

O-i-o-gue' is the Mohawk on Sanson's map of 1656, but was else- 
where applied to the Hudson. As it means simply at the river, it 
could be given to any large stream. 

O-na-we-dake, a great flat on the south side of the Mohawk. 

O-ne-ka-gonck-a was a name for the town at the mouth of Scho- 
harie creek in 1634. 

O-no-ger-re-ah was Flat creek at Sprakers. 

Os-qua-ge or Oh-qua-ge, place of hulled corn soup, according to 
A. Cusick, was a village west of the third castle in 1634. It sug- 
gests the latter Oquaga. 

Os-se-ru-e-non, Osserrion, Asserue and Oneugioure were early 
names of the first castle. The first three are synonymous. 

Os-ta-gra-go is another name for Etagrago, and is to be preferred. 
It was applied to a rock on the south side of the river. 

Mr Simms said : " Oswegatchie is a local name in the easterly 
part of the town of Palatine, not far from where the brave Colonel 
Brown fell, in Oct. 1780. The curve in the hill may be the bend in 
the Mohawk, where the former approaches it so abruptly at the 
Nose, gives the key to the name." He thought this meant going 
around the hill, which is an error. 

Ot-squa'-go creeks is written O-squa'-go, under a bridge, by Mor- 
gan. It is in the town of Minden, and the latter name appears 

Ot-sque-ne is a small tributary of the last, mentioned in 1790. 

Ot-stun'-go is another "tributary in Minden. 

Ron-da-hacks was a name for Crum creek in 1754, apparently 
derived from Adirondack's, but possibly a corruption of kanadarauk, 

Schan-a-tis-sa was a village near the middle Mohawk castle on 
a map of 1655. The odd interpretation given me was little long 


short village. That is, in the Indian way of speaking, not a very 
long, in fact a very short village. 

Scho-har-ie creek is written Sko-har'-le, Hoodwood, by Morgan. 
This is a well established definition ; otherwise it might have been 
corrupted from skaihoriati, translated beyond the stream by Bruyas, 
as it lay east of the Mohawk towns. Fuller treatment is reserved 
for Schoharie county. 

Sen-at-sy-cros-sy was the second small village west of the first 
castle in 1634. 

Shack-ar-ack-o-ung-ha was a name for Zimmerman's creek in 
Colden's survey of 1754. 

Si-et-i-os-ten-rah-re. Bruyas mentioned a Mohawk village of 
this name, which was partly derived from ostenra, a rock. 

So-ha-ni-dis-se was the third castle in 1634, there being then four. 
It seems a name already given, but Van Curler wrote it Rehana- 
disse on his return. 


Ta-ra-jo-rhies is the name for Prospect hill, Fort Plain, given 

by French and defined hill of health. It is a commanding situation 

was the site of an Indian village, which Morgan thought the 

rue Cunajoharie. The name probably came from that of Tar- 

rachioris, a Mohawk chief killed at Lake George in 1755. 

Te-car'-hu-har-lo'-da, zisible over the creek, is Morgan's name 
for East Canada creek. 

Te-hat-ir-i-ho-ke-a is D. Cusick's name for the Mohawks. 

Te-ko-ha-ra-wa is given by French as a supposed name of Cana- 
joharie creek, meaning a valley. 

Te-no-to-ge and Tenotogehatage arc Van Curler's names for the 
fourth castle in 1634. As but three castles are usually reckoned this 
is the name of the last. Megapolensis called it Thenondiogo, the 
castle of the Wolf clan. It was a large town and had many houses 
on the north side of the river in 1634, the fort being then on the 
south side. 

Te-on-da-lo'-ga, two streams coming together, is Morgan's name 
for Fort Hunter. It has been written Te-ah'-ton-ta-lo'-ga, and the 
name appears in so many forms that other meanings might be sug- 
gested. This was the site of the first or lower Mohawk castle. 

Te-ye-on-da-ro-ge is the same as the last, appearing as the name 


of the first castle in 1756, near Fort Hunter. It was not far from 
that site when first known, but had many names, some coming from 
slight changes in location and referring to a hill. A few variants of 
this name follow. It was written Tionondoroge in 1691, Trenon- 
droge in 1693, Tiononderoga in 1733, and Ticonderoga and Tin- 
nandora in 1768. That this name and that of the historic Ticon- 
deroga had the same origin hardly admits of a doubt. At first it 
referred to the meeting of waters, sometimes near a hill. 

Tha-yen-dak-hi-ke, a cliff on the Mohawk, by a stream near the 

Tingh-ta-nan'-da, a creek near Amsterdam, is the Chuctenunda 
on Sauthier's map, and from this the name is derived. 

" Tin-nan-dro-gi-se's Great Flatt," of 1756, was at Fort Hunter. 

Ti-on-on-do-gue in 1677, Thenondiogo in 1644, Tionontoguen in 
1670, and Tionondoge in 1693, are variants of the name of the third 
castle, much resembling that of the first. Though once on the 
south side of the Mohawk it was removed to the north bank, and 
the name was appropriate to its situation on a hill. 

Tu-a-yon-ha-ron-wa falls is on a map of 1790, and in the town 
of Canajoharie. It refers to a valley. 

Tu-ech-to-na, a creek south of Amsterdam, seems the Chucte- 
nunda, and may be intended for that word, but shortened. 

Tu-ech-ta-non-da creek is on Sauthier's map, and is the South 
Chuctenunda, the name being less changed than the last. 

Twa-da-a-la-ha'-la, fort on a lull is Morgan's name for Fort Plain. 

Ut-lo-go-wan-ke was the mouth of Flat creek, at Sprakers. 

YVas-cont-ha is on the map of the New Hampshire grants, and 
was south of the river and of Sir William Johnson's house. It has 
some reference to a bridge. 

Wet-da-shet is one of Van Curler's names for the second castle. 
This had no palisades at that time, and he saw little except numer- 
ous graves. There were but 16 houses and these were not of the 
largest size. This castle is not in the later lists. For a long time 
there were three and then but two castles. In the French act of 
possession in 1666, however, mention is made of Andaraque and 
four other forts. These appear to have been merely villages and 
are unnamed. 

In the journal which Mr Wilson attributed to Van Curler there 


is no internal evidence that he was the writer and the belief of this 
seems to have been founded on O'Callaghan's statement that he 
came to New York in 1630. Mr A. J. F. van Laer, of the State 
Library, has closely examined the Van Rensselaer manuscripts and 
writes me that he has " not found a single reference to Van Curler 
before 1638. The letters in the Bowier collection show beyond 
question that he came in that year." The journalist says he was 
one of the commissioners, and mentions his two companions by 
name. As the references are to the journal as named by Wilson, 
they are allowed to remain for convenience, with this statement 
of their real character. 


Schoolcraft gave some Indian names in this county, part of which 
depend on his authority alone, nor do his interpretations always 
meet with favor. 

A-bic, a rock, is his name for a rock rising in the Battery. 

Ash-i-bic he derived from this and assigned it to a ridge north 
of Beekmen street. 

Ga-no'-no is Morgan's Iroquois name for New York, but with- 
out any definition. The Onondagas call it Kanono, but do not now 
definitely know its origin. It belongs to the city but may be used 
for the State. Mr Brant-Sero defines Kanoono, fresh-water basin, 
in allusion to New York harbor. 

Ish-pa-te-na was applied by Schoolcraft to Richmond Hill. 

Kap-see, afterward Copsie point, is his name for the extreme end 
of the Battery. He defined it a safe place for landing. When 
Ruttenber wrote (1872) he said this was still known to some as 
Copsie point. 

Ki-oshk, gull island, is Schoolcraft's name for Ellis island. 

La-ap-ha-wach-king, place of stringing wampum beads. This is 
a reputed Muncey name for Manhattan island, but is placed by 
some in Westchester county. Heckewelder said : " They say this 
name was given in consequence of the distribution of beads among 
them by Europeans, and that after the Europeans returned, wher- 
ever one looked, the Indians were seen stringing beads and wam- 
pum the whites gave them." 

La-pin-i-kan, Schoolcraft's name for Greenwich, probably should 


commence with S, as in Saponanican, another name for this place. 

Man-hat-tan, the island, is equivalent to the Delaware word 
Manatey. Zeisberger wrote it Minatey and Menatey. Trumbull 
has Munnohhanit and Menohhannet, on an island, in the Natick 
dialect; but says elsewhere that Manataanung or Manatees is the 
name of New York, ung being a locative affix. Tooker now derives 
the name from manah, island, and atin, hill, thus making it hilly 
island. Heckewelder could not find that there ever was a distinct 
nation called Manhattans, and concluded that the island was called 
Man-a-hat-ta-ni by the Delawares, and was inhabited by them. 
This they now claim. De Laet, however, in 1625 said that the 
Manatthans were a wicked nation and deadly enemies of the San- 
kikani, living opposite them on the west shore of the river. As the 
word simply refers to those dwelling on an island, several intelli- 
gent writers have given the same name to those who lived on 
Staten Island, and who had the same title to it. Schoolcraft alone 
thought the word meant people of the whirlpool. 

Under another similar name, Man-a-hat-ta-nink, place of general 
intoxication. Heckewelder and others have related a story of this, 
not well proved, but he also wrote it Manahachtanienk, with the 
same meaning. Then he gave it as Manahachtanicuk (probably the 
same), cluster of islands with channels everywhere. Some Dela- 
wares recently referred it to the use of a kind of arrowwood found 
there. They said: 

Our traditions affirm that at the period of the discovery of 
America our nation resided on the island of New York. We called 
that island Manahatouh, the place where timber is procured for 
bows and arrows. The word is compounded of N'manhumin, / 
gather, and tanning, at the place. At the lower end of the island 
was a grove of hickory trees of peculiar strength and toughness. 
Our fathers held this timber in high esteem, as material for con- 
structing bows, war clubs, etc. 

Washington Irving's humorous definitions may not be as well 
known as they once were. In his quaint history of New York he 

The name most current at the present day, and which is likewise 
countenanced by the great historian Van der Donck, is Manhattan ; 
which is said to have originated in a custom among the squaws, in 
the early settlement, of wearing men's hats, as is still done among 


many tribes. " Hence," as we are told by an old governor, who 
was somewhat of a wag, and flourished almost a century since, and 
had paid a visit to the wits of Philadelphia, " hence arose the appella- 
tion of man-hat-on, first given to the Indians, and afterwards to the 
island " — a stupid joke! — but well enough for a governor. . . . 
There is another founded on still more ancient and indisputable au- 
thority, which I particularly delight in, seeing it is at once poetical, 
melodious, and significant, and this is recorded in the before men- 
tioned voyage of the great Hudson, written by Master Juet; who 
clearly and correctly calls it Manna-hatta, that is to say, the island 
of manna, or in other words, " a land flowing with milk and honey.'" 

The name given by Juet on returning from the voyage up the 
river, that of Manna-hata, is the earliest on record, furnishing a 
hint for Irving's fancy. The other pun came from a familiar cus- 
tom of Indian women, still existing. 

Min-na-han-onck, on or at the isluiid, was a name for Blackwell's 
island in 1637, from menahan, island, and uck, place. 

Min-ne-ais, Bedloe's island, was defined lesser island, by School- 
craft. It might be from minneash, meaning either berries or nuts. 

Min-ne-wits island, below Hellgate and so called in 1663, may 
have been of either Dutch or Indian origin. Tooker thought it 
the former. In the latter case it has been defined pine island. 

Mus-coo-ta, meadozc or grass land, was a meadow at the north 
end of the island, near Kingsbridge. In 1638 it was called Mus- 
cota, a flat near Harlem. The term was usually applied to wet 

Nagh-tongk, sandy place, is the name given to Corlaer's Hook 
by Benson and Schoolcraft. ' French wrote it Nechtank. Nagunt 
means a sandy place. 

( )-ci-toc was Schoolcraft's name for a hight of land near Niblo's. 

Pag-ganck was a name for Governor's island in 1637. The Dutch 
called it Nut island, and the name may be derived from pohk, to 
break open, and the terminal locative making a place for cracking 

Pen-a-bick was Schoolcraft's name for Washington Heights, de- 
rived from abic, a rock. This probably originated with him. 

Rech-ta-uck was a name for Corlaer's Hook, which Ruttenber 
derived from reckwa, sand, making the meaning the same as that 
of another name. 


Sa-po-kan-ick-an was near land patented June 7, 1639, and was 
in the Ninth ward of New York. Land was also bought at Sapo- 
kannickan in 1640. Ruttenber placed this below Greenwich avenue, 
and supposed it meant a carrying place, from sipon, a river, and 
oningan, a portage. Greenwich point was called Sapohannickan in 
1638 and Sappokanike in 1680. Tooker quotes from early docu- 
ments some facts bearing on this name, which also occurs on Long 
Island. In 1639 there was on Manhattan island " a piece of land 
near Sapokanikan bounded on the north by the strand road." The 
same year there was mentioned on this island a " Tobacco planta- 
tion near Sapohanican with palisades around it." In 1640 appears 
" this present plantation situate against the reed- valley beyond Sap- 
pokanican on the Island Manhate." Frenow suggested that this 
was an Indian village near Gansevoort street. Tooker said : " The 
name is from the Del. Skappeu, ' wet,' hakihakan, ' a field, planta- 
tion, land broken up for cultivation.' Probably a wet or moist field 
near the meadow, on low ground." This place, how T ever, was not 
the tobacco plantation, but near it. 

Schep-moes kill, mentioned in 1639, was between 47th and 52d 
streets, and the name seems from sepoemese, a little rivulet. 

The Indians near Manhattan called the Dutch Schwonnack or 
Swaneckes, people of the salt water. 

Ten-ke-nas, an uninhabited tract, was a name for Ward's island 
in 1637, when it was purchased. 

Wer-pos is the thicket, according to Tooker, but Schoolcraft 
wrote it Warpoes, deriving it from wawbose, a hare, and calling it 
place of rabbits. The latter has no support in eastern dialects, nor 
does the former seem well sustained. Ruttenber speaks of it as 
Warpoes, placing it on high land near a pond formerly in Centre 


A-jo'-yok-ta, fishing creek, is Morgan's name for Johnson's creek. 
The latter name belongs to a village here, but most of the creek 
is in Orleans county. 

A-qua-ra-ge, near Niagara Falls in 1687, is an abbreviation of 
the following name. 

Ca-ha-qua-ra-ghe has been defined neck just under the chin, and 
seems appropriate to the name of Niagara, which means a neck, 


but the old definition of the former, as a cap, seems the true one, 
and was originally given by David Cusick. It was also used for 
the river above the falls in 1726, in the deed of trust, the line run- 
ning from Lake Osweege or Erie, " all along the narrow passage 
from the said Lake to the Falls of Oniagara, Called Cahaquaraghe." 
That is, this name did not belong to the falls, but to the river above 
them. In 1701 the name of Cahiquage, apparently derived from 
this, was applied to Lake Erie. 

Ca-yu-ga creek and island above Niagara Falls. 

Che-non-dac, or Jo-no'-dak as written by Morgan, was the old 
name of Chippewa creek on the Canadian shore. The first form is 
Pouchot's, and Morgan gave the same name to the Welland canal. 
It means sliallow water. The present name came from the Ojibwas 
(Chippewas) or Mississagas, who settled there. 

Chu-to-nah, or Chu-nu-ta is the Indian name for a place called 
Bloody Lane. A. Cusick interpreted this where the water comes 
and overflow's everything. 

Date-car'-sko-sase, highest falls, is Morgan's name for Niagara 
Falls and the land around. Marshall has it Det-gah'-skoh-ses, place 
of the high fall. Neither of these is exact. 

Date-ge-a'-de-ha-na-geh, two creeks, near together, is Eighteen- 
mile creek according to Morgan. 

De-o'-do-sote, the spring, is his name for Lockport. 

De-o'-na-ga-no, cold spring, is 2 miles northeast of Lockport. 

De-yo'-wah-geh, among the reeds, is the west branch of Tusca- 
rora creek. 

Duh'-jih-heh'-oh, walking on all fours, is Marshall's name for 
Lewiston Heights, " in allusion to the postures assumed by the 
French and Indians while climbing the steep acclivity under their 
heavy burdens." This was long a famous portage, including three 
steep ascents. 

Dyu-no'-wa-da-se', the current goes round, is his name for the 
whirlpool. Marshall and Morgan often differ in making Deo or 
Dyu one or two syllables. 

Dyus-da'-nyah-goh, cleft rocks, is Marshall's name for the Devil's 
Hole and Bloody Run. 

Ga'-a-no-geh, on the mountain, is Morgan's name for the Tus- 


carora Indian village. It is equivalent to Kienuka, the common 
form, but with a different definition. 

Ga-sko-sa-da, falls (of a river), is also applied to Niagara Falls 
and vicinity. 

Ga-o'-wah-go-waah, big canoe island, was a name given to Navy 
island from the French shipbuilding there, according to Marshall. 

Gau-strau-yea, bark laid dozen, is said to have been the original 
name for the Fort Kienuka. The Tuscarora historian, Elias John- 
son, said : " This has a metaphorical meaning, in the similitude of 
a freshly peeled slippery elm bark, the size of the fort and laid at 
the bottom as a flooring, so that if any person or persons go in 
they must be circumspect and act according to the laws of the fort, 
or else they will slip and fall down to their own destruction." He 
adds the legend of the Neutral queen. 

Marshall said that Niagara river, above the falls, had sometimes 
the Seneca name of " Gai-gwaah-geh, — one of their names for Lake 
Erie." A variant of this has been given. 

Ga-we'-not, Great island, is his name for Grand island. The 
adjective does not appear. 

Gwa-u'-gweh, taking canoe out, was a carrying place and Seneca 
village at the mouth of Tonawanda creek, according to Morgan. 
It seems to belong to Cayuga creek. 

Hate-keh'-neet-ga-on-da is Marshall's name for Golden Hill creek, 
in the town of Somerset. 

Hickory Corners is from the Indian name of a common tree. 

Kas-sko-so-wah-nah, great falls, for Niagara Falls. Of all the 
Indian names given to the falls this alone expresses greatness. 

Ki-en-u-ka, fort with a fine mew, according to Turner. Kah-ha- 
neu-ka was interpreted by A. Cusick, where the cannon point down, 
but in his fanciful chronology D. Cusick said the fort had this name 
about 800 years ago. Elias Johnson said : " The term Kienuka 
means the strong hold or fort," and he gave the story of this place 
at length. The Onondaga word for fort is Kah-en-ha'-yen, having 
a fence around. According to Johnson a fort was to be built as a 
place of refuge and placed under the charge of a young woman 
selected from the Squawkihows, " a remote branch of the Seneca 
nation." She was to be a peacemaker with the official name of Ga- 
keah-saw-sa. No blood was to be shed there, nor could war be 


made without her consent. Fugitives and enemies were safe there 
for a reasonable time. In a certain case, however, she unwisely 

sided with her own people and the fort was destroyed. The his- 
toric basis of this legend is the fact that the Neutral nation, once 
occupying both sides of Niagara river, sheltered both Hurons and 
Iroquois in the great Huron war, allowing no fighting in their 
territory. Hence their common name. David Cusick said: "A 
queen, named Yagowanea, resided at the fort Kauhanauka, (said 
Tuscarora) . . . The queen lived outside the fort in a long 
house, which was called a peace house. She entertained the two 
parties who were at war with each other; indeed she was called the 
mother of the Nations." 

Ni-ag-a-ra was an carl}- French form of the name for the river, 
but for a long time the accent was placed on the penult as in Gold- 
smith's Traveller: 

When wild Oswego spreads her swamps around, 
And Niagara stuns with thund'ring sound. 

It meant simply the neck connecting two great lakes, as the body 
and head are united. The initial letter was often dropped by early 
writers, and the word became Yagerah or Jagara, with the same 
sound. This form, however, might lead to a different interpreta- 
tion, for Zeisbergcr defines the Onondaga word Joragaree, to roar. 
Sometimes there were prefixes, as Oneigra and Oniagorah in 1687, 
the latter suggesting the idea of greatness. It appeared as the great 
fall Oakinagaro in 1701, and Onjagera, Ochjagara, etc., in 1720, 
becoming Oniagara in English use in 1726. In 1640 the Neutrals 
had a village at the mouth of the River d'Onguiaahra, and this had 
its name from the river. The Relation of 1641 mentions this early 
name : 

On this side of the river, and not on the other, [east] as some 
map marks it, are the greater number of the towns of the Neutral 
nation. There are three or four beyond, arranged from east to west, 
toward the nation of the Cat, or the Erieehronons. This river or 
flood is that by which is discharged our great lake of the Hurons, 
or Mer Douce, which flows first into the lake of Erie, or of the 
nation of the Cat, and up to that point it enters into the lands of the 
Neutral nation, and takes the name of Onguiaahra, until it is dis- 
charged into the Ontario or lake of Saint Eouys. 

Morgan gave the name of Ne-ah'-ga to Youngstown, and from 


this Lake Ontario had its Seneca name. In his comparative list he 
gave this form to the Onondagas also, O-ne-a'-ga to the Cayngas, 
O-ne-a'-cars to the Tuscaroras, O-ne-a'-gale to the Oneidas, and 
O-ne-a-ga'-ra to the Mohawks, whose pronunciation the English 
naturally followed. This comparison well illustrates the difference 
in dialects, but Mr Marshall differed from it, saying that the Mo- 
hawk pronunciation is Xyah'-ga-rah', while the Senecas called it 
Nyah'-gaah, restricting this name to Lake Ontario and the river be- 
low the falls. Dr E. B. O'Callaghan enumerated 39 ways of spell- 
ing the word and there may be more. The river has been called 
( )neaka at its mouth and D. Cusick gave it as Onyakarra. Primar- 
ily the name belonged to the Neutral nation, a people living between 
the Hurons and Iroquois, akin to and at peace with both. They 
called themselves Akouanke, but the Hurons styled them Attiwan- 
daronk, a people with a speech a little different from their own. 
Yates and Moulton cite a letter from Col. Timothy Pickering, who 
conducted several treaties with the Indians. It was written in 1824, 
and he said of this name : 

I have been sometimes asked what was the Indian pronunciation 
of Niagara. By the eastern tribes it was A'e-ait-gau-razi.', or rather 
A e-og-au-roh. The second syllable was short, with the accent upon 
it. The sound of the last syllable was indefinite, much as we pro- 
nounce the last svllable of the word America. I account for the 
sound of i as c in Niagara, and the broad sound of a to its having 
been written by the Low Dutch of Albany, and the French in 
Canada. In writing the Indian names in my treaty of 1794, I took 
some pains to get their Indian sounds, and to express them by such 
a combination of letters as would have been given them had the 
names been English. Kon-on-ddi-gna for instance, the place where 
the treaty was held ; the accent being on the syllable dai. The 
Senecas called the falls or river not Ne-og-au-roh, but Ne-au-gaw, 
the second syllable auh gutterally, with the accent upon it, and the 
last syllable long. 

Xi-ga'-we-nah'-a-ah. small island, is Tonawanda island. 

O-ge-a'-wa-te-ka'-e, place of the butternut, is Morgan's name for 
Royalton Center. 

On-di-a-ra appears at the month of Niagara river on the Jesuit 
map of 1665. and some have confused this with Ontario, which 
appears on the same map as " Lac Ontario, on des Iroquois." 


( )uar-o-ro-non, the most easterly town of the Neutrals in 1626, 
and a day's journey west of the Senecas. This should he under- 
stood of the Seneca territory and not of their towns. Some of these 
had been withdrawn to the east side of Genesee river on account 
of the war. A. Cusick defined this a separated people, and it seems 
to have been the home of the Wenrohronons, who left the place 
because of its exposed condition at a later day, taking refuge with 
the Hurons. Their isolation gave this name to their town and 

Ou-non-tis-as-ton was De la Roche's residence in 1626. A. Cu- 
sick defined this the thing which made the hill high, and the village 
may have been on the ridge overlooking the lake, if indeed in New 

O-yon-wa-yea or O-non-wa-yea is mentioned as a name for John- 
son's landing place in the treaty of 1789, 4 miles east of Niagara 
river. In the treaty of 1795 it is called O-yong-wong-yeh, which 
is the present Onondaga name. A. Cusick thought this might 
mean something sunk to the bottom, a possible incident of the siege 
of Niagara in 1759. This is now Fourmile creek, and should not 
be confounded with Johnson's creek, much farther east. 

Shaw-nee, the south or southern people, once subjected to the 
Iroquois. A name applied to a hamlet in the town of \\ Tieatfield. 

Ska-no'-da-ri-o, beautiful lake. Morgan gives this as the Mo- 
hawk word from which Ontario is derived. It varies with the 
dialect. The next four are from the same writer. 

Ta-ga'-ote is Lockport, and probably means at the spring. 

Ta'-na-wun-da, swift water, is Tonawanda creek. Marshall 
slightly differs from this, making it Ta-no'-wan-deh. rough stream. 
It is inappropriately given to several places, unless understood as 
being at or near this creek. 

Te-car'-na-ga-ge, black creek, is the east branch of Tuscarora 

Te-ka'-on-do-dnk, place with a signpost. Middleport. 

Tus-ca-ro-ra Reservation is that of the sliirt-wcariiig people 
There is a creek of this name. The Onondagas call this people Tus- 
ki-e-a, and they term themselves Skau-ro-ra, wearing a shirt. In 
councils they are sometimes called Tu-hah-te-ehn-yah-wah-kou, 


those who hold or embrace the great tree, referring to their recep- 
tion by the Oneidas. 

Twa-kan-ha-hors or Twa-kan-hah was D. Cusick's name for the 
Missisagas, who lived on the west side of Niagara river in recent 
times, often camping in New York. 

Wen-roh-ro-nons, mentioned above as a separated people. On 
is used by the French for W in many names, but I have often left 
it unchanged. 


An-a-jot' was the name of Old Oneida, as written by the Mora- 
vians, and was in the town of Vernon. Oneida Castle was on the 
west line of the county. Most early towns were farther south and 
west, being in Madison county. 

A-on-ta-gil'-lon, creek at point of rocks, is French's name for a 
stream flowing into Fish creek in Annsville, and may not be cor- 
rectly applied, though it seems to be. In a list of Indian names in 
the History of Queensbury, Holden says: " Aontagilban. A creek 
which empties into Fish creek, Saratoga county. Taken from map 
no. 221, of the late Fish Creek Reservation in 1706. — Secretary of 
State's office." Though the names are the same there was of 
course no Fish Creek Reservation in Oneida county in 1706, but a 
map was made of it in 1796, and it was sold in 1802. In Saratoga 
county no such reservation appears. 

In the treaty of 1768 for running a boundary line, is the first 
mention of " Canada Creek, where it falls into Wood Creek, which 
last mentioned Water falls into the Oneida Lake." The name is 
often used simply for creek, though varying from the proper word. 
This Canada creek reaches Wood creek in the town of Rome, and 
West Canada creek is part of the east line of the county. 

Ca-no-wa-rogh'-are, head on a pole, was described as " a new 
village of the Oneidas " in 1762. It is now Oneida Castle, south of 
Oneida. The name is variously written, this being a Mohawk form. 
Johnson built a fort within the limits of the present village, on the 
right bank of the creek and south of the Seneca turnpike. 

Che-ga-quat'-ka, kidneys, is Morgan's name for Whitestown creek 
and village, and New Hartford, both villages having this Indian 
name from the creek. 


Che-nan'-go river rises in this county, and the Moravians called 
it Anajotta, as leading to Oneida. 

Date-wa'-sunt-ha'-go, great falls, was assigned to Trenton Falls 
by Morgan. The next name is his. 

Da-ya'-hoo-wa'-quat, a carrying place, the Mohawk river above 
Herkimei and the portage at Rome. A. Cusick made it more 
explicit, lifting the boat, at the beginning of the portage. 

De-o-wain'-sta was another name for this place, interpreted by 
Cusick as setting down the boat at the end of the portage. The 
name would vary with the direction of the journey. 

Egh-wa'-guy is the eastern branch of Unadilla river on Sauthier's 
map. It was also writen Eghwake in a journal of 1701, and is 
Eghwagy on Johnson's map of 1771. Van Curler crossed it in 1634. 

Ga-na'-doque, empty village, was once a village near Oneida 
Castle. This and the next three are from Morgan. 

Ga-no'-a-lo'-hale, head on a pole, is Oneida Castle, but thence is 
applied to Oneida lake and creek as being near. Morgan gives 
these dialectal variations: Ga'-no-wa-lo-har'-la in -Mohawk, Ga-no- 
wa'-lo-hale in Oneida, Ka-no-wa-no'-hate in Tuscarora, Ga-no- 
wi '-ha in Onondaga, Ga-no-a-o'-a in Cayuga, and Ga-no'-a-o-ha in 
Seneca. The name in his list does not quite agree with these. 

Ga-nun-do'-glee, hills shrunk together. Paris Hill. 

He-sta-yun'-twa or Ho-sta-yun'-twa. Camden. 

Je-jack-gue-neck is southeast of Oriskany on Evans' map of 
1743, and may be a form of Sauquoit, a very variable name. 

Ka-da'-wis'-dag, white field, is Morgan's name for the village of 

Ka-nagh-ta-ra-ge-a'-ra, Dean's creek. The first part seems to 
refer to a lake, but might also to a village or creek. In 1677 the 
Kan-a-da-ga'-re Oneidas were mentioned. 

Ka-na-ta is applied to West Canada creek by Sylvester. He 
called this Amber creek from the color of the water. 

Ka-ne-go'-dick is Morgan's name for Wood creek. 

Ken-you-scot-ta, a branch of Oriskany creek, seems to be the 
same as the next. A. Cusick defined it rainbow in a misty place. 

Kun-you-ska'-ta, foggy place. White creek. 

Kny-a-ho'-ra. slanting wafers according to French, is Trenton 


Falls. An early name for West Canada creek, Guyahora is the 

Ni-ha-run-ta-quo-a, great tree, the council name of the Oneiclas, 
was applied to their town in 1743. Otherwise this is not a place 
name here. Hiawatha is said to have found a party of Oneidas 
resting by a great tree which they had cut down. David Cusick's 
story has been mentioned, but he gave no reason for the name. 

Xun-da-da'-sis, around 'the hill, is Morgan's name for Utica in 
allusion to the way the road swept around the hill east of the city. 
Another form of this word was U-nun-da-da'-ges, and Morgan gave 
also the dialectal variations, which are mostly in the prefixes. 

On-ei-da is the present form of a word variously spelled, but 
meaning standing stone. Oneiyuta is one form. The French wrote 
it Onneiout, the Moravians Anajot. This people first lived in the 
central part of Madison county, having their name from a large 
upright stone at their early town a little south of Perryville. This 
was perpetuated by the great boulder at Nichols pond, where they 
lived in 161 5. A stone was selected for their later villages as the 
national emblem. There is much variety in spelling. The Jesuits 
mentioned them in 1635 as the Oniochrhonons, and 10 years later 
spoke of their town as Ononjote which would refer to the hills 
rather than a stone. In 1654 they dropped the first syllable of 
this, bringing the word nearer its present form. On their map of 
1665 it is Onneiout. 

Sir William Johnson spoke of the meaning of the name in 
1 77 1 : " They have in use [as] Symbols, a Tree, by which they 
w d Express Stability. But their true Symbols is a Stone called 
Onoya, and they called themselves Onoyuts a particular Inst ce of 
\\ch I can give from an Expedt* I went on to Lake St Sacrament in 
1746. when t<> show the Enemy the strength of our Ind n Alliances 
I desired Each Nation to affix their Symbols to a Tree [to alarm] 
the French ; the ( )neydas put up a stone wch they painted Red." 

Professor Dwight said : " There is a stone too large to be 
carried by a man of ordinary strength, at some distance eastward 
from the Oneida village, which some of these people regard with 
reverence. . . . They say that it has slowly followed their 
nation in its various removals." It w r as then in Oneida county 
and a voung man told him he had several times removed it short 


distances, his friends believing it had moved itself. Several such 
stones were described. Thus in Lothrop's life- of Kirkland it is 
said : " Oneida signifies the upright stone. There is still stand- 
ing in the township of Westmoreland, a few miles 'from the 
old Oneida castle, an upright stone or rock, of considerable size, 
rising a few feet from the ground, which tradition, and without 
doubt correctly, points out as their national altar. Here, in the 
days of their paganism, from time immemorial, they were accus- 
tomed every year to assemble to worship the Great Spirit, and hold 
a solemn religious festival." 

O-ney-da river was an early name for Fish creek. 

O-ris'-ka-ny, nettles, is derived by Morgan from ole'-hisk, and 
applied to the creek. The Oneidas often used 1 for r. Ochriskeny 
creek is on a map of 1790, and Orisca on earlier maps. It has 
been interpreted where there was a large field, and this is supported 
by the Indians' complaint in 1765, that a German squatter was on 
their "large Held Orisca," In the Clinton papers of 1777 the 
Indians of Orisca are mentioned. It is O-his'-heh in Seneca, 
O-his'-ha in Cayuga, O-his'-ka in Onondaga, Ose-hase'-keh in 
Tuscarora, Ole'-hisk in Oneida, and Ole-his'-ka in Mohawk. No 
dialect now gives precisely the usual form, but in 1756 the Oriskeni 
patent was recorded, and Oriscany creek and Ochriscany patent 
are on Sauthier's map. The Rev. Dr Belknap said in 1796: 
'" Between Mr Kirkland's and his sons is the ( )riskany creek, 
which, Mr Deane says, is a corrupt pronunciation of ( )lhiske sig- 
nifying ' a place of nettles.' The nettles are very plentiful and 
large on its banks." While the Mohawk for nettles is ohrhes. A. 
Cusick said this might be applied to anything growing large in a 

Ose'-te-a-daque, in the bone, is Morgan's name for Trenton 

Os-temra-gowa-ri-on-ni was an Oneida fishing place mentioned 
by Bruyas. Ostenra is a rock, and this may be the point of rocks 
above mentioned, though the word is different. 

Ot-se-quotte, a lot in Westmoreland was called after an Indian. 
It is a corruption of the head chief's title, which is O-tat-sheh-te, 
bearing a quiver. 


Sau-quoit or Sa-da-quoit creek has been defined smooth pebbles 
in a stream. Morgan's name for this creek and Whitestown seems 
the same, but has a different form and meaning. In the patent of 
1736 it was Sadachqueda or Sahquate. On Sauthier's map it is 
Sidaghqueda, and Sadaghqueda on one of 1790. Spafford said: 
" I applied to Judge Dean, the interpreter to the Oneidas, in order 
to know how to write it. He says it was formerly written Sada- 
cpiada, shortened latterly in sound into Sauquait, but that the 
Indians speak it as if written Chickawquait. Sauquait seems to be 
the prevailing pronunciation, the very way he writes it." 

Shan-an-do'-a creek, great hemlock, was called after the old chief, 
John Skenandoah. who said he was an old hemlock, dead at the top. 
It is now a frequent family name. Morgan wrote it Skun-an- 
do'-wa, and applied it to Yernon Center. He gave the next five 

Ska'-na-wis, long swamp, in Sangerfield. 

Ska-nu'-sunk, place of the fox. Vernon. 

Ta-ga-soke, forked like a spear, Fish creek, is one of the many 
alluding to the point where two streams meet. Another form of 
the name used for this creek in Tegeroken, interpreted between two 
mouths, varying little from Tioga. This is in Annsville. 

Te-o-na'-tale, pine forest. Verona. 

Te-ya-nun'-soke, a beach tree standing up, is Xinemile creek in 
the town of Floyd. Though a tributary of the Mohawk it suggests 
a preceding name. 

The-ya-o'-guin, white head, a name for either Rome or Oneida 
lake in 1748, but probably the latter from the name, which seems a 
corruption of Tethiroguen, an early name for the lake, also referring 
to something white. This is a French form. 

Ti-an-a-da'-ra or Unadilla, is variously written. Its head waters 
are in Bridgewater, and Van Curler noted its southerly course in 


Tuscarora was given by Evans, on his map of 1743, as the source 
of Oneida creek, but it was farther west, being easily identified with 
Chittenango creek. 

Twa-dah-ah-lo-dah-que, ruins of a fort, is another name for 
Utica from the ruins of old Fort Schuyler, sometimes called Fort 
Desolation in frontier warfare. 


While this large country has many Indian names of streams, it 
has few of Indian villages, as the Oneidas had none there for a 
long time, though their reputed territorial limits were at Little Falls. 
In fact their villages were all in Madison county till they placed 
the Tuscaroras there, and for the most part in the drainage of 
Oneida creek. 


Am-boy is an introduced Algonquin name, applied to a hamlet on 
Ninemile creek. According to Hecke welder it is derived from 
Em-bo'-li, a place resembling a bowl or bottle, and properly belong- 
ing to a bay or pond. 

An-non-i-o-gre may be an error in transcribing, or it may have 
been a small village between Limestone and Butternut creeks. 
Father Lamberville dated a letter at this place in 1686, he -being 
there alone. It gave news from Onondaga about Oswego Falls, 
etc. Onondaga had recently been removed to Butternut creek, and 
it is conceivable that that place may have been meant. 

Ca-hung-hage is the name of Oneida lake on a map in the Secre- 
tary of State's office. 

Caugh-de-noy' is from T'kah-koon-goon-da-nah'-yea, where tlie 
eel is lying down. It is still a fine eel fishery. Ouaquendenalough 
is the same place on Sauthier's map, suggesting the same word. 
but a different interpretation has been given this. It was an Onon- 
daga fishing place in 1753. but the Oneidas claimed rights there at 
a later day. 

Chit-te-nan'-go creek, on the northeast line of the county, has 
been already noticed, and was also called Canaseraga and 

De-a-o'-no-he, where the creek suddenly rises, is Limestone 
creek at Manlius. Clark said : " Limestone creek passing through 
Manlius — Indian name, Te-a-une-nogh-he — the angry stream or 
Mad creek, otherwise, a stream that rises suddenly, overflowing the 
country through which it passes." The name is quite appropriate. 

De-is-wa-ga'-ha, place of many ribs, is Morgan's name for the 
town of Pompey. In the 11 names following the first form of each 
is Morgan's. 

De-o'-nake-ha'-c, oily water, is given by him as ( )il creek in this 
countv. T know of no such stream, nor does it appear on his map. 


De-o'-nake-hus'-sink, never clean, is Christian hollow. 

De-o'-sa-da-ya'-ah, deep basin spring. lie said this meant " the 
Iroquois in their journeys upon the great thoroughfare." A jour- 
nal of Colonel Gansevoort's party in 1779 speaks of it as the 
" Sunken spring in the road." ' It is also mentioned in the land 
treaties of 1788 and 1795, but in no others. By a natural change 
of the initial letter J. Y. H. Clark made this Te-ungh-sat-a-yagh. 
interpreting it by the fort at the spring, and adding: ''Near this 
spring was anciently the easternmost setlement of the Onondagas. 
They had at this place an earthen fort, surrounded with palisades. 
There were always stationed at this place a party of warriors, to 
hold the eastern door of the nation." Neither in history, in the 
name or on the spot is there any evidence of this* The first 
definition is substantially correct. 

De-o'-wy-un'-do, windmill, is from an early windmill on Pompey 

Ga-ah'-na rising to the surface and then sinking, is connected 
with an unrecorded tale of a drowning man in Otisco lake. A. 
4jt Cusick's definition harmonized with this, being the last seen of any- 
thing, but he did not know the allusion. 

Ga-che'-a-yo, lobster, is Limestone creek at Fayetteville, mean- 
ing that fresh-water crayfish were abundant there. The Onondaga 
name for this crustacean is o-ge-a-ah, meaning claws. 

Ga-do'-quat is an Oneida name for Brewerton, which A. Cusick 
defined / got out of the water. It may allude to fording the river 
or landing from the lake. In 1654 Father Le Moyne was carried 
from a canoe to the shore on an Indian's back, lest he should get 
wet. The place has many names, as might have been expected. 

Ga-na-wa'-ya, at the great szcanip. Assigned to the village of 
Liverpool and its vicinity, but is properly Cicero swamp. 

Ga-nun-ta'-ah, material for council fire, a name for Onondaga 
lake, but the definition may be doubted. A. Cusick defined it near 
the village on a hill; that is, Onondaga. The Indians now call it 
Oh-nen-ta-ha. The early French form was Ganentaa and Kaneenda 
the English. 

Ga-sun'-to, bark in the water, is the name of Jamesville and of 
Butternut creek a* that place. Clark said of the creek: "Indian 
name Ka-soougk-ta, formerly called by the whites, ' Kashunkta,' 


literally, barks in the water or a place where barks arc placed after 
being- peeled in spring, that they may not curl in summer, and 
thereby become unfit for covering their cabins for winter, or that 
they may always be in readiness for use." I had precisely the 
same account from the Indians. The town of Onondaga, burned 
in 1696, was on the east side of the creek, near the present reservoir. 

Gis'-twe-ah-na, little man, an Indian village .near the present 
village of Onondaga Valley, according to Morgan. This location 
of a village seems an error, the nearest town being on Webster's 
Mile Square, quite a distance south. The allusion, however, is to 
the ravines west of Onondaga Valley, where the Indians say the 
friendly but unseen pigmies, or little men, lived and frolicked. 

Goi-en-ho, a crossing place, was a name for Oneida lake in 1655. 
It has been mentioned and probably belonged to Brewerton. 

Ha-nan'-to, small hemlock Utnbs in the water, is Morgan's name 
for Skaneateles creek and Jordan. An old map has the same name. 
Clark said : "It is called Hananttoo — water running through thick 
hemlocks, or hemlock creek " ; an appropriate name. Elias Johnson 
said the Tuscaroras had a settlement there, called Kan-ha-to, limbs 
in the water, but there was no such village. 

Kach-na-wa-ra'-ge, red or bloody place, was a ledge on Chit- 
tenango , creek, below Butternut in 1700. Kaquewagrage and 
Kachnawaacharege were the same. Clark erroneously placed the 
name at Oswego Falls and ascribed it to Le Mercier. It will be 
found on Romer's map and in the account of his journey. 

Kah-chc -qua-ne-ung'-ta is Clark's name for Onondaga West Hill, 
and he added : ''On Mitchell's map of the British and French do- 
minions in America, this range of hills is called ' Tegerhunkserode 
mountains,' and in an ancient Dutch map they are called the ' Table 
mountains.' ' According to the trust deed of 1726, however, 
Tegerhunckseroda was a hill of the Cayugas. On a map of 1839 
Onondaga Hill appears as West Mills. Morgan gives the full prefix 
to the name first mentioned, making it Te-ga-che'-qua-nc-on-ta, 
hammer hanging. The allusion is now forgotten. 

Kah-ya-hoo'-neh, where the ditch full of water goes through, is 
one of Clark's names for Syracuse. 

Kah-yah-tak-ne-t'ke-tah'-keh, where the mosquito lies, is A. 
Cusick's name for Cicero swamp near Centerville. I received a 


number of names from him and many definitions. The great 
mosquito, slain by Hiawatha, is supposed to have died and decayed 
in this swamp, originating the smaller forms. 

Kah-yung-kwa-tah-to'-a, the creek, is one of Clark's names for 
Onondaga creek. 

Kai-ehn'-tah, trees hanging over the water, is Cusick's name for 
Ninemile creek. Clark's name for its estuary at Onondaga lake, 
Kia-huen-ta-ha, seems the same word. 

Kai-oongk is one of Clark's names for Otisco lake. This is a 
name for the wild goose, from its note. 

Clark called "Green pond, in the town of De Witt, Kai-yah-koo : 
satisfied with tobacco," and said that the main trail from Oneida to 
Onondaga passed near this pond ; which is possible though it seems 
farther south, but trails varied at times. An Indian woman lost 
her child and was told that an evil spirit had borne it away. It 
could not be regained, but the Great Spirit would keep it safe if 
she and her -family would cast some tobacco into the lake every 
autumn. This was done till the white settlement, and hence came 
the name of Kai-yah-koo, satisfied -with tobacco. I could not find 
this pretty story among the Onondagas, but a few miles away, but 
was told that both place and interpretation seemed erroneous. Green 
lake, near Kirkville, was a customary halting place between On- 
ondaga and Oneida, and here they satisfied themselves with a smoke, 
but the name of that place was Kai-yahn'-koo, and it meant <*a 
resting place.* There seems no doubt of its significance. Green 
pond, however, had good stories of the Stone Giants and False 
Faces, the latter once making it their secret resort. 

Ka-na-sah'-ka, sandy place, was Brighton, now included in the 
south part of the city of Syracuse. In the sand there were the 
footprints of the great mosquito and Ta-en-ya-wah'-kee, his pursuer. 
They were much like those of a bird. Hiawatha is sometimes the 

Ka-na-ta-go-wa, large village, is that at the present council house. 
At one time there were other small hamlets on the reservation. 

Ka-na-wah-goon'-wah, in a big szvanip, is Cusick's name for 
Cicero swamp, and is much better than Clark's. His is "Ka-nugh- 
wa-ka — where the rabbits run — great swamp, where there is plenty 


of game." This is an enlarged idea, great swamp being the actual 

Ka-ne-en'-da, at the inlet of Onondaga lake, was frequently men- 
tioned about the year 1700, as a port for Onondaga, then some miles 
away on Butternut creek. It was the English form of Ganentaa, 
and was sometimes applied to the lake. Colonel Romer wrote it 

Ka-no-a-lo-ka is the name for Oneida lake on Thurber's map, 
meaning head on a pole, and derived from the name of Oneida 

Ka-no-wa'-ya, skull on a shelf, is Morgan's name for Elbridge, 
but it scarcely differs from his name for Cicero swamp, and I 
strongly suspect it should apply to the many swamps in the north 
part of the town. 

Ken-tue-ho'-ne, a river which has been made, is Cusick's name 
for Syracuse, differing somewhat from that of Clark. The Onon- 
dagas call the city Sy-kuse. 

Ke-quan-de-ra'-ge was said to be the only rapid on the Oneida 
river in 1792, which is not literally true, but it is now Caughdenoy. 
A. Cusick defined this as the red place. 

Ki-ech-i-o-i-ah-te was Butternut creek on Romer's map. 

Kot-cha-ka-too, lake surrounded by salt springs, is Clark's name 
for Onondaga lake, but lake is not implied. A. Cusick applied 
Ka-chik-ha'-too, place of salt, to the salt springs and works. 
Morgan has also the name of Te-ga-jik-ha'-do, place of salt, for 
Salina. It will be observed that in many words the initial syllable 
is dropped in common use. As the Indians used no salt in early 
days their name for it meant something sour or disagreeable. 

Ku-na'-tah, where the hemlocks grow, is a local name on the 
Onondaga Reservation, near A. Cusick's. 

Kun-da'-qua, the creek, for Onondaga creek, is contracted from 
a name already given. Mr Clark had this from a map made by Mr 
Thurber of Utica, which is in the library of the New York His- 
torical Society. 

Ku-ste'-ha, to the stony place, is another place on the reservation. 

Nan-ta-sa'-sis, going partly round a hill, is Morgan's name for a 
village on the west side of the valley, 3 miles south of the present 
Onondaga Castle. The location is clearly erroneous. 


Xa-ta'-dunk, pine tree broken, with top hanging down, is his name 
for Syracuse. Clark gives a fuller form of the last, saying: "The 
estuary of the creek and neighborhood of Syracuse, was formerly 
Oh-na-ta-toonk, among the pines." It was given to me as Tu-na- 
ten-tonk, a hanging pine. 

Oh-nen-ta-ha, a present Indian name for Onondaga lake, already 

"Ohsahaunytah-Seughkah — literally where the waters run out of 
Oneida lake," is Clark's name for Brewerton. In this case Seughkah 
is the name of the lake. 

Oneida lake and river had their name from the people of the 

Onida-hogo is the name of this lake in Capt. Thomas Mackay's 
journal of 1779. Onida-hogu is many stones, but may also be de- 
fined Oneida lake. 

On-on-da'-ga, on the mountain, and thence people of the mountain 
Or great hill. To express people in full Ronon was formerly added. 
Among themselves the Indians now pronounce is On-on-dah'-ka, 
but in talking to white people they usually give the long instead of 
the broad sound to the third vowel. The name was first known to 
the whites in 1634. The Relation of 1656 says that "Onontae', or, 
as other pronounce it, Onontague. is the principal dwelling of the 
Onontaeronons." In the Relation of 1658 is an explicit and correct 
definition : " The word Onnonta, which signifies a mountain in the 
Iroquois tongue, has given name to the town called Onnontae', or, 
as others call it, Onnontaghe, because it is on a mountain, and the 
people who dwell there call themselves Onnontaeronnons from this, 
or Onnontagheronnons." 

In his Essay of an Onondaga Grammar Zeisberger uses gachera 
for on or upon, and gives ononta for a hill, or mountain, and 
onontachera as upon the hill. The latter meaning he gives to 
onontacta. Spafford said : "Onondaga is purely an Indian word, 
signifying a swamp under or at the foot of a hill or mountain." 
This is erroneous, but he added: "Onondagahara, a place between 
the hills. I wish the people of Onondaga Hollow would take a 
hint from this, and let their village be 'Onondagahara,' and that 
on the hill ' Onondaga,' the capital of the county of Onondaga." 
In the earlier edition he said: "Onondaga on the authority of Mr 


Webster, interpreter to the ( )neidas, signifies in the dialect of the 
Indians, a swamp under, or at the foot of a hill or mountain." Mr 
Clark referred to this and made special inquiries about the word. 
He said: '.'From the best information we have attained we set it 
down as the 'residence of the people of the hills,' the word swamp 
having no connection with it." The successive towns were at first 
on the hills near Limestone creek, but the name followed the later 
sites on lower lands. The Oneida and Oswego rivers once had 
this name, and Onondaga lake and creek retain it. 

O-nun-da'-ga, on the hills, is Morgan's name for the creek. 

( )-nun'-o-gese, long hickory, is his name for Apulia, and may be 
compared with names used by the Moravians. 

O-ser-i-gooch, the large lake in Tully, was so called by Span- 
genberg in his journal of 1745. 

Oswego, -flowing out, an old name for Seneca river in its down- 
ward course. 

Ote-ge-ga-ja-ke, for Pompey and Lafayette, is correctly given 
by Clark as a place of in itch grass openings or prairies. This 
alluded to the many fields abandoned as the Onondagas removed 
their villages, for they occupied several places in these towns. 

Mr Clark added: "Another name given to this locality, not often 
repeated, and about which there is much superstitious reserve, is 
Otc-quch-sah-he-eh, the field of blood or bloody ground — a place 
where many have been slain. It has been said that no Indian ever 
visits this neighborhood. They certainly very much dislike to con- 
verse about it. A. Cusick did not know Pompey by this name, but 
defined it as blood spilled. There is no evidence of early battles 
there, but the allusion is to the numerous cemeteries. In Iroquois 
speech even a peaceful death might be considered as the shedding 
of blood. Thus, in one of the condoling songs the people are re- 
minded that their great men, warriors, women, and even little 
children were daily borne into the earth, " so that in the midst of 
blood you are sitting. Now, therefore, we say, we will wash off the 
blood marks from your seat." Thus to call a place a field of blood 
might be merely to say it was a place where many were buried. 
Many illustrations could be cited. 

O-tis'-co or Otskah lake appears as Ostisco on a map of 1825. 
Spafford said: "Otisco is from Ostickney, signifying waters much 


dried away"; perhaps from an idea that the lake was once much 
larger. The derivation is reasonable. Zeisberger has the Onon- 
daga work ostick. the water is low; in the perfect tense, ostiqua, 
the water has been low. It might also come from Us-te-ka, the 
name of its outlet, but there is less resemblance in this, and orig- 
inally the lake had the appearance of subsidence. 

O-ya-ye'-han, apples split open, is Morgan's name for Camillus. 

Qua-quen-de'-na, red place, according to A. Cusick, is on Sau- 
thier's map, and apparently at Caughdenoy. 

Qui-e'-hook, was defined as we spoke there, by A. Cusick, and 
there was a consultation there about a fort. It was a creek flowing 
into, not out of Oneida lake in 1700. Its correct location appears 
on Romer's map of that year, where it is applied to Chittenango 
creek below Butternut. It was also called Quohock, and was men- 
tioned as "Quiehook by the Ledge called Kagnewagrage about 1^ 
Dutch mile from the Lake of Oneyda." Clark erred in saying "An 
Indian village, at Oswego falls, was called by Mercier, ' Quiehook,' 
and the ledge over which the water falls, he calls 'Kagnewagrage.' " 
Both names belong to Chittenango creek and a much later day. 

Ra-rag-hen'-he, place where he considered, as defined by A. 
Cusick, was a place on Oneida river in 1788. 

Sa-gogh-sa-an-a-gech-they-ky, bearing the names, is the council 
name of the Onondagas and was applied to their town in a council 
held there in 1743. This name was often taken by the principal 
chief or speaker, as representing the nation, and then was some- 
times shortened in common usage, as when we say Tom for Thomas. 
Another instance of naming this town after this principal chief or 
council name occurs in the Moravian journal at Onondaga, Sep- 
tember 29, 1752 : "Next we called on the chief Gachsanagechti, who 
is the principal chief of the town, and after whom it has been named 

Sah'-eh, a name given by Clark to Oneida river, seems a con- 
traction of the first part of the name he assigned to Brewerton. 
< Hherwise it might be derived from o-sa'-a, muddy, in allusion to the 
lowlands through which the river flows. * 

Seneca river has its name from an Algonquin word to be con- 
sidered later. In early days it was known as Onondaga river from 
its mouth to the outlet of that lake. Above this it was the Cayuga, 


as leading to that nation. This must be understood of the upward 
course. Downward it was the Oswego. 
Clark said of Oneida lake : 

The Onondagas call it Se-ugh-ka, i. e., striped with blue and white 
lines, separating and coming together again. In order fully to com- 
prehend this interpretation and signification, the person should 
occupy some one of the high grounds of Manlius or 1'ompey, where 
the whole extent of this lake may be distinctly seen some 10 or 12 
miles distant. At particular times the surface presents white and 
blue lines distinctly traceable from its head to its outlet. At such 
times it is strikingly beautiful, and its Indian name peculiarly sig- 

This is a good deal to be comprised in one small word, but it is 
much like the name and definition given by A. Cusick: Se-u-ka, 
string divided in two (by islands) and uniting again. The name 
is said to have been given by Hiawatha as he passed through the 
lake. The following two are derived from this. 

Se-u-ka, Kah'-wha-nah'-kee, the island in Seuka (Oneida) lake. 
This is Frenchman's island according to A. Cusick, but might be 
applied to the other. In the Onondaga dialect kahwhanoo is 

Se-u-ka, Keh-hu'-wha-tah'-dea, the river flowing from Seuka 
lake, i. e. Oneida river. This name differs from Clark's, but has the 
same meaning and was given by A. Cusick. The last word means 
river, with its current. 

Skan-e-at'-e-les, long lake, is one form of this frequent name. 
Morgan gives this as Ska-ne-o'-dice in Onondaga and Seneca. 
Ska-ne-a'-dice in Cayuga, Skon-yat-e'-les in Tuscarora, Ska'-nc-o- 
da'-lis in Oneida, and Ska'-ne-a'-da-lis in Mohawk, the last being 
nearest the usual local pronunciation. The Moravians wrote it Sga- 
niatarees in 1750, having a Cayuga guide. Clark gave the Onondaga 
form as Skehneahties. or very long lake, and I received it as Skan- 
eaties. It is Lac Scaniatores on the map of Charlevoix. Spafford 
made a note on this name : "Skaneateles, in the dialect of the Onon- 
daga Indians, signifies long, and the lake has its name from them 
. . . The inhabitants say I must write this Skaneateles, but why 
they do not tell me,." 

It will be observed, however, that the present name has the 
Mohawk form. There is a groundless but persistent belief that this 


means beautiful squaw, but all good authorities, including the Onon- 
dagas, assert that it means merely long lake. So strenuous was the 
local opposition to this prosaic definition, that Mr Clark put on 
record the testimony of two principal chiefs of the Onondagas on 
this point, in 1862. Among other things they said : 

We would here distinctly state that we have never known among 
the Indians the interpretation of Skaneateles to be " beautiful 
squaw," nor do we know of any tradition among the Onondagas, 
connected with Skaneateles, that has any allusion to a " beautiful 
squaw," or " tall virgin," or any " female of graceful form." The 
Onondagas know the lake by the name Skeh-ne-a-ties, which, liter- 
ally rendered, is " long water." Nothing more or less. We have 
inquired of several of our chief men and women, who say that it is 
the first time they have ever heard that -Skaneateles meant " beautiful 
squaw." They, as well as ourselves, believe such interpretation to 
be a fiction. 

So-hah'-hee, the name given by Clark for the Onondaga outlet, 
is the same as the title of one of the principal chiefs, which means 
wearing a weapon in his belt. It may be a corruption of o-sa'-a, 
muddy, a name applied to putty and paste, and quite appropriate for 
the marly shores. 

Sta-a'-ta is his name for the east branch of Onondaga creek, 
corning from between two barren knolls. 

Ste-ha'-hah, stones in the water, is the present Indian name of 
Baldwinsville, in allusion to the rifts or to two large boulders in 
the river above the village. It was one of the six great Onondaga 
fishing places, and was under charge of Kaghswuhtioni in 1753. 

Swe-noch-so'-a was Zeisberger's name for Onondaga creek in 
1752, but he wrote it differently at other times. 

Swe-nugh'-kee, cutting through a deep gulf, is Clark's name for 
the west branch of Onondaga creek. A. Cusick gave the name of 
Sweno'ga for this, defined as a hollow. 

Ta-gu-ne'-da, a name for ( )neida Lake on Thurber's map. 

Tah-te-yohn-yah'-hah or Tah-te-nen-yo'-nes, place of making 
stone. Onondaga Reservation quarries. 

Ta-ko-a-yent-ha'-qua, place where they used to run. Old race 
track at Danforth. 

Ta-te-so-weh-nea-ha'-qua, place where they made guns. Navarino. 

Te-ger-hunk'-se-rode. Onondaga West Hill on Mitchell's map. 


Te-ka-jik-ha'-do, place of salt, is Morgan's name for Salina. 

Te-ka'-ne-a-da'-hc, take on a hill, is his name for Tully and its 

"Te-kanea-ta-heung-he-ugh — Very high hills, with many small 
lakes, from which water Hows in contrary directions. It implies, 
also, an excellent hunting ground." Clark applied this to Fahius, 
Tully, Truxton. etc., but included too much in his definition. For 
these lakes as a group A. Cusick gave the name of T'ka-ne-a-da- 
her-neuh. many lakes on a hill. These ponds have several legends, 
but without relation to the name. 

Te-ka'-wis-to'-ta, tinned dome, is Morgan's name for the village 
of Lafayette. 

Te-o-ha'-ha-hen'-wha turnpike crossing the valley is his name 
for Onondaga Valley. Clark gave it as "Teuaheughwa — where the 
path crosses the road." A. Cusick called it Tu-ha-han'-wah, to the 
crossing road, i. e. in going from the reservation to the road leading 

Te-thir'-o-quen and Tsi-ro-qui were French forms of early names 
of ( )neida lake and outlet, referring to something white. The first 
name is in the Relation of 1656. but afterward had many variations. 
( )n the Jesuit map of 1665 appears Lac Techiroquen. Greenhalgh 
wrote it Teshiroque in 1677. In 1728 the French spoke of "the 
Lake of Thechewegnen, or of the Oneidas." 

Teu-nen'-to, at the cedars, is A. Cusick's name for Cross lake. 
Others will follow from various sources. 

Te-ungt'-too, residence of the wise man, is the name of this lake 
according to Clark. He added : "There is a singular tradition alive, 
among the Onondagas, respecting an aged and very wise chief, who 
lived on the eastern shore of this lake many hundred years ago. 
His name was Hiawatha." Clark first gave this legend in an ex- 
tended form. Hiawatha was at first an Onondaga chief, but was 
adopted by the Mohawks, among whom his successors yet rule. 
Teonto was Schoolcraft's name for this lake. According to the 
Onondagas in 1752 it was ( )ch-schu-go-re who founded the fishery 
near the lake. 

Teu-nea-yahs-go'-na, place of big stones. Geddes. 

Te-u-swen-ki-en'-took. board hanging down. Castle hotel on 
reservation line. 


" Te-u-ung-hu-ka — meeting of waters or where two rivers meet," 
is Clark's name for Three River point. A. Cusick gave this as Teu- 
tune-hoo'-kah, where the river forks. It is a variant of Tioga. 

Te-was'-koo-we-goo'-na, long, or rather big bridge, this being 
more literal. It is a modern name for Brewerton. 

Te-yo-wis'-o-don, a place on the river west of Brewerton, men- 
tioned in 1788, was defined. by A. Cnsick as ice hanging from the 

In 1747 the French were informed that there were " many Dutch 
and Palatine traders at the place called Theyaoguin, who were pre- 
paring to come and do a considerable trade at Choueguin." E. B. 
O'Callaghan thought this the portage at Rome, X. Y.. but the name 
suggests Oneida lake and Brewerton. Theyaoguin, white head, 
was a name given to King Hendrick, but here it may suggest the 
eagles so common on the lake. 

Ti-oc'-ton is Cross lake on the map of Charlevoix. This and the 
next may be a contraction of Tionihhohactong, at the bend of the 
river. Compare Totiakton, the Seneca town, with this, and it seems 

In 1750 the Moravians mentioned that the Seneca river flowed 
through Lake Tionctong or Tionctora, being Cross lake. 

Tis-tis was a name for Ninemile creek, mentioned by Cammer- 
hoff in 1750, and perhaps named from Otisco lake. Xear it was a 
place they called the French Camp, finding paintings on the trees 
there made by Canadian Indians. 

T'kah-en-too'-tah, ivhere the pole is raised. South Onondaga. 

T'kah-nah-tah'-kae-ye'-hoo, old village, a place on the east side of 
the reservation. 

T'kah'-neh-sen-te'-u, stony place, or stones thrown on the road. 
A place on the Cardiff road. 

T'kah-skoon-su'-tah, at the falls. Falls on the reservation. 

T'kah-skwi-ut'-ke, place where the stone stands up. Perhaps the 
high brick chimneys of the salt works at Liverpool were intended, 
the name belonging there. It is a Seneca word, sometimes short- 
ened by dropping Te from the prefix. 

T'kah-sent'-tah, the tree that hangs over, or one tree falling into 
another, is another of Cusick's names for Ninemile creek. 

Tou-en'-ho was an Indian hamlet south of Brewerton in K 


Tu-e-a-das'-so, hemlock knots in the water, is described by Mor- 
gan as a village 4 miles east of Onondaga Castle. It is not quite 
3, and was occupied in the later colonial period. Locally it is known 
as Indian Orchard. Conrad Weiser called it Cajadachse in 1743. 
Tbe Moravions termed it Tiatachtont, Tiachton, Tiojachso, etc. 
The last is like the later name. The first of the three might be 
derived from Untiatachto, meaning astray, according to Zeisberger. 
It would then be a znllage which had gone astray from the main 
body, and this name seems distinct from other forms. Tbe Black 
Prince died there while returning from Pennsylvania in 1749. 

Tu-e-yah-das'-soo, hemlock knots in the water, is Green pond, 
west of Jamesville, and the appropriateness of the name is evident 
to any one looking down on it from the high cliffs around. This 
is Clark's Kai-yah-koo, but Tueyahdassoo is the present Onondaga 
name. Thence, perhaps, came the name of tbe village at Indian 
( )rebard, a few miles south. 

Tu-na-ten'-tonk, hanging pine, is Cusick's name for Syracuse. 

Tun-da-da'-qua, thrown out, was given by Morgan as a name for 
Liverpool creek. The only stream near that village is Bloody brook. 
On bis map the name is applied to a tributary of Oneida river, 
which seems to be Mud creek. Had it been at Liverpool the ref- 
erence might have been to the canal excavations. ( )n the creek 
tbe allusion is not clear. 

U-neen'-do is Morgan's name for Cross lake, and he defined this 
hemlock tops lying on water. Interpretations vary much. 

Yu-ncen'-do is the same lake on Thurber's map, and both are 
probably equivalent to Teunento. 

Zi-noch-sa'-a, house on the bank, was a name for Onondaga creek 
in 1750, when the west bank was newly settled. It was written 
Swenochsoa in 1752, and Zinschoe and Zinochtoe at other times. 

Zi-nocb-sa'-e was also a name for Onondaga lake in 1750, but 
this was probably from receiving the creek. This and the preceding 
appear in tbe Moravian journals. 


Originally this county bordered on Lake Ontario, the meaning of 
which Father Hennepin twice mentioned : " The river of St Law- 
rence derives its source from Lake Ontario, which is likewise called 


in the Iroquois language, Skanadario, that is to say, very pretty 
Jake." Also, " The great river of St Lawrence, which I have often 
mentioned, runs through the middle of the Iroquois country, and 
makes a great lake there, which they call Ontario, viz: the beautiful 
lake." It had other names noted elsewhere, and the Senecas some- 
times called it Ohudeara. They were mostly living in this county 
when Champlain called it after them in 1615, mentioning the lake of 
the Entouhonorons, who were living west of the Iroquois. He after- 
ward said : " The Antouhonorons are 15 villages built in strong po- 
sitions . . . The Yroquois and the Antouhonorons make war 
together against all the other nations, except the Neutral nation." 
This was the customary later distinction by the French of Lower 
and Upper Iroquois, classed by the Dutch as Maquas and Senecas. 

Ah-ta'-gweh-da-ga is Morgan's name for Flint creek, usually 
translated flint stone. Schoolcraft has atrakwenda for Hint in the 
Cayuga dialect, and ahtehgwendah in the Seneca. 

An-ya-ye, Anyayea, Anaquayaen, and Anagaugoam are among 
the variants of Honeoye in the journals of Sullivan's campaign. 

Ax-o-quen'-ta is also Flint creek. In the Cammerhoff journal of 
1750 it is said: "We came to a creek that is called Axoquenta, or 
Firestone creek." 

Ca-na-da-gua is a name given to Skaneatice lake in the Jenkins 
journal of 1779. It suggests Canandaigua, but he had already men- 
tioned that. 

Ca'-na-dice or Ska'-ne-a-dice is long lake, the former name being 
that applied to the town and sometimes to the lake. The latter is 
more commonly termed Skaneatice. It had other names and a 
variation will be found in Grant's journal of Sullivan's campaign, 
where he speaks of "Aionyedice, otherwise Long-narrow Lake." 
In another journal of that year it is mentioned as a " small lake 
called Konvouyhyough (Xarrow gut)." On Lodge's map it is 
" Conyeadice Lake ; English, the Long Narrow Lake." Marshall 
said, of another time, that Sga'-nyiu-da-is, Long lake, was then 
called Scanitice. The name is equivalent to Skaneateles elsewhere. 

Ca-na-go'-ra was a Seneca town of 1677 and had other names. 

Ca-nan-dai'-gua is given by Morgan as Ga'-nun-da-gwa, place 
selected for a settlement. Spafford said of this: "Pure Indian. 
Canandaigua being a town set off in the dialect of tin- Seneca In- 


dians." In [763 it was mentioned as Canaderagey, a friendly Seneca 
town. Farther west the Senecas were hostile to New York. In 
the journals of Sullivan's campaign it appears as Kennendanqne, 
Kanondaqua. Kanadalaugua. and in other forms. On Lodge's map 
it is " Kanandaque, the Chosen or Beautiful Lake." In Shute's 
journal of this campaign it is " Chosen Town or Canandagne." 
Other forms will be given later. The lake had its name from the 

Ca-na-sa-de'-go is west of Seneca lake on Kitchin's map. This 
erroneous form is frequent. It was the Canadisega of 1763 and 
will he mentioned again. 

Ca-no-en-a-da was a Seneca town of 1677. 

Ca-nough, an Indian farm beyond Honeoye lake in 1779. Ganno 
by itself signifies cold. 

Chi'-nos-hah'-geh or St Michel's, a town of adopted Hurons, was 
on Mud creek in East Bloomfield. Marshall defined this on the 
slope of the valley, giving the same name to the creek. He thought 
this was Gannogarae. 

Da-non-ca-ri-ta-rui was a Seneca town mentioned by Lahontan, 
and named from Onnonkenritaoui. a resident chief in 1672. The 
site is somewhat uncertain, having been sometimes assigned to Liv- 
ingston county, in which a fuller note is given. 

Dya-go-di'-yu, place of a battle, is Marshall's name for a spot 
near Victor, where the Senecas ambushed De Nonville in 1687. 

Lake of the Entouhonorons, Champlain's name for Lake Ontario, 
seems derived from Sonnontoueronons, the proper name of the 

Ga-en-sa-ra was one name of the Seneca capital in 1687. 

Gah-a'-yan-dunk, a fort was there. Eort hill in Victor. 

Ga-na-ta'-queh is used for Canandaigua in Cammerhoff's journal. 

Gan-da-gan was one name of the principal Seneca town in 1657. 
It was on Boughton hill. 

Gan-dou-ga-ra-e'. or St Michel, was a Seneca town in 1670, peo- 
pled with Hurons. Neutrals and ( hiontiogas. It was mentioned as 
Gannongarae' in 1687, a small town but a short league from Gan- 
nagaro, which was on Boughton hill, near Victor. 

( ia-ncch-sta-gc, a town near Geneva, appears in Cammerhofif's 


journal. One village of this name had been deserted and a new one 

Gan-na-ga-ro was the principal Seneca town in 1677, though De 
Xonville thought Totiakton larger 10 years later. It was on Bough- 
ton hill and was the mission of St James. If corrupted it may have 
been originally great z'illage. A. Cusick thought it might mean she 
lived there, or else had a reference to many animals. It had other 
names, and occupied a commanding situation. 

Ga'-noon-daa-gwah', a chosen town, is given by Marshall for 
Canandaigua. He derived it from gan-on-da, town, and gaa-gwah, 
it was selected. 

Ga-non'-da-eh, village on a hill, is Marshall's name for a place 
on the east bank of Honeoye creek, where the turnpike crosses the 
stream. This has also been written Ga-nun'-da-ok. 

Ga-o'-sa-ga-o, in the basszcood country, is Morgan's name for 
Boughton hill and Victor. Mr O. H. Marshall had this name, 
slightly varied, from the Seneca chief Blacksnake. It was Ga-o'- 
sa-eh-ga-aah, the basswood bark lies there. According to the old 
chief the fine spring on the hillside supplied the whole town, bass- 
wood bark conductors bringing the water to convenient points. 
This seems improbable from the situation. After long occupation 
the town was burned in the French invasion of 1687. 

Gar-naw-quash is placed on the site of Kashong on Morgan's 

One journal of the Sullivan campaign calls Canandaigua lake 
Genesee, and another has it Chinesee lake. 

Hach-ni-a-ge lake and town represent Honeoye in Cammerhoff's 

Hon-e-o-ye is Ha'-ne-a-yah, finger lying, in Morgan's list. There 
was an early town near the lake of this name. Marshall wrote it 
Hah'-nyah-yah', where the finger 'lies, deriving it from hah-nyah, 
his finger, and ga-yah, it lies there. He said an Indian, picking 
strawberries near the foot of Honeoye lake, had his finger bitten 
by a rattlesnake. He cut off the finger with his tomahawk and 
left it lying there. The name varies much, and Hanyaye, Han- 
nevauyen and Anyayea are some of these. Onaghe suggests it, 
but is much farther east. Major Fogg, in a journal of 1779, said of 
Annaquayen, " This took its name from a misfortune which befell 


an Indian, viz : The loss of a finger, which the word signifies." On 
Lodge's map is " Haunyauga Lake. Eng* b the open hand." Han- 
nauyuye and Hannyonyie are other forms. 

In his account of the Iroquois migrations David Cusick said : 
" The fifth family was directed to make their residence near a high 
mountain, or rather nole, situated south of the Canandaigua lake, 
which was named Jenneatowake, and the family was named Te- 
how-nea-nyo-hent, i. e. possessing a door, now Seneca." This is 
usually located at Fort hill, Naples, while others place it elsewhere. 
To this name and that of To-na'-kah is given the meaning of people 
of the great hill. 

Ka-na-de'-sa-ga is Ga-nun'-da-sa-ga, new settlement village in 
Morgan's list. It was a little northwest of Geneva, and the name 
was often given to Seneca lake. It seems to have been mentioned 
as Canayichagy in 1753. Of course it has many forms in the jour- 
nals of Sullivan's campaign. Among these are Cunnusedago, Ken- 
nesdago, Kanadasago, Kannadasegea, etc. In Tuscarora the place 
is called O-ta-na-sa'-ga. 

Ka-shong', the limb lias fallen, is the name of a creek and former 
Indian village, a few miles south of Geneva and on the west shore 
of Seneca lake. Many names of this place are found in the journals 
of 1779, some hardly suggesting the present form, but one is Ca- 
shong. Among others are Gaghcoughwa, Gahgsonghwa, Gagha- 
sieanhgwe, Gothsinquea, Gaghsiungua, etc. 

Ko-ho-se-ragh'-e and Ka-he-sa-ra-he'-ra are names for the town 
on Boughton hill, and are defined by A. Crsick as light on a hill. 
They may be corruptions of a name already given. 

Nun'-da-wa-o, great hill, is Morgan's name for Naples, on Canan- 
daigua lake. 

Nah'-daeh is Marshall's name for Hemlock lake, from o-na'-dah, 
hemlock, and ga-ah', it is upon. These trees abound there. 

"Negateca fontaine" appears on a map of 1680, and seems the 
burning spring of La Salle. It excited early attention, and in 
Colonel Romer's instructions he was told : " You are to go and 
view a well or spring which is eight miles beyond the Sineks farth- 
est Castle, which they have told me blazes up in a flame when a 
light coale or fire brand is put into it ; yo will do well to taste the 
-aid water, and give me your opinion thereof, and bring with you 


some of it." Romer did not go beyond Onondaga lake, and made 
no report of this. Galinee was there in 1669 with La Salle, and 
said : " It forms a small brook as it issues from a rather high rock. 
The water is very clear, but has a bad odor, like that of Paris mud, 
when the mud at the bottom of the water is stirred with the foot. 
He put a torch in it and immediately the water took fire as brandy 
does, and it does not go out until rain comes. This flame is, amongst 
the Indians, a sign of abundance, or of scarcity when it has the 
opposite qualities. There is no appearance of sulphur or saltpeter, 
or any other combustible matter. The water has no taste even." 
This is in the town of Bristol. 

O-nagh'-e or On-na'-chee was a Seneca town. In 1720 there was 
mentioned " One of the furthermost Castles of the Ceneca's called 
Onahe, within a Day's Journey of Yagerah." In Cammerhoff's 
journal it appears as " old Indian settlement, where a city by the 
name of Onnachee is said to have stood, but which is now unin- 
habited." This was in the town of Hopewell. This journal also 
calls Canandaigua lake Onnachee, meaning a place behind some 

O-neh'-da, hemlock, is Morgan's name for Hemlock lake. The 
Moravians called the creek and lake Xoehnta. 

On-ta'-ri-o has already been mentioned. It was not only the 
name of a great lake, but in its full form is also the title of a prin- 
cipal Seneca chief, and was borne by the prophet of the New 
Religion. Schoolcraft gave one of his characteristic interpretations 
of this, ignoring the principal word, lake. His analysis was on, 
increment for hill, tarac. rocks standing in the water; io, how beau- 
tiful ; making this an allusion to the Thousand islands. 

O-toch-shia-co. in Cammerhoff's journal, was a place and creek 
a little west of Onnachee. It is now Fall brook. 

Seneca lake and town. In the Revolutionary War the lake some- 
times had this name, which is not an Iroquois word but an Algon- 
quin name of the nation. It will be treated under the head of 
Seneca county. 

In Dr Campfield's journal of 1779 he spoke of Honeoye lake, and 
said it was " one of the three lakes called Seneke — and it is said to 
be the source of the little Seneke river." This river was the 


She-na-wa-ga or Shenanwaga appears in a journal of 1779, and 
was the village burned at Kashong. 

Sin-non-do-wae-ne was the principal Seneca castle in 1720, re- 
taining the old name in another place. It is a variant of Sonnon- 
touan, great hill, and was probably often used in a general way. 

Son-nont-ho-no-rons or Sonnontouans, great hill people was the 
Iroquois name of the Senecas as commonly used. As a place name 
it came from ononta, hill, and gowana or wan, great. In the Rela- 
tion of 1635 the country is termed Sonontoen. and in that of 1670 
appear the " Tsonnontouans, or Nation of the Great Mountain." 

Thau-gwe-took was a prehistoric Seneca fort and council fire 
west of Seneca lake, according to D. Cusick. 

Zin-no-do-wandia, mentioned in 1689, seems to he Sinnondo- 

While some early towns were in Monroe county, many later 
Seneca villages were near Genesee river, and a few can be assigned 
to their exact places only by careful study, such as has been given 
to the subject by Messrs Clark, Conover, Harris and Marshall. 


All the Indian names in this county belong to Algonquin dialects. 

A-i-as-ka-wost-ing is the name of some high hills on the Evans 
patent, west of Murderer's Kill. This patent was vacated in 1699. 

Adas-ka-ye-ring mountains are now the Minisink hills. The name 
seems a variant of the last. 

An-nuck was a part of the Evans patent, and seems to mean a 
filthy place. 

Ar-ack-hook was the Indian name for the Tin brook or Thin 
brook of the Germans. Ruttenber derived this from the Delaware 
word ahgook or snake. In 1701 Robert Sanders asked for a patent 
"beginning at a fall (i. e. a stream of water) called Arackhook." 

As-sin-na-pink creek, according to Ruttenber, is a stream from 
the solid rocks. It is opposite Anthony's Xose, and has also the 
name of Ach-sin-nik, which would hardly bear the above inter- 

A-wost-ing lake or Long pond suggests the first name above. It 
may be derived from awossi, on the other side. 

Basher's kill is said to have had its name from a squaw called 


Basher, who was either killed there or fell under a deer she was 
bringing home, and was drowned. It may have been contracted 
from Mombasha. The name occurs elsewhere, but Basha mountain 
and pond are here. 

Cha-van-go-en was on the Evans patent of 1699, and seems a 
variant of Shawangunk. 

Cheese-cocks patent was given in 1701, the name coming from 
a small tributary of the Ramapo. It was afterward applied to a 
" tract of upland and meadow," the bounds of which were contested 
later. It is also said to be the early name of a natural meadow. 
Freeland derived Cheesecocks from chis, up or high, and kauk, land, 
making it high land, but chees is a Delaware word for hide, and 
cheessack for fur, and it may be from either of these, as a good 
trapping place. 

Co-wen-ham's kill, at Plum point, north of the Highlands, was 
mentioned by Ruttenber. It resembles some Indian names, but is 
of doubtful character. 

The Cushietank mountains are on the map of 1768, and may 
be connected with the Cashigton Indians of Orange county, called 
Wolf and Turtle, and mentioned in 1745. 

Gil-la-ta-wagh was in the Evans grant. 

Jo-gee Hill, in Minisink according to Ruttenber, but now in 
YYawayanda, was the home of " Kegh-ge-ka-po-well alias Joghem," 
a grantor of the land in 1684, who lived there after his tribe left. 
The name suggests that of Joseph Gee, who gave the name of 
Colchester in Delaware in 1792, but Ruttenber's statement is definite 
on its Indian origin. 

Kack-a-wa-wook was a place on the east side of Paltz creek, at 
the north end of one line of the tract asked for by Robert Sanders. 

Ka-kagh-get-a-wan was on the Evans tract. 

Mak-ha-ken-eck, a tract in the Minisink region in 1697. 

Mag-ha-wa-e-mus was another tract. 

Ma-hack-e-meck was a name for the Xeversink river, which was 
called the Mag-gagh-ka-mi-ek in 1694. It was mentioned later as 
the " Mouth of the Mackhacamac Branch of Delaware, where the 
Line settled between Xew York & New Jersey terminates." Ma- 
hackemeck is now Port Jervis. It appeared as Maghakeneck, al- 

162 new vokk State museum 

ready mentioned, in 1697, and as Wayhackameck or Little Mines- 
sing creek in 1719. The reference may be to a fishing place. 

Mal-lo-laus-ly or Ma-re-ten-ge was a pond in the Wallkill valley 
in 1756. 

Mas-ka-eck was land mentioned at Shawankonck in 1702. The 
reference seems to be to a grassy place, from maskeht, grass, and 

Mat-te-a-wan or South mountains has been defined white rocks. 
but with nothing to support the interpretation. C )ther definitions 
will be found under the head of Dutchess count}-. 

Me-mo-ra-sinck was a place on the Evans grant. 

Men-a-yack was an island in the Minisink region. 

Mer-cla-ry pond was on the Evans tract. 

Min-i-sink has a popular interpretation of land from which the 
water is gone. 

This is given in Eager's history of Orange county, thus: " Tra- 
dition said that before the Delaware broke through the Water Gap 
the country above was a lake. When this was drained the lands 
exposed were called Minsies, with the above meaning, and the In- 
dians who settled there took this name. Thence came the present 
name of Minisink. In 1728 an old settler wrote that this was the 
best interpretation obtainable." Ruttenber said of this : " Minnisink 
is from Minnis, an island, and ink, locality, and not from Minsis, 
the name of the Wolf tribe of the Lenapes. The name has a very 
general application to lands, in Pennsylvania as well as New York, 
known as the Minnisink country. It had its origin in the tradition 
that the land was covered with water and broke through the moun- 
tain at the W r ater Gap, or Pohoqualin, and is said to mean the land 
from which the water is gone." This can only be sustained by 
going back to the primary meaning of an island as a dry place. 
In my Chippewa New Testament minisink is used for an island, 
and thus Schoolcraft interprets it place of islands. In 1697 a 
conspicuous one was mentioned in Minisink river. The Minisink 
patent was granted in 1704. 

Mis-tuck-y was an Indian village in Warwick. Ruttenber thought 
this came from miskotucky, which he interpreted as either red hills 
or plains. Mishuntugkoo, it is well zvooded, may be better. 


Mom-ba-sha-pond. If this is an Indian name it may be the larger 
form of Basha or a variant of Mombaccus. 

Mon-gaup or Mon-gaw-ping river has been defined several 
streams, in allusion to its three branches, but this is not satisfactory 

Mon-ha-gan is in Wallkill, and also seems to refer to an island. 

Much-hat-toes hill is in Windsor, near the south line of Newburgh, 
and was called Snake hill. Ruttenber derived it from muhk, red; 
at, near or by; os, small; and thence small red hill near the river. 
Tooker placed it in Columbia county, and defined it great hill, which 
is the meaning of Mishadchu. 

Nes-co-tonck may be from nishketeauog, they make it filthy. It 
was in the Evans tract, and north of what was afterward known as 
McKinstry's tannery. 

Xe-ver-sink river, a tributary of the Delaware, has been variously 
named and defined. Schoolcraft thought it meant highlands be- 
tween water, but applied the name to hills near the sea. Some have 
derived it from newasink, and interpreted it mad river. There is 
no good ground for this. 

Ogh-go-tac-ton was the name of a place for which Sanders asked 
a patent in 1702. 

Pa-ka-da-sank or Pakasank, called Pekadasank in 1699, differs 
little from a name below but is a stream in the Wallkill valley, at 
the eastern base of the Shawangunk mountains. 

Pa-quan-nack river was mentioned as being near the falls of 
Pompeton in 1694. It may be derived from paukunawaw, a bear, 
with locative affix, or from pehik-konik, a small plantation. 

Pa-sak brook is in Monroe. It may be from pasoo, it is near, 
with locative. 

Pas-cack river may be in Delaware county. Freeland defined this 
burnt lands. 

Pe -en-pack was an Indian settlement in Deer Park, the name re- 
ferring to a hill. There was a patent for this land. 

Pe-ko-na-sink creek is in the west part of Crawford, and is a 
corruption of Peadadasank creek, thus spelled in a deed of 1694. 
Sparford said Peconasink was still retained as the name of a tract 
near the Shawangunk mountains. French mentions Paugh-caugh- 
naugh-sink and the little creek of the same name. 


Pen-han-sen's land was called after Indians living in Deer Park. 

I'it-kis-ka-ker, high hills west of Murderer's creek. 

I'o-chuck creek is in Warwick, and Ruttenber said of this: " Po- 
chuck, a stream, and also the district called Florida, seems to retain 
the root term for bog or muddy land." The derivation is not very 
evident. Eager says that Pochuck creek and mountain were named 
from an Indian chief. 

Pon-chuck mountain is the one just named. 

Pollopel's island, opposite Plum point, is mentioned here to cor- 
rect an impression that it is an Indian word. Yates and Moulton 
said : " The island was named Pollepel from its resemblance to the 
convex side and circular form of the bowl of a ladle. Lepel in 
Dutch, is a spoon; a pollepel is a ladle; and particularly the one 
with a short handle for heating the butter for the wafel." On 
Sauthier's map it is Polipel, and Ruttenber says an unfounded 
Dutch story has been connected with it. 

Pom-pe-ton falls were mentioned in 1094. 

Poopdoop's kill was north of Assinnapink, and Ruttenber says 
it was so called from its Indian owner. Poplopen's pond is in 

Po-tuck creek has had its name derived from petukqui, round. 
This would be an odd name for a creek, but French says that 
Wawayanda creek flows into New Jersey and comes again into 
New York as Potuck creek. In this way this definition might allude 
to a circuitous route, but a derivation from petukau, it is going on, 
would seem more suitable. Quite as probably it is from pokke, 
clear, and tuk, river. 

Quas-sa-ick creek enters the Hudson south of Newburgh. The 
name is derived from qussuk, stone, and ick, place. Eager says 
that Newburgh was in the Quassick patent and that Chambers creek 
was called Quassaick after Indians living there. 

Ram-a-po has been defined stream formed by round ponds. 

Runbolt's Run, in Goshen and west of Woodcock mountain was 
the home of Rumbout, a signer of the deed for the Wawayanda 

Eager said that Rutger's Place in Minisink is a corruption of the 
Indian word Rutkys, but this is every way improbable. 

Schan-we-misch, or Weshauwemis as the Dutch pronounced it, 


beech woods, or place of beech trees, was south of the Chawan- 
gong tract according to the Rev. Mr Scott. 

Schun-e-munk, a variant of Shawangunk, is applied to the moun- 
tains in Blooming Grove and Monroe. 

Sen-e-yaugh-quan is given by Eager as the Indian name of a 
place where the Swarthouts lived, and defined by him as bridge 
across a brook. There is a moderate ground for this interpretation. 

Sen-ka-pogh creek was opposite Anthony's Nose according to 
Ruttenber, who also gives it the name of Tongapogh. He placed 
Assinapink creek there but farther north. Sinkapogh creek (now 
Snakehole creek) was mentioned as the south line of lands bought 
by Van Cortlandt in 1685, the north line being Assinnapink. A 
good derivation would be from sonkippog, cool water. 

Sha-wan-gunk or Schunemunk mountains was written Skone- 
moghky in some early deeds, and there are many forms. Ruttenber 
gave a good deal of space to the name, including a synopsis of an 
address before the Ulster Historical Society by the Rev. Charles 
Scott. Schoolcraft had derived it from schawan, white, and gunk, 
rock, alluding to the white cliffs west of Tuthilltown, but this is 
not satisfactory. The Dutch wrote it Shawangunk, and the English 
sometimes Chawangong, as in Dongan's deed of 1684. Originally 
it was a tract of fine lowland, west of Shawangunk kill, and thence 
the name spread to the creek and mountain. Scott gave the name 
as Shawangum, south water. This has a fair foundation, though 
not exact, the Delaware word schawaneu, meaning south, and gam- 
munk, on the other side of the water. This would refer to the land. 

Ruttenber did not feel sure of all this, and said : 

The first part or noun of the word, shawan or chawan, would 
seem to be from jewan, szvift current or strong stream, or the rapid 
water settlement. * * * Another interpretation is derived from 
shong, the Algonquin word for mink, and urn or oma, water, or onk, 
a place or country. Still another is derived from Cheegaugong, 
the place of leeks, and has no little force in the abundance of wild 
onions, which are still found in that section of country. Indeed, 
so universal is this pest of the farmer there, that they might well 
have given this name to the stream, the valley and the mountains. 

The name is usually derived from schawaneu, south or south- 
ivard. Spafford said : " Shawangunk is the Indian name for the 
tract west of the creek to the mountains. . . . Shawan, in the 


language of the Mohegan Indians, signifies white, also salt; and 
gunk, a large rock or pile of rocks. Shawangunk, therefore, is said 
to have been applied by them to a precipice of white rock of the 
millstone kind, near the top of these mountains and facing the east." 
His citations are not fortunate. There is a Shawangunk river or 

Sin-si-pink lake is near West Point. 

Sko-nan-o-ky, Ruttenber says, was " apparently derived from 
shunna, sour, and na, excellent, nuk, locality — probably referring 
to the abundance of wild grapes found there." A derivation from 
sokanolf, rain, with locative would seem better. It would then be 
rainy place. This is given as the name of an Indian village on the 
northern spur of Schunemunk mountain and near its base. 

Tuxedo is a doubtful name, appearing on early maps as Tuxseto. 
While he thought it of uncertain origin Freeland called it Tucseto, 
lake of clear flowing water, but there seems no reason for this. 

Wa-na-ka-wagh-kin, now lona island, was mentioned in Van 
Cortlandt's purchase of 1683. It may be derived from wunnegen, 
it is good, and ahki, land. 

Wa-nok-sink, place of sassafras, is on the Wallkill, near the foot of 
the Shawangunk mountains. The definition is good. 

Wa-ren-sagh-ken-nick was a tract on the Minisink in 1697. It 
may be derived from woweaushin, winding about. 

Wa-was-ta-wa, the name of one of the grantors of the Wawa- 
yanda purchase, was associated with Runbolt's Run. 

Wa-wa-yan-da first appeared in 1703, in a petition of Dr Staats. 
A tract he had bought, called Wawayanda or Woerawin, was 
"' altogether a swamp." It covered all the drowned lands and in- 
cluded more than one tract. Ruttenber defined Woerawin from 
woreco, handsome, or woorecan, good; and Wawayanda from 
wevvau, waters, and wocan, barking or roaring, describing a high 
fall or a rapid and roaring stream. Schoolcraft derived it from 
aindauyain, my home, and thought thence might come our homes 
or villages. This is unsatisfactory. A fair derivation might be 
made from wewundachqui. on both sides, but the real meaning is 
difficult to ascertain. On Long House creek was a supposed 
council house. The patent covered part of Minisink, Warwick, 
Goshen and Hamptonburg, and was issued in 1703. A fanciful 


and popular meaning has been given to the name, as though it were 
broken English for Away, way yonder. 

Weigh-quat-en-heuk, place of willozvs, as usually defined, was 
near the foot of the Shawangunk mountains. 

Wil-le-hoo-sa is a cave in the side of the mountain, 3 miles above 
Port Jervis and on the east bank of Neversink river. It may be 
derived from woalheen, to dig a hole. 

Wi-neg-te-konk, now Woodcock mountain, is a hill in the town 
of Cornwall. Wunnetue, good, with locative, may be the root of 
this name. 


A-jo'-yok-ta, fishing creek, is Morgan's name for Johnson's 
creek, most of which is in this county. It suggests the next, but is 
too far west. 

In speaking of Murray, Genesee county (1813), now in Orleans, 
Spafford said : " The Anyocheeca creek runs across the n. w. 
corner to Lake Ontario." This may be Bald Eagle; but is more 
probably Sandy creek. 

Da-ge-a'-no-ga-unt, two sticks coming together. This and the 
next two are in Morgan's list. 

Date-geh'-ho-seh, one stream across another, is the aqueduct at 

De-o'-wun-dake-no, place where boats were burned. Albion. 

Ken-au-ka-rent or Kea-nau-hau-sent, now Oak Orchard creek, 
was the early western line of the Senecas according to D. Cusick, 
and this is well sustained. 

Manitou beach, near Rochester, has the introduced name of the 
Great Spirit or lesser deity. This is the only Algonquin name here. 

Ontario beach is on the lake and near the last. 

Ti-ya-na-ga-run'-te creek is on Johnson's map and east of John- 
son's Harbor. This was probably Oak Orchard creek and the full 
form of the next, here referring to an entrance of the country. A. 
Cusick defined it where she threw a stick at me. 

To-ron'-to. In 1764 Colonel Dayton mentioned camps at Great 
Serdas, Runtacot and Toronto, between Oswego and Niagara. The 
latter seems Oak Orchard creek. Hough has Tho-ron-to-hen, tim- 
ber on the water, for Toronto, and Morgan De-on-do, log floating 
upon the water. Though so many have agreed on this meaning of 


Toronto, Gen. J. S. Clark says it is not from Karonto, a log in the 
tvater, but refers to a bay, making a country accessible, as by a door. 
He derives it from the last two syllables of kaniatare, lake, and onto, 
to open, illustrating this by many examples. 

To-na-\van'-da swamp has the name of swift water, but the 
meaning here is that the swamp is near Tonawanda creek. 

All Indian names here are Iroquois except as noted, their original 
territory probably including Oak Orchard creek, but they occupied 
no land west of Genesee river during the Huron war. 


Most of this country was in the territory of the Onondagas, but 
after the colonial period the Oneidas increased their claims. The 
eastern part originally belonged to them but not the Ontario lake 
shore, the Onondagas having a village at the mouth of Salmon river 
in 1654. Nearly all the names are thus Iroquois. 

A-han-ha'-ge or Asanhage was a name for Salmon river in 1687. 
This name varied greatly through the prefix used, but in some cases 
another name was given to this place. 

A-ha-oue'-te' was a name for Oswego Falls in the Relation for 
1656. It was mentioned in the account of the journey of 1655 and 
occurs nowhere else. 

Am-boy has its name from a place in Xew Jersey, and is derived 
from emboli, a place resembling a bowl. It was originally applied 
to a well sheltered bay. 

Cad-ran-gan-hi-e was mentioned in 1687 and has been supposed 
by some to be Sandy creek of this county, but is probably the stream 
of that name a little farther north. 

Ca-no-ha'-ge, a creek or river, is one form of the name already 
given for Salmon river. It was called Cajonhago in 1687. Cayon- 
hage in 1688, and Cav-hung-ha'-ge in 1726, and is equivalent to 
Cuyahoga in Ohio. By the French it was long termed La Famine 
from the hunger of the colonists in 1656, as they passed the place. 
They had hoped for relief there. It was often called La Grande 
Famine to distinguish it from a smaller stream of the same name. 

Cas-son-ta-che'-go-na was river of great bark in 1757. and was 
placed a little east of Oswego. A. Cusick defined this as large 
pieces of bark lying down, ready for building. Morgan called it 


Ga-nun-ta-sko'-na, large bark, and applied it to Salmon creek. He 
should have written it Gasuntaskona, as it appears on his map. It 
has also been given as Gassonta Chegonar. On the map of Charle- 
voix Salmon creek is R. de la Grosse Ecorce. 

Ca-ta-ra'-qui or Cadaraqui lake, is Ga-dai-o'-que, fort in the 
water, in Morgan's list and is applied to Kingston. This was the 
Onondaga name for Fort Frontenac, and thence for Lake Ontario. 
At one time the English used this name exclusively. 

Caugh-de-noy', eel lying down, is Quaquendena on Sauthier's 
map, and has been already noticed. 

De-non-ta'-che is either Oswego or Salmon river on an early map, 
probably the former. D. Cusick applied nearly the same name to 
the Mohawk, calling it " Yenonanatche, i. e., going round a moun- 
tain." It is probable that the first letter in this should be T. 

En-tou-ho-no'-rons or Antouhonorons was Champlain's name for 
Lake Ontario, as he entered Oswego county in 1615. It is from 
the name of the Seneca nation, with whom the Onondagas were 
sometimes classed. 

Ga-hen-wa'-ga, a creek, is Morgan's name for Salmon river and 
Pulaski, being a variant of a name already given and like the next. 
Ga-in-hou-a'-gue was a French form of the same name in 1687, 
applied to the mouth of the river. In 1684 it was also called 
" Kaionhouague, where the council was held " between De la Barre 
and the Onondagas. Some have erroneously placed this farther 

Gal-kon-thi-a'-ge was one form of the name of Oswego Falls in 
1686, but is slightly erroneous in spelling. 

A French journal of 1708 said: "At the lower end of the river 
of OnnontaguS, 5 leagues from its mouth, is a place called Gascon- 
chiage," now known as Oswego Falls. In 1726 the French again 
mentioned the " Fall of Gastonchiague, 6 leagues from the lake," 
and on Oswego river. The resemblance to the name of Genesee 
Falls has occasioned some confusion. Thus when Gaskonchagon 
was in question in 1741, O'Callaghan's note refers the name to 
Genesee river, whereas it was the Onondagas in this case who 
thought of selling, not the Senecas. Gasquochsage was the Mora- 
vian form of the name. Bruyas has Gaskonsage, at the sault, 
among his Mohawk words, and said it was thus called from gas- 


konsa, a tooth, the full meaning being a perpendicular fall in which 
the white waters shine like teeth. 

Ga-so-te'-na, high grass, is Scriba creek. 

He-ah-ha'-whe, apples in the crotch of a tree, is Morgan's name 
for Grindstone creek. This seems La Petite Famine of Charlevoix. 

Ka-dis-ko'-na, long or great marsh. New Haven creek. 

Ka-bi'-agb-a-ge and Ke-yon-an-oua-gue are Pouchot's names, 
for Salmon river, bein^ variants nf some already given and meaning 
merely a river or creek. 

Kah-skungh-sa'-ka, many falls following, is the present Onondaga 
name of Oswego Falls, and may be compared with some already 
given. A variant occurs in David Cusick's history : " By some in- 
ducement a body of people was concealed in the mountain at the 
falls named Kuskebsawkich, (now Oswego). When the people 
were released from the mountain they were visitd by Tarenyawagon, 
i. e., the holder of the heavens." 

Ka-na-ta-gi-ron was defined for me as the creek is already there. 
It was applied to a small creek between Sandy creek in Jefferson 
county and Salmon river. 

Ka-so-ag, the name of a postoffice in Williamstown, may be from 
Kesuk or Kayshaik, the sky, an Algonquin word. The only 
Iroquois words suggesting this to me are kasah, a burden strap, 
to which might be added the locative aug or aga ; and soak, a duck, 
v hich is less probable. 

Kuh-na-ta'-ha, where pine trees grow, is the presert Indian name 
of Phoenix, tbere being a fine native grove of these on the river 

Mr J. V. H. Clark made an error in applying the names of 
Quiehook and Kagnewagrage to places on Oswego river. They 
belong to Chittenango creek. 

Ly-com-ing is a name introduced from Pennsylvania, and is said 
to mean sandy creek by Heckewelder, who derives it from leganiton. 
The resemblance is not very clear and a derivation from lekau, 
gravel, with locative, seems better. 

Mexico is an introduced name, from Mexitli, the Mexican god of 

Ne-at-a-want'-ba is defined by A. Cusick as lake hiding- from 
river. This is a small lake a little west of Oswego Falls, 


Onondaga Falls was one name for these in colonial times. 

Onondaga river was long a name for Oneida and Oswego rivers. 
In 1 72 1 Charlevoix spoke of it " the river of Chaugeuen, formerly 
the river of Onnontague'." 

O-swe'-go, Osh-wa-kee and Swa-geh are forms of a well known 
name, meaning flowing out, or more exactly small water flowing 
into that which is large. Clark said that Hiawatha ascended the 
hill, and looking on the broad lake said: "Osh-wa-kee, literally, 
/ see everywhere — see nothing." This is not the meaning, though 
it may have been his thought. The English first mentioned the 
place as Oswego in 1727, and spoke of the lake as " the Osweego 
Lake" in 1741. Before that they had called Lake Erie by that 
name. To the Onondagas it is still the lake at Oswego. The 
French had known the upper part of the stream as Riviere" 
d'Ochoueguen as early as 1672, at least; and in 1682 the Onon- 
dagas wished to meet Frontenac at Techoueguen, which was near 
their town, or to have him come to La Famine. Two years later 
they proposed a general council with De la Barre at Ochoueguen. 
This became the usual French form, with or without the prefix. 
According to Morgan the river had this name only in its downward 
course. Going up the stream it was named from the nation to 
which it first led. For a considerable distance it was thus called 
from the Onondagas but the French mentioned the lower part as 
the River Choueguen in 1726. In his gazetteer Mr French erred 
in deriving this name from ( )ntiahantaque, which belongs to 
Salmon river. 

Oneida lake and river belong to this county, but have been 

The Relation of 1656 says: " Otihatangue' is a river which dis- 
charges itself into Lake Ontario." This was the mouth of Salmon 
river and was well described. In the same Relation it is written 
Ontiahantague' and Oeiatonnehengue', and in the following year 
Otiatannehengue'. This means a large clearing, there being ex- 
tensive natural meadows there. It was the place at first selected for 
the French colony, being a noted landing place, and it afterward 
had the name of La Famine from the hunger of the colonists, who 
found no food there. Charlevoix erroneously derived this name 
from a later event, but the name appears two years before De la 


Barre's council on this spot. Hough placed the name at the mouth 
of Black river, but this is a mistake. 

Port Ontario is now at the mouth of Salmon river. 
Seneca Hill is a postoffice near < >swego river. ^ 

In 1687 the Five Nations advised the English to have a fort at 
Sowego, a place a dayes journey from < bondage." Apparently tin, 
was Oswego, differing little from some early forms. 

Se-u-ka is the name of Oneida lake, fully considered already. 
Se-u-ka Kah'-wha-nah'-kee has also been explained. Though 
near the ( )nondaga shore Frenchman's island belongs to the town 
of Constantia. It was the Seven Mile island of the Revolution. 

Se-u-ka Keh-hu'-wha-tah'-dea is the name of Oneida river and 
refers to its connection with the lake. 

Ten-ca-re Ne-go-ni, he will scatter his people everywhere, accord- 
ing to A. Cusick. This was R. de la Planche, now Sandy creek. 
Te-qua-no-ta-go'-wa, big marsh, is a name for Pay creek 
Texas is an introduced name, once belonging to a small tribe in 
Louisiana and now to a great state. 


This county belonged to the Oueidas and Mohawks and its names 
are all Iroquois except that of the Susquehanna nver. 

V-di-ga creek, on a map of . 7 9°, h Atege creek on one of 1826. 
It flows through Otego township, the name being the same. Ategen 

is to have lire there. 

Ca-ni-a-da-ra-ga, on tkc lake, was the early name o ^Schuyle 
bice, and thus it appears on Sautluer's map and that «« 
Hampshire grants. It has been revived as Lanadarago and Cauda 
jarago. The last syllable alone indicates locality. 
' S-un-seh-wa-tau'-yea was David Cusiek's name for the Susque- 
hanna probably from a village of that name, but it might mean 

! :;„ V fols, The Iroquois called the Potomac by th, nam. 

Co-ni-hun'-to or Gunnegunter was burned in .779. abou H m d e 
below UnadiUa, the name suggesting the last Halsey p a d hi 
on an island near Afton, and the name may be from us location 

° n De-u-na-dir-lo and Unadfl.a are two forms of an Oneida word 
signifying place of meeting, as at the forks of the nver. The 


Mohawk and other dialects vary from this, and it has erroneously 
been translated pleasant valley. In one journal of 1779 it is written 
Unedelly and Unendilla. 

Ga'-wa-no-wa'-na-neh, great island river, is Morgan's name for 
the Susquehanna, and it is well applied. 

Kagh-ne-an-ta'-sis, where the water whirls, is a whirlpool noted 
in colonial days as a few miles below Wauteghe. 

Ka-ri-ton'-ga, place of oaks, is Cherry Valley. If the definition is 
correct it seems an Onondaga word. 

Ka-un-seh-wa-tau'-yea was David Cusick's name for the Susque- 
hanna. A. Cusick gave it as Kah-na-seh-wa-de-u-yea, sandy; and 
in Onondaga as Kah-na-se-u, nice sand. The name varied in places, 
often meaning the river at such a spot. Thus one part was called 
Scanandanani in 1775, referring to the great plain of Wyoming. 
The west branch in Pennsylvania had a name which meant river of 
long reaches. 

Nis-ka-yu'-na, com people, perhaps better rendered as extensive 
cornfields, is a name locally applied to the so called council rock in 
Middlefield, two miles north of Clarksville. French said this was 
thus called by the Indians, and there " various tribes were accus- 
tomed to meet the Mohawks in council. In former days the rock 
was covered with hieroglyphics, but from its shaly nature all are 
now obliterated." The idea of a council rock there may be safely 

O-at'-tis creek was mentioned in 1779 as the outlet of Schuyler's 

Oc-qui-o-nis, he is a bear, if an Iroquois word as it seems, is a 
name for Fly creek. It barely suggests the Delaware name for 
gray fox. 

O-ne-on'-ta, stony place. In the Old New York Frontier Mr 
Halsey quotes from the Smith and Wells journey of 1769: "We 
passed the Adiquetinge on the left, and the Onoyarenton on the 
right." He thought the last the original of Oneonta. 

O-te'-go was probably the same as Atege and Wauteghe. A 
journal of 1779 mentions it as Otago. It is a large creek, giving 
name to a town, and there was once an Indian village there. Bruyas 
defines ategen, to have tire there, and Schoolcraft's Mohawk word 
for fire is yotekha. 


Ots-da'-wa creek. This is also the name of a postoffice in Otego. 

Ot-se-go creek was also called Otsgo in the Sullivan campaign. 

Ot-se'-go. Morgan has Ote-sa'-ga for the lake and Cooperstown, 
but with no definition. It was mentioned in 1753 by the Rev. Gideon 
Hawley and written as now. Sauthier's map has Otsega, but it 
is Ostega on that of the Xew Hampshire grants. More than a 
century since Ostenha was one name for the lake, and Cooper said 
that the large stone at the outlet still retained the name of the 
Otsego rock when he wrote Deerslayer. Father Bruyas gives 
ostenra as a rock; Schoolcraft has otsteaha for rock in Mohawk, 
and otsta in Oneida. Adding the locative and making due allow- 
ance for changes, it is reasonable to. interpret this place of the rock 
In Halsey's Old New York Frontier is a view of this great stone. 

Another possible but less probable origin may be mentioned. 
Atsagannen, in Mohawk, was to be a stranger, or to speak a dif- 
ferent language, as the Delawares did, who at first lived in that 
direction and may have had early contact with the Iroquois there. 
This word differs little from some early forms of the name, though 
preference is given to the first definition. In Campbell's Annals of 
Tryon County another meaning is suggested. He said: "The water 
is deep and clear, which is said to be the meaning of its Indian 
name." There seems no support for this. Schoolcraft said : 
"Otsego is derivative from an Iroquois particle, denoting bodies of 
water, and hence becomes by ellipsis, the name for lake, as we 
observe it in Otisco. The term ego means beautiful, as we find it in 
the word Oswego, which is the Onondaga term for Ontario, the 
latter being in the "Wyandot language." It is needless to comment 
on this. 

O-wer-i-ho'-wet, a branch of the Susquehanna, is mentioned on 
land papers in Albany. 

O-war-i-o'-neck suggests the last, and was west of Unadilla and 
on the south side of the river. A. Cusick defined this as where the 
teacher lived, and it may refer to one of the Indian schools held in 
that region in the later colonial days, and which were sometimes 
migratory. Halsey thought this was Carr's creek. 

Lake Sa-te-i-yi-e-non, a small lake on Pouchot's map, south of 
Otsego and Schuyler lakes, would be in Middlefield were the map 
correct. But while it is made a head of the Susquehanna on this, 


its general position and the sound of its name suggest Utsyanthia, 
at the source of Delaware river. 

Schen-e-vus is called Sheniva creek on a map of 1790, and on 
Sauthier's map it is Shenivas. A Cusick rendered it Se-ha-vus or 
first hoeing of corn. Halsey thought it the name of an Indian who 
lived and hunted there. Both may be true. The Rev. Eli Forbes 
wrote it Schenavies in 1762. 

Sogh-ni-e-ja-di-e was a branch of the Susquehanna from the east 
in 1779. A. Cusick defined this he is lying in the sun again. It 
seems a personal name. 

Sus-que-han-na, according to Heckewelder, is properly Sisque- 
hanne, from sisku, mud, and hanne, stream, referring to its con- 
dition in flood. This has been already noticed. 

Te-ka-ha-ra-wa, a valley, is applied to falls near Cherry Valley 
which are 160 feet high, thus showing a great depression. 

Te-yo-ne-an'-dakt, a place about 3 miles north of early Unadilla. 

Ti-a-dagh'-ta creek was on the west fork of the east branch of 
the Susquehanna. 

Ti-an-der-ra and Tianderah were early Mohawk names of the 
Unadilla. Te-yon-a-del'-hough was a name used by Hawley in 


Ti-on-on-da-don, a small branch of the Susquehanna near Otsego 
lake. It was interpreted for me as where she gave him something, 
but it suggests a reference to the hills. 

To-wan-en-da-don seems the same word, but was a name for a 
tract of land south of Otsega and Caniadaraga lakes on the map 
of the New Hampshire grants. 

To-wa-no-en-da-lough was the first Mohawk village on the 
Susquehanna, and was visited by Rev. Gideon Hawley in 1753. 
The name suggests Unadilla, and it may mean nearly the same, but 
it was above Wauteghe. 

U-na-dil'-la, strictly place of meeting, but given as meeting of 
waters at an early day, in allusion to the forks of the river. Beside 
the river and present town there is a place called Unadilla Forks, 
where the name properly belongs. 

Wau-teg-he was several miles above the whirlpool in 1753, and 
has been already mentioned. 



This county has no Iroquois names, but some others have been 
introduced. All told, the Indian names are few in number. 

Ca-no-pus hill and lake, according to W. J. Blake, have their name 
from an Indian chief. Others say it was the name of a tribe in 
Westchester. The name has several local applications in the town 
of Putnam Valley. 

Cro-ton river and lake, in the west part of Patterson, have their 
name usually derived from kenotin, a wind. 

Through a confusion of terms, Mr Tooker gave the Mohawk 
name of Kanendakerie to Anthony's Nose. It belongs to the 
Nose in Montgomery county. 

Kil-lal-e-my was an early name for the south part of the county. 

Lake Ki-she-wa-na is in the town of Southeast. 

Ma-cook-pack is on Sauthier's map, and may be compared with 

Copake farther north. It is said to have been the name of an 

Indian tribe, which is not likely, and has been changed to Mahopac 

in the town of Carmel. 

The name of Lake Mahopac was derived by Ruttenber from ma 
large water, and aki, land, making it large inland lake. This is not 
^factory, and some think the name had the same origin as that 
of Copake lake in Columbia county. Mahodac is a variant form. ^ 
Ma-re-gond appears on Sauthier's map in Dutchess county, but is 

now in Putnam. 

Lake Mo-he'-gan bears the name of a noted Indian people, which 
means a wolf. Hence the French called them Loups. 

Lake Mo-hen'-sick was formerly Crum pond. It may be a cor- 
ruption of a word signifying a place of assembly. 

Mount Nimham, not far off in the town of Kent, was called 
after a chief who fought for the Americans in the Revolution. His 
home was here and the Indians in the vicinity were on the same side. 
Os-ka-wa'-na, so called from an Indian, is now Lake Conopus 
and was formerly Horton's pond. Oskewans was one of those who 
^old land to Van Cortlandt in 1683. 

Oregon an introduced name from that state, is in the town of 
Putnam Valley. This name has been treated under the brad of 
Chautauqua county. 


Os-ce-o'-la, usually defined as black drink, is a pond between Lake 
Mohegan and Lake Mahopac, and is named from the Seminole chief. 

Pa-ka-ke-ing creek was near the Matapan fall in 1680. The name 
is from pahque, it is clear, and the locative terminal. 

Sag-a-more lake, an Algonquin title for a principal chief, derived 
from a verb signifying to prevail over or have the mastery. 

Sim-e-wog hills, perhaps a place where they shook hands. 

Tonetta lake does not seem of Indian origin, though such a word 
might be formed from tanohketeau, referring to a cultivated place. 

Wic-co-pee or Wickopee pond, in the town of Southeast, is said 
to have been named from a small Indian tribe. The reference may 
be to a house by the water. 


The Long Island Indians were all Algonquins, quite generally 
united under one leading chief, but with lesser ones exercising local 
jurisdiction. Near Brooklyn their lands were soon bought and their 
names quickly disappeared. For this reason some of the few Indian 
names in the recently formed Nassau county will be placed with 
those of Queens, where all writers have heretofore placed them. 
This will facilitate reference to these names, the division by counties 
used here being only for convenience. 

Busk-rum, in the town of Oyster Bay, was mentioned by Thomp- 
son as an Indian name, but it was known as Buckram afterward, 
and is now Locust Valley. 

Can-o-ras-set was the name first proposed for Jamaica, and Tooker 
identified this with Canarsie. 

Ca-um-sett was Lloyd's Neck, and Horse Neck in some docu- 

Ga'-wa-nase-geh, a long island, is given by Morgan as the Oneida 
name for the whole island. , 

Ja-mai-ca, in its present form the name of one of the West 
Indies, is said to mean there land of wood and zvater, but it is 
founded here on a local name, mentioned as Jamaico in 1674. Mr 
Tooker thinks Gemeco or Jameco is derived from Tamaqua, the 
beaver. Mrs Flint mentions early entries of " Ye bever-pond com- 
monly called Jemeco," and says that Amique, the Mohegan word for 
beaver, becomes Jamique when aspirated. 


Ka-na-pau-ka kills are now the Dutch kills. From kenuppe, 
swiftly, and locative, where the water runs swiftly. 

Lu-snm was considered an Indian name by Thompson, but Tooker 
thinks it a corruption of Lewisham. It is now called Jericho. 

Mad-nan's Neck of 1665 is Great Neck. 

Man-et-to is described by Ruttenbcr as a hill 30 miles from Brook- 
lyn, and midway in the breadth of the island. He called it the hill 
of the Great Spirit, deriving it from Manitou. Thompson also said 
it was a hill between Jericho and Bethphage, saCred to the Great 
Spirit. Manitou, however, is applied to lesser divinities when with- 
out the adjective, and often to anything unusual. Thus Roger 
Williams said : " They cry out Manittoo, that is, It is a god, at the 
apprehension of any excellency in men, women, birds," etc. Thus 
here, if correctly applied, it might be only a hill of remarkable 

Man-has-set was a place sometimes called Sint Sink by the Indians 
and Cow Neck by the English. This name was applied to Schout's 
bay in 1640, and Tooker makes it the same, as does a note in New 
York Colonial Documents, volume 2, page 145, where it is said of 
Schout's bay that it is "Now Manhasset (North Hempstead), at 
the head of Cow bay, afterward called Howe's bay, from Lieutenant 
Daniel Howe, and sometimes Schout's from the circumstance of the 
Dutch official having landed there." It is now applied to the bay 
and necks as well. 

Ma-ros-se-pinck may be the same as the next. The chief of this 
place some sold land in 1639. 

Mar-sa-peague or Marseping Indians had their name from their 
home. The sachem of Marsapege was mentioned in 1656, 166 1 and 
1664. In 1655 it was written Marsepain. 

Mar-tin-ne-houck was mentioned as an Indian village at Mattinne- 
konck or Martin Gerritsen's bay in 1650. When Indian names re- 
sembled Dutch words, as in Algonquin dialects they often did, there 
was sometimes confusion. 

Ma-tin-i-cock point suggests" the last? It was mentioned in 1644 
and 1661, and the name is still preserved in the town of Oyster Bay. 
Mattanauke suggests this, but is a name for " a fine sort of mats to 
bleep on." 


Mas-kut-cho-ung, in 1659, was a neck on the south side of Hemp- 
stead, the name apparently referring to meadows. 

Mas-pet or Mispat was also called Wandowenock, and is in 'New- 
town. It is more commonly Maspeth. 

Mas-sa-pe-qua was an Indian village at Oyster Bay. 

Mat-o-wacks or Meitowax, land of periwinkles, was a name for 
all Long Island, though most applicable to the eastern half. It is 
variously written. 

Mat-se-pe in 1644 is now Massepa river. It probably means a 
large river, though a bad signification is just as easily found. 

Mat-tan-wake has been defined as long island, but of course this 
is a corrupted form. Heckewelder suggested that originally this 
meant the island country, but Tooker does not agree with him. It 
properly belongs to Suffolk county. 

Me-rfc, Moroke or Merikoke is the Indian name of Merrick, in 
the town of Hempstead, and was so named from a tribe living there. 
These Mericoke Indians sold some land in 1657. In a land sale in 
1643 they were called Indians of Merriack or Rockaway. Merrack 
Neck was mentioned in 1658. 

Mus-coo-ta, a grassy place or Hat. This was a frequent name. 

On-qua or Unqua was a neck in Oyster Bay, according to Thomp- 
son. Mrs Flint identified Unkway Neck with Massapequa. In a 
journal of 1673 ft ' s sa id : " We had Onkeway on our beam " in 
coming from Gardiner's bay to New York. Ongkoue means be- 
yond or on the other side, in some Algonquin dialects. 

Qua-o-tu-ac, east of Flushing, is now Little Neck. 

Rech-ka-wyck appears in 1660, and Reckowacky in the same 
year. Rechwuwhatky of 1645 and Reckonhacky of the same period 
seem identical. Sandy place. 

Rock-a-way, bushy place, but some interpret it sandy beach. It 
was mentioned as Racowa beach in 1709, and as Rockaway in 1656. 

Sa-cut is said to have been an early name of Success pond. 

The Se-que-tanck Indians of 1675 seem those of Seacutang, men- 
tioned in 1656. 

Sick-e-teuw-hack-y was at the east boundary of land sold on the 
south shore by the chief of Sintsinck, in 1639. It was Sicketeu- 
hacky in 1645, as well as similar forms later. This was apparently 
south of Martin Gerritsen's bay. 


Sintsinck of 1638, at Sellout's bay, is the stony place, and was 
sold in 1639. 

So-pers is from sepu, a river or creek. 

Suns-wick is Astoria, or the name of a neighboring stream, and 
may be derived from Sunkisq or Sunksquau, the title of a sachem's 
wife. Sunnuckhig, a falling trap fur wolves seems better, but the 
terminal syllable may be locative. 

Sy-os-set was given by Thompson as the Indian name of the site 
of Oyster Bay village, and it is still applied to a railroad station in 
that town. Mr Tooker questions the correctness of this, saying 
that it is not found in its present form in early records, though 
substituted for the name of Oyster Bay in 1846 as an aboriginal 
name of the place, meaning a settlement on a bay protected by 
islands. In his history of New York Dunlap said that in 1640 Gov. 
Kieft " sent a party to Siocits Bay, since called Oyster Bay," to 
break up an English settlement there. The note in the New York 
Colonial Documents, volume 2, page 145, partially quoted before, 
says of Sellout's bay that it is now Manhasset (North Hempstead), 
at the head of Cow bay, afterwards called Howe's bay . . . and 
sometimes Sellout's from the circumstance of the Dutch official hav- 
ing landed there." Mr Tooker thought both mistook and mis- 
applied the name, turning the Dutch word into Siocits, adding that 
"The bay, or in reality what is now Oyster Bay harbor, was so 
designated from a Dutch officer, called the ' Schout ' or 'Sheriff' 
who at one time landed there." He thus places Sellout's bay farther 
east than some have done, but other circumstances seem to require 
this. The name of Oyster Bay was changed to Syosset, January 
20, 1846, and restored a week later to its former pleasantly sug- 
gestive use. 

Wal-lage is now Westbury in N'orth Hempstead. It may be 
derived from wahwall, eggs, with locative, place of eggs. 

Wan-do-we-nock was at Middleburg in Newtown. The name 
may be from wonteaog, they dig pits, referring to those for corn, 
and adding the locative. 

YVan-tagh was an Indian village in Hempstead. 

Wa-we-pex is on the west side of Cold Spring, perhaps referring 
to the circuitous path leading there. 



Bach-a-was-sick pond. The terminal syllable may be locative, or, 
with the penult, refer to some stony feature of the place. Most of 
the Indian names of this county are Algonquin, as it was the home 
of the Mahicans when first known. 

Cach-ta-na-quick was an island opposite Beeren island. 
Hoo-sick or Kosack, place of stones according to Ruttenber, who 
derived it from hussun, stone, and ack, place; thence stony place 
by contraction. He also said that one of the first patents spoke of 
a tract 25 miles northeast of the city of Albany, " known by the 
Indian name of Hoosack." The name of an early settler was said 
to be Alexander Hosack, but he may have been so called from his 
place of residence. The Hoosick patent, in this and Washing-ton 
county, was granted to Maria Van Rensselaer and others in 1688. 
The Mohawks spoke of it as Hoosick in 1664, but it is undoubtedly 
an Algonquin word, and has been defined along the kettle.. School- 
craft derived it from wrdyoo, mountain, and abic. rock, but this has 
plainly no foundation. 

Jus-cum-e-a-tick, an early name given for Greenbush, probably 
has the wrong initial letter. Ruttenber and Franch both wrote it 
Tuscumcatick, and this seems right. It may be from tooskeonganit, 
at the fording place, referring to crossing to some island, or merely 
to wading in shallow water. 

Kau-nau-meek, an Indian village 18 miles eastward of Albany, 
where David Brainerd preached in 1743. The name may refer to 
carrying something. 

Kee-sey-we-go kill, according to Ruttenber, was opposite Albany 
and "1200 rods from Major Abram Staet's kill." It was called 
after an Indian. 

Ke-hen-tick was a piece of corn land adjoining a tract 5 miles 
from the river. It was purchased in [678. 

Ki-es-sie-wey*s kill was in Claverack at Schodack, in the same 
year, and had its name fn>m an Indian, so called by the Dutch. It 
seems the same as one above. 

Ma-qua-con-ka-eck was a creek tributary to the Hoosick. 

Ma-qua-in-ka-de-ly creek was tributary to the same river. 

Ma-roons-ka-ack was a creek entering the Hoosick at Sankhoick. 
The name seems intended for Walloonsac, 


Me-sho-dac peak, in the town of Nassau, is from mishadchu. 
great mountain. 

Nach-as-sick-qua-ack or Na-de-a-quick-quack in the Hoosick pat- 
ent, an early name above Hoosick falls and on the stream. 

Ne-ga-gon-se, a place on the north line of Van Rensselaer's pat- 
ent of 1630, and 3 miles above Petanock. 
Nip-mo-osh, a place in Pittstown in 1737. 

On-ti-ke-ho-mawck was a village of Stockbridge Indians in the 
town of Nassau, and it may have been named from their chief, 

Pa-an-pa-ack, field of com, as usually defined, was on the site of 
Troy, and included in the Van Rensselaer purchase of 1646. There 
is nothing to support this definition, but the name may have been 
corrupted to form pankoukat, a fording place. 

Pah-ha-hoke was a Stockbridge Indian name for Scaghticoke. 
It may be from pahheau, he wait for him, and the locative, as a well 
known rendezvous. A large oak there long bore the German name 
of the council tree. 

Pan-hoo-sick lay north of Troy and in Van Rensselaer's purchase 
of 1646. Part of the name has been retained. 

Pap-sie-ke-ne-kas was a tract near Semeerse, abbreviated from 
the owner's name, Paep-Sikenekomtas. It suggests a name in East 
Greenbush, but may be from paupakinasik, in the twilight. 

Pap-ska-nee was a large island belonging to East Greenbush. 
and the name hardly differs from the last. French says this was 
also written Poepskenekoes and Papakenea. It is Popsheny on 
Sauthier's map. 

Pat-ta-was-sa lake is in the town of Nassau. From puttahwhau. 
taken in a trap. 

Per-i-go hill is mentioned by French in the town of Sand Lake. 
Pe-ta-nock was a mill stream opposite Albany, mentioned in Van 
Rensselaer's patent. It was the south boundary of the tract called 
Semesseerse. It may be derived from petau, a quiver, and the 
,'ocative. This, however, is from petau, to put something in, and 
thte may refer to something cast into the stream. 

Pe-tu-qua-poen, mentioned by French as an early name of Green- 
bush, mi'^ht have a similar origin in part ; but puttukqui, it is round, 


is nearer this form. Ptukhican is a round ball in Delaware, and is 
sometimes applied to the black walnut. 

Pis-ca-wen creek was on Van Rensselaer's patent, and the name 
may be from peskhommin, it thunders, or makes a great noise. 

Pon-o-kose hill, the principal hill opposite Albany, was so called 
by an old Stockbridge Indian. It may be from penohkonau, to 
throw down. 

Po-quam-pa-cak was mentioned by Ruttenber as a tributary of 
the Hoosick. On Southier's map it is Pocampacak, and may be 
from poggohham, to pound out grain, with locative. 

Pot-quas-sick was an early name for Lansingburg, according to 
some, and might be defined round stones. Ruttenber applies the 
name to a woodland east of the river, and " near a small island com- 
monly known as whale fishing island,'' supposed by hint tn be in 
the town of Lansingburg. Early writers relate that a whale, 40 
feet long, was stranded on an island near the mouth of the Mohawk 
river, in the spring of 1646. Four others were stranded the same 
season, 120 miles above Xew Amsterdam. The name of a whale is 
from pootau, he blows strongly. The place name seems to be from 
petuhqui, it is round) and quassik, stone. 

Psan-ti-coke is a large swamp in Nassau. It is from pisseag- 
quane, miry, and the note of place. 

Quack-an-sick was mentioned, with. Hoosick, as being north of 
Albany in 1664. It may be derived from quequan, it shakes, and 
the loeative. The next is very much like it. 

Que-quick was an early name of Hoosick Falls, on the Hoosick 
patent. On Sauthier's map it appears as Ouiqueck falls on the 
Shackook, a branch of the Hoosick, but the former application is 
well sustained by land papers. It may be derived from quequan, 
it shakes or trembles, alluding to the falls; or from quequeckum, 
ducks, as a resort of waterfowl. 

Ra-nat-sha-gan-ha is D. Cusick's name for the Mahicans on the 
east " bank of the river Skaunataty or Hudson." 

Sank-an-is-sick, a branch of the Tomhannock or Tomhenick. 
The root of this may be in sonkin, to grow up like a plant, but the 
meaning is obscure. 

Sank-ho-ick or San Coick may be a variant of the last. Sinck- 
haick was burned in 1754. Sintyck was mentioned in Burgoyne's 


campaign. It was the grist mill in New York near the Bennington 
battle ground, and Burgoyne called it Sainturich mill. The Indians 
termed it Sahan-kaim-soick, as appears from Albany records, and 
from this came San Coick. It is in the town of Hoosick. 

San-na-ha-gog was erroneously placed east of the Hudson by 

Schagh-ti-coke is usually defined landslide, and is an Algonquin 
word. Spafford said : " This name, so long, crooked and hard, 
that it puzzles everybody, is said to have originated with the Mo- 
hawk Indians. The original was Scaughwunk, a name by them 
applied to a sand slide of nearly 200 yards elevation, extending for 
a considerable distance along the right bank of Hoosac river, under 
an angle of about 60 degrees with the horizon." Ruttenber derived 
it from Pishgaehticook, two streams meeting, the Indian town being 
at the confluence of the Hoosick and Hudson according to him. 
Neither definition is satisfactory, though Spafford's probably ap- 
proaches the true one. The Delaware word sagachgutteen means 
ascent, and schachachgeu, straight. A word similar to either of 
these, with the terminal for land would give a good sense for a high 
or precipitous place. In the Albany charter of 1686 the name ap- 
pears as Schauhtecogue. The Skaachkook Indians settled there in 
1672, coming from Xew England and eventually going to Canada. 
The place was mentioned in 171 1 as " Skacktege, Where ye Indians 
live," and there are great variations in the spelling. 

Scho-dack was sold by the Indians in 1650, and more land was 
sold by them in 1678. Part of Schotack or Aepjen's island was sold 
in 1663. Schoolcraft derived the name from ischoda, Hre, making 
it the place of the Mahican council fire. Ruttenber said that 
Schodac, the traditional Mahican capital, was on the site of Castle- 
ton, deriving the name from skootag, fire, and ack, place, and re- 
ferring it to the supposed council fire there. It has also been derived 
from Esquatuck, which is more suggestive of the word for fire than 
the existing name. 

Se-mes-seer-se or Semesseeck was a tract opposite Albany, 
lying between Petanock and Xegagpnse. It was also written 

Sheep-schack was on the site of Lansingburg, according to Rut- 


tenber, who alone mentions it. It may be from seip, a river, and 

Ta-es-ca-me-a-sick is also placed by Ruttenber on the site of 
Lansingburg, and suggests a ford. 

The Taghkanic mountains extend into this county. 

Tam-shen-a-kas-sick was a piece of woodland bought in }(>/$, 
about 5 miles east of the Hudson. A reference to stones is again 
seen here. 

Tax-ki-che-nok was a vly near this. 

Tom-han-nock creek is Tomhenuck on Sauthier's map, and may 
be derived from tommog, it is Hooded, and hanne, a river. Rutten- 
ber calls it Tomhenack, a tributary of the Hoosick from the south. 
The first name is represented by a postoffice in Pittstown. 

Tou-har-na is another tributary of the Hoosick. It is an Iroquois 
word and has been defined as hook or spear caught in the water. 
This seems without foundation and tahioni, wolf, or teyohrowe, 
valley, are nearer this name. 

Tsat-sa-was-sa or Tack-a-was-ick creek and lake are placed in 
the town of Nassau by French. The name may refer to a stone 

Tus-cum-e-at-ick in O'Callaghan, and Tus-cum-ca-tick according 
to French, is a name for Greenbush, and may refer to a fording 
place, as to an island. 

Ty-o-shoke Church, at San Coick, is also called Tiashoke, and is 
in the town of Hoosick. It suggests an Iroquois word for the 
meeting of waters, and in fact the name is found in Oneida county. 

Un-se-wats castle is on the Hudson river on an early map. It is 
an Algonquin word, of course, and may be derived from oosoowe- 
neat, to swim, as a place favorable for bathing, or a customary way 
of crossing. 

Wal-loom-sac river is variously given in old maps and papers. 
Spafford wrote it Walloomscoic, and Ruttenber, Wallomschock. 

Wau-nau-kau-ma-kack. In 1767 some Indians claimed land from 
this place, which was a little south of Colonel Hoffman's home, 
northward to Fort Edward, as appears in a manuscript in the 
Secretary of State's office at Albany. 



Some writers have placed part of the Manhattans on Staten 
Island, and the name is as significant in the one place as in the 
other, but the title to the island was vested in several nonresident 

A-que-hon-ga is the English form of an early Indian name of 
this island. 

Achwowangeu is Delaware for high sandy banks, and from this 
the name seems derived. In 1670 it appeared as Aquehonga 
Manacknong, that is, the island with high sandy banks. 

Egh-qua-ons was the Dutch form of the Indian word, and under 
this name it was sold in 1657 by the sachems of several tribes, this 
"implying joint ownership and occasional residence. 

Ma-ta-nucke was another early name, perhaps like the next. 

Ma-ta-wucks is a name for Staten Island in 1631, given by 
Ruttenber, and meaning land of periwinkles, as on Long Island. 

Ruttenber said that De Vries called it Monocknong and its In- 
dians Monatons, being the same as Manhattans or islanders. 
Schoolcraft interpreted the former word ironwood place, but it 
seems certainly to mean the island place. 

Na-osh was Schoolcraft's name for Sandy Hook, which he de- 
fined as a point surpassing all others, an extravagant definition. 

Wat-chogue has sometimes been written Watch Oak, and is a 
notable hill on this island. If an Indian name, as is probable, it 
would be from wadchu, a hill, adding the locative. Tooker defines 
Wachogue elsewhere as hilly land, which suits this place. 


All the names in this county are Algonquin, the land belonging 
to the Tappan Indians, whose possessions extended much farther 

A-he-que-re-noy, near Flora's falls, was mentioned in 1716. 
Partly from ahque, to leave off, often used in boundary names. 

A-rin-gee was one of five tracts bought from the Indians by 
Blandia Bayard in 1700. 

Cam-gu-se was another of these tracts. 

Cheese-cock's patent took in part of this county, and was granted 
in 1707. 


Cheese-kook creek is a small tributary of the Ramapo. From the 
Delaware, chees, a hide, or cheessack, fur. 

The top of Es-sa-we-te-ne hill was on the north line of land 
bought in 1687, between the Nyack hills and Hackensack river. 

Ge-ma-kie, one of four Indian names of tracts in Samuel Beyard's 
purchase of 1703. It is probably from a word meaning beaver, 
which is tamaque in Delaware. 

Hack-en-sack, usually rendered Lowland, a river flowing south. 
It varies much in form, as Achkinkehacky in 1645, Achkinkeshaky 
in 1660, Hackinkasacky in 1660, etc. 

Ruttenber defined it stream that unites with another in lozv level 
ground. Trumbull thought it might be derived from Huc-quan- 
sauk, hook mouth, from the curve of its outlet. 

Hack-yack-awck was a name for the Kakiate patent in 1696, and 
the correct one. 

He-a-ma-weck or Peasqua creek was on its western boundary. 
Hes-pa-tingh was near Hackensack in 1657. 
Ja-a-pough was a tract in the Blandia Bayard purchase of 1700. 
Jan-de-kagh was another of these. 

Ka-ki-ate patent was issued in 1696, and there were later dis- 
putes about it. It was also called Hackyackawck and Yachtaucke. 
A reasonable derivation would be from kuhkuhheg, a boundary. 
Spafford said, in speaking of the town of Hempstead : " Kakiat is 
the Indian name of part of this town, long since settled by people 
from Hempstead, Queens county, who gave it the name of New 
Hempstead . . . But the village has constantly retained the 
original name of Kakiat." 

Ku-mo-che-nack was an Indian name of Haverstraw bay, as 
given by Ruttenber, differing from other forms in the initial letter. 

A Mohawk river appears in this county on one map, flowing 

Ma-ha-ick-a-mack or Xeversink river here refers to a fishing 

Ma-he-qua run on a tract bought in 1694. 

Ma-son-i-cus is given in a history of this county as the Indian 
name of a hamlet south of Tallman's. Perhaps from assonog. 

Mat-te-a-wan mountains. This name has been already considered, 


Mat-ta-sinck kill was on the south side of a grant of 500 acres 

made in 1694. 

Ma-way river in Ramapo suggests an Indian name. 
Mech-ken-to-woon was Wassenaer's name for Indians near the 
Tappan tribe, but they may have been farther north. 

Mi-nas Fall creek. Minneash represents fruits of any kind. 
Min-es-ce-on-go was called Minisconga creek in 1790, and flows 
into the Hudson just below Stony Point. Ruttenber derives it 
from minnis, an island, co or con. object, and ga. place, referring 
to Stony Point when an island. Schoolcraft wrote it Minniscongo, 
almost an island. 

Mon-sey postoffice is in Ramapo. the name being that of the \\ olf 
tribe The Minsis occupied land along the New Jersey border of 
New York, and the name has many forms. In 1885 some Canadian 
Delawares said, referring to their supposed residence on Manhattan 
island • " When we were driven back by the whites, our nation 
became divided into two bands; one was termed Minsi. the great 
stone; the other was called Wenawmien, down the river, they being 
located farther down the stream than our settlements." The transla- 
tion is unique, but Mousey was a name for the tribe rather than the 


Na-nash-nuck was one of S. Bayard's four tracts in 1703. 
Na-nu-et, a place in Clarkstown, was named from an Indian 


\ T ar-ra-sunck lands in Orangetown were so called as late as 1769 
Ruttenber derives this from na, good, unk. land, which is not satis- 

Naur-a-shank creek comes from this and suggests the name of 
Neversink. Narranshaw creek, in Orangetown. is the same. 

Xev-er-sink, often Newessingh in early papers, is elsewhere 

Ny-ack is from naiag, a point. 

Pas-cack creek, in Orangetown, was Peasqua in 1696. It is south 
of Scotland and was also called Heamaweck. From peasik, a small 
thing or place. 

Pe-ruck was another of S. Bayard's tracts. 

Po-ca-toc-ton. river almost spent, as given by French. The last 


Indian there removed in 1793. This was near the Sullivan county 

Pot-hat or Potake, round pond, one so called by the Indians, is 
2^4 miles from Sloatsburg. 

Quas-peck was a place at which there was an Indian sale of 
5000 acres in 1694. Ruttenber derived the name from qusuk, a 
stone, and placed it at Yerdrietig Hook, a Dutch name meaning 
tedious point. 

Ra-mach-ke-nanck in 1660, and Re-wech-nongh in 1664, are dif- 
fering forms of the Indian name of Haverstraw bay, probably mean- 
ing sandy place. Rewechgawanancks and Rewechnonghs are early 
names for Indians living there. 

Ra-ma-po, often written Ramapongh, was the name of a tract 
bought in 1700, when it had the latter form. Ruttenber defined it 
a river which empties into a number of round ponds. He also 
writes it Ramspook. The name is applied to a river and mountains. 

Ra-sen-de brook was mentioned in 1790. 

Sar-rack is opposite Tarrytown on Sauthier's map. 

Scun-ne-mank hills are also on this, and the name has been 
already treated. 

Skoon-nen-ogh-ky suggests the last, and was the Indian name 
for the Backberg on the Cheesecock patent and on the Stony Point 

Tap-pan is variously written and often appears in early records. 
Heckewelder said : " This is from the Delaware language, and de- 
rived from Thuphane or Tnp-hanne. Cold Spring." The derivation 
is closer than many of his, but the word suggests a river rather than 
a spring. It was the name of an Indian tribe applied to the bay, 
and thence came Tappantown in Orangetown. 

Was-sa-gro-ras was mentioned in 1776, and the Wescyrorap plain 
of 1696 and 1713 seems the same. 

Wa-wa-yan-da patent was partly in this county. 

Who-ri-nims was one of the tracts purchased by S. Bayard in 


Ak-wis-sas'-ne, where the partridge drums; St Regis. Morgan 
wrote it, Ah-qua-sos'-ne, partridges drumming. This bird afforded 
a favorite personal name to the Iroquois. 


A-re-yu'-na or Renna was applied to Tupper's lake by Hoffman 
and has been translated green rocks. This may be questioned. If 
color is suggested by the word it is blue rather than green. 
" Ca-na-ra-ge, erroneously given for the St Lawrence river in 
Macauley's history, seems a typographical error, changing it from 


Che-gwa'-ga, in the hip, is a name for Black lake. 

Chip'-pe-wa bay and creek. This familiar name is variously 
written and in this form the first syllable has been dropped White 
this form is retained where it has long been applied to a place, the 
name is now quite commonly written Ojibwa or Odjibwa, with 
occasional minor changes. Charles Lanman defined it the rukng 
people One derivation has been made from odji and bwa, voice 
and gathering up. Another has been suggested by the editor of 
JohnVnner's Narrative, published in 1830. He said: 

Of the origin of the name Chip-pe-wi-yan, by which, since 
Hearne and WK^e these people have been called it may ^ now 
be difficult to give rmy satisfactory account; a very intelligent per 
son among the Ojibbe ways asserts that the name is denved from 
that laneuajje and is only a vicious pronunciation of the com 
PollXcf O-jee-^i-yal, which means the skin of the fisher 
weasel. But the Chi-pe-wi-yans, in their own country, have no 
knowledge of the animal and it is not easy to imagine how the 
name of its skin should have been fixed upon by them as a dis 
SSve appellation. They are called by the Canadian ^andmany 
white men residing in the Athawasea country. mountaineers, 
I h appellation they derive from the country of bleak and snowy 
rocks which they inhabit. Tanner thinks the name O-jee-gwi-yah- 
nug nJy be d er Ld from a word which means "to puree with an 
awl a fold of skin." 

Ga-na-sa-da'-ga, side hill, is applied to Lake St Francis, and was 
also an Indian village near Montreal. Tn sound ,t but little 

from several words of different meaning. 

Ga-na-ta-ra-go'-in, Indian Point in Lisbon, seems the name used 

at Waddington, defined as wet village, but may be a corruption of 

Ganiataragowa, big lake. 

Ga-na-wa-ga or rapid river, as given by Morgan is a prop 

form of the name of the St Lawrence, but is better defined at the 

rapids. It is essentially the old name of Caughnawaga, or Kana- 


wage as David Cusick wrote it. There he placed the Eagwehoewe, 
(Ongwehonwe), the first created people. 

Ga-ron-ouy, a name of the Long Sault in 1673, seems to mean 
a confused voice, or where one speaks with a loud voice, referring 
to the roar of the rapids. It was called " Garonkoui, or the Long 
Sault," in 1698. 

Point aux Iroquois is in Waddington. Charlevoix said: "The 
name of Iroquois is purely French, and has been formed from the 
term hiro, ' I have spoken," a word by which these Indians close all 
their speeches, and Koue, which, when long drawn out, is a cry of 
sorrow, and when briskly uttered is an exclamation of joy." This 
makes it an Indian word compounded by the French, but the ex- 
planation is not satisfactory. The French found it already in use 
in Canada, long before the)- met the Iroquois, and when they could 
have known nothing of their customs. From this fact it must be 
considered an Algonquin word. Horatio Hale properly cited this 
early use and the appearance of Irocoisen on the map of 1616, but 
did not observe its necessarily Algonquin origin. Thus his deriva- 
tions were from Iroquois words, as ieroka, to smoke, or okwai, 
bear. No suggested meaning has yet proved satisfactory, but the 
termination plainly refers to a tribe or people, in a large sense. 

Ka-na-swa-stak-e-ras, where the mud smells bad. Messena 
Springs. This may be compared with the original form of Cattar- 
augus. The Iroquois seem to have been unpleasantly affected by 
most mineral springs. 

Ka-na-ta-ra-ken, wet village, below the Ogden rapids, or at Wad- 
dington. This is one of Hough's names, as is the last. He sup- 
plied a number in his histories, and the next is his also. See 
Ganataragoin for comparison. 

Ka-na-ta-se-ke, new village, is Norfolk. 

Ka-ron-kwi, lower Long Sault island, has its name from the 
Sault and a variant appears above. 

Kat-sen-e-kwar, lake covered with yellow lilies. Yellow lake. 

Ka-wen-ko-wa-nen-ne, big island. Cornwall island. The sylla- 
ble nen is superfluous. 

Ko-ko-mo, a name introduced from Indiana. Boyd says it means 
young grandmother. 

Mas-sa-we-pie lake, large water. 


Ni-gen-tsi-a-go-a, a name for Salmon river, is the same as the 
Mohawk word nikeanjiakowa, sturgeon. Literally it is from 
Keantsiea, fish, and gowa, great. 

Ni-ha-wa-na-te, noisy river. Raquette river. 
Ni-ion-en-hi-a-se-ko-wa-ne, big stone. Barnhart's island. 
Ni-ken-tsi-a-ke, a name for Grass river, has been translated full 
of great fishes. It is much like a preceding name, and the idea of 
greatness hardly seems included, it being literally place of fishes. 
In 1754 Father Billiard, of St Regis, petitioned that the Mohawks 
of the Sault might have land on the south side of St Lawrence river, 
'• at the entrance of Lake St Francis, between two rivers; one to 
the northeast, called Nigentsiagoa (Salmon river); to the other 
southwest, called Nigentsiagi (Grass river); being in front 6 
leagues, comprising the two rivers, together with the islands that he 
toward the shore." 

O-ie-ka-rout-ne, trout river, is the name of Deer river. 
O-je'-quack, nut river, is Morgan's name for Indian river. 
O-ra-co-nen'-ton or Oracotenton is Chimney island, the scene of 
the last conflict between the French and English, in 1760. The 
ruins of the fort may yet be seen, and the name refers to the 


O-sa-ken-ta'-ke, grass lake, accurately represents the present 
name, and in it the name of Kentucky may be observed. 

O-swe-gatch'-ie is a name for Ogdensburg as well as the river, 
and is locally pronounced Os-we-gotch'-ee. This was the site of 
the French mission of La Presentation, founded in 1749- " ap- 
peared as Soegasti in 1749, and Swegage in 1750. The English 
wrote it Swegaachey and Swegatsky in 1753, and Sweegassie in 
1754 Johnson called it Swegatchie in 1759. Morgan gives it as 
O-swa-gatch. It is defined as black water, by the Onondagas, and 
this will answer well with the addition of flowing out, or draining 
a great region. Macauley told Mr Simms that the name meant 
going around a hill, and many have followed this erroneous defini- 
tion The reference was to another name. Sabattis is said to have 
defined it as slow or long, but he was an Algonquin and probably 
spoke of its Algonquin name, not of this. 

O-ton-di-a-ta, one of the oldest Indian names on the St Law- 
rence, was defined as stone stairs by A. Cusick, and this seems an 


appropriate name. Zeisberger has attona for stairs, and this is the 
Onondaga word still. It might also be from the early Mohawk 
word atentonniaton, to cause to depart, it being a customary cross- 
ing place, from which roads diverged. It is on the Jesuit map of 
1665, as given here, and is mentioned in the Relation of 1656: "A 
rock opposite Otondiata, which is the passage and the ordinary 
road to go to the beaver hunt." In 1671 the French documents 
speak of it as " Otondiata, near Lake Ontario," which was sup- 
posed to begin below the Thousand islands ; and also as " Otondiata, 
quite celebrated in this country," being above the rapids. The eel 
fishery began there. It was applied to Grenadier island in 1673. 
and was long a prominent place. The island of Otoniata was men- 
tioned in 1687, and Charlevoix said it was an island 5 or 6 leagues 
from La Galette. The English first mentioned it in 1700, as three 
days' journey from Cadaraqui. 

The first syllable is often dropped. Hough calls it Tioinata, by 
the point, and oniata is a point of land in an early vocabulary. 
Charlevoix said of this place: 

Five or six leagues from La Galette is an island called Tonihata, 
the soil of which appears tolerably fertile, and which is about ^2 
league long. An Iroquois called the Quaker, for what reason I 
know not, a man of excellent good sense and much devoted to the 
French, had obtained the right to it from the Compte de Fronte- 
nac, and he shows his patent to everybody that desires to see it. 
He has, however, sold his lordship for four pots of brandy ; but he 
has reserved the usufruct for his own life, and has got together 
on it 18 or 20 families of his own nation. 

O-tsi-kwa-ke, zvhere the ash tree grows zvith large knots for mak- 
ing clubs. Indian river and Black lake. This name suggests that 
of Oswegatchie. 

O-was'-ne, the Indian name of Sheik's island, has been translated 
feather island. It is not well sustained. 

Pas-kun-ge-meh is one of Hoffman's names for Tupper lake, 
equivalent to Paskongammuc, the name of Sabattis for the Saranac 
lakes. Hough defines it going out from the river. 

Ta-na-wa'-deh, swift zvater, is one of the names of Raquette 

Te-wa-ten-e-ta-ren-ies, place where the gravel settles under the 


feet in dragging the canoe. Potsdam. This and the seven follow- 
ing are from Hough. 

Ti-o-hi-on-ho-ken, place where the river divides or forks. Brash- 
er's Falls. 

Tsi-ia-ko-on-tie-ta, where they leave the canoe. Raymondville. 

Tsi-ia-ko-ten-nit-ser-ron-ti-et-ha, ivJicre the canoe must be pushed 
up stream with poles. Gallop rapid. 

Tsi-hon-wi-ne-tha, where the canoe is towed ztnth a rope. Isle 
au Rapid Plat, opposite Waddington. 

Tsi-io-wen-o-kwa-ra-te, high island. Upper Long Sault island. 

Tsi-kan-i-a-ta-res-ka, big or largest lake. Tupper lake. 

Tsi-kan-i-on-wa-res-ko-wa, given as long pond, but it hardly 
differs from the last. It is applied to a smaller lake below the last, 
apparently Raquette, just over the line in Franklin county. In both 
cases the first part of the word implies a long lake, adding kowa to 
show that it was also large. 

We-gat-chie, a postoffice in Rossie, has its name from Oswe- 

Wa-na-ke-na is a recently applied name, meaning good or pleas- 
ant place. 


A-mis-so-ha-en-di-ek, a name of the Mahicans for the tract called 
Saratoga, mentioned in the deed of 1683. 

In Holden's History of Queensbnry, page 25, there is given the 
name of "Aontagilban. A creek which empties into Fish creek, 
Saratoga county. Taken from ' map no. 221, of the late Fish Creek 
reservation in 1706.' — Sec. of State's office." This has been ascribed 
to Fish creek in Oneida county, where some comments will be 

A-ta-te-a, a river, is Hoffman's name for the upper Hudson, be- 
ing an abbreviation of the full word. 

Ca-ho-ha-ta-te-a was thus applied by Dr Mitchill, and has the 
same meaning. Geihuhatatie is Zeisberger's word for river, which 
is almost identical, though called an Onondaga word by him. The 
Mohawk word differs. Sylvester erred in making it an Algonquin 

Ca-nagh-si-o-ne was twice mentioned in 1690 as a place above 


Wood creek and Saratoga. It may be a corruption of Canasta- 
gione, but is another place, and the name is equivalent to the long 
house, the national title of the Five Nations, as written, and may 
refer to their eastern boundary. Literally there may have been 
one of these long cabins there. 

Ca-nis-ta-gua-ha, the Indian name of Half Moon, was translated 
people of pounded corn, by A. Cusick. This is north of the Mohawk 
on Sauthier's map, but variants of the name appear in several places. 

Ca-pi-a-qui is said by Sylvester to be the name of Saratoga lake 
on some old French maps, which I have not seen, and of which I 
have some doubts. 

Chi-co-pee, a large spring, is the name. of Sabattis for Saratoga 
Springs, Algonquin names occurring in this county. This word, 
however, is defined as cedar tree by some, and place of birch bark 
by others, with good authority for both. 

Chou-en-da-ho-wa or Shenondehowa, a great plain, is Clifton 
Park. Shanandhot is another form. The name is equivalent to 
Shenandoah, and is written in many ways. 

Co-nes-ta-gi-o-ne of 1672, or Connestigune, is Held covered with 
corn, and hence is the name of Niskayuna. In 1682 land was sold 
at Niskayuna, near Canastagione. 

Con-ne-o-ga-ha-ka-lon-on-i-ta-de is Dr Mitchill's name for the 
Mohawk river, the first six syllables representing the national name. 
It is noticed elsewhere. 

Ka-ya-we-se creek, a tributary of the Kayaderosseras. Spafford 
called it Kayaweeser. 

Ka-ya-de-ro-ga is Saratoga. The name is corrupted, but means 
at the lake. 

Ka-ya-de-ros-se-ras creek flows into Saratoga lake. The name 
has been applied to the creek and mountains, but is best known as 
that of a long-contested land grant. One form of the name has been 
translated lake country, and with much in its favor. 

Math-a-ke-na-ack, or the foreland of Half Moon, was sold in 
1675. It suggests the next, but seems distinct. It is an Algonquin 

Nach-te-nack was applied to the site of Waterford and the 
mouth of the Mohawk. It may be derived from nootau, fire and 
the locative. 


Xes-ti-gi-o-ne patent was granted in 1708. It was also called 
Connestigune, Held covered with corn. 

Nis-ka-yu-na is from the last, and this great corn land extended 
into Albany and Schenectady counties. 

The Saratoga patent was called Och-se-ra-ton-que and Och-se- 
chra-ge by the Mohawks in 1683. The present name may have 
come from the former, and both seem descriptive of a cold country. 

O-i-o'-gue, at the river, was a place where Father Jogues crossed 
the Hudson in 1646. A similar name was applied to the Mohawk. 

Os-sa-ra-gas was a name for Wood creek. 

Os-sa-ra-gue closely resembles the last, and was applied to a fish- 
ing place on the Hudson in 1646, south of Glens Falls. It was 
probably transferred to a new fishery. Oseragi is an old Mohawk 
word for winter, but A. Cusick thought this name meant place of 
a knife, which is a good interpretation. Jogues mentioned the 

Ots-kon-da-ra-o-go-o, a creek on the north side of the Mohawk 
and near the Canastagione tract. It was on the Niskayuna land 
bought in 1682, and opposite the tract mentioned. 

Qua-he-mis-cos was the Mahican name of Long island, near 

Sa-con-da'-ga, much water, equivalent here to drowned lands. 
Spafford defined it swamp or marsh, which will do as well. Stone 
incorrectly made it place of roaring water. 

Sar-a-to'-ga. A great many forms and supposed meanings of 
this are on record. Morgan wrote it S'har-la-to'-ga, without a defi- 
nition. Spafford said : " E. Williams, descended from the St Regis 
Indians, a man of mixed blood and some literature, tells me that 
the Indian phrase, from which this name has been formed, is 
O-sah-rah-ka, the sidehills." Ruttenber derived it from soragh, salt, 
and aga, place; thence salt springs, but this is erroneous. School- 
craft thought it came from assarat, sparkling waters, and aga, place. 
There is no foundation for this, and both these definitions refer to 
the springs, while Saratoga was originally at Schuylerville on the 
Hudson. Mr W. L. Stone, considering this, derived it from saragh, 
swift water, and aga, a place or people, making it equivalent to 
Kayaderoga and Saraghoga, and illustrating his definition by calling 
Sacondaga, place of roaring water; Ticonderoga, place where the 


lake slutts itself in; Niagara, place of falling waters. These are not 
good definitions. Dr Hough had another derivation from a Caugh- 
nawaga Indian, that of Sar-a-ta-ke, where the prints of heels may 
be seen, from impressions in the rocks at the springs. This might 
be derived from the Iroquois word eratage, heel, but the error is 
in referring the original name to its present locality. As we have 
seen, the first mention of the whole tract was by the Mohawk name 
of Ochseratonque, in 1683, and by dropping the first syllable we 
have essentially the present name, not of a small spot but of a 
large tract. When thus considered no suggested definition has 
proved fully satisfactory. 

It was Saraghtoge or Saragtoge in 1687, and in 1698 was men- 
tioned as Cheragtoge on the Hudson river, 28 miles north of Half 
Moon. The French usually called it Sarastau, with slight variations, 
and in 1754 it was mentioned as " a place on Hudson's river, called 
Saraghtogo, about 36 miles above Albany." The contested Dellius 
claim was " from Saraghtoga along Hudson's river," etc. In defin- 
ing the word it is thus evident that there is no allusion to the 
springs, and from the persistent use of the letter t that no solution 
eliminating this can be fairly considered. There are several old 
Mohawk words from which the name may have been derived, hav- 
ing the root in asara, the handle of the kettle, asare, a knife, and 
asera, an ax. From the latter comes Aseroutagouan, to nmke satis- 
faction for the blow of an ax, perhaps locally referring to some 
warlike encounter or peaceful atonement. This differs but little 
from Ochseratonque, the first name by which it was known to the 
English. As a place for burying the political hatchet at great con- 
ventions it is not inappropriate now. 

Sco-wa-rock-a is a name given by Simms for the north part of 
Maxon hill in Greenfield. 

She-non-de-ho-wa or Chouendahowa, a great plain, is Clifton 
Park. Shanandhoi is another form, and Shanandhot a copyist's 

Ta-nen-da-ho-wa, great point, is Sylvester's name for Anthony's 
kill near Mechanicville, and he also applies it to Round lake. 

Ti-ogh-?ah'-ron-de, place where streams empty themselves, or 
Tiosaronda, meeting of waters, as at the Sacondaga and Hudson. 
The proper meaning is as well expressed by the forks of a river. 
Ojeenrudde seems a form of this as applied to Ticonderoga. 


Ti-o-nee-de-hou-wee creek was at the south line of the Saratoga 
patent in 1683, and had the same name as another stream. 

Twek-to-non-do hill was at one angle of the Kayaderosseras pat- 
ent. The name seems to mean a great hill not far off. 


Chaugh-ta-noon-da creek is in Glenville, north of the Mohawk, 
and is defined stone houses or stony places. The name occurs else- 
where, as in the next. 

South Chuctenunda creek flows into Montgomery county from 
Duanesburg. Spafford slightly differs from others and says: 
•• This name is purely Indian, and signifies stony bottom. 

Con-nugh-ha-rie-gugh-ha-rie, according to Macauley and others, 
was the ancient name for Schenectady as the early Mohawk capital, 
meaning a great multitude collected together. There seems no rea- 
son for this statement in history, tradition or remains. In fact till 
the Mahicans were conquered Schenectady lay outside of the 
Mohawk territory. As it was far east of all their towns they 
readily sold it a few rears after it became their own. Schoolcraft 
gave Con-no-harrie-go-harrie as the name of the place, but said: 
" It is in allusion to the flood wood on the flats." which is reason- 
able \nother writer has Oron-nyh-wurrie-gugh-re for the land 
around the city, with the meaning of corn flats. Ruttenber says 
this has been wisely dropped. Spafford said: " The city ot Sche- 
nectady is built on the site of a large Indian town, anciently called 
Con-nugh-harie-gugh-harie, literally a great multitude collected to- 
gether ' It was built by a band of Mohocks, or Mohawks, and could 
at one time send 800 warriors to the field." The Mohawks were 
too wise to choose such an accessible place. Pearson gave the 
meaning of driftwood, and the name in question probably orig- 
inated in some confusion with that of Schoharie. 

Kan-nes-ta-ly. De Nonville mentioned Schenectady by this name 
in 1687, but the French usually termed it Corlar, after its founder. 
Kin-a-qua-ri-o-nes. In July, 1672, land was bought "Lying 
Neare The Town of Schanhectade within Three Dutch Myles in 
Compasse on boath Sides of ye River Westwards which ends in 
Kinaquariones, Where the Last Battel was between the Mohoakx 
and the North {river) Indians'* This fight was in. 1669, after the 


unsuccessful Mahican attack on Gandawague'. Gen. John S. Clark 
said : " Kinaquariones is the steep rocky hill on the north side of 
the Mohawk river, just above Hoffman's Ferry. The ancient 
aboriginal name is still preserved in the contracted form of Tow- 
ereoune." Pearson gives two other forms of the name, the three 
varying in sex and person according to A. Cusick. Canaquarionev 
is / arrow maker, Hinquariones he arrow maker, Kinaquariones, 
she arrow maker," as though the one or the other dwelt there. 
These variations are in the patent dated in 1683. Kanquaragoone 
is now Towereune, and in 1729 Towerjoene was mentioned as the 
western boundary of Schenectady. 

Xis-ka-yu-na. French said in a note on this name : " Said to 
be a corruption of Xis-ti-gi-oo-ne, or Co-nis-ti-gi-o-ne, by which it 
is known on the old maps. The name is said to signify 'extensive 
corn flats.' The term was also applied to portions of Watervliet 
and Half Moon. Upon the advent of the whites this place was 
occupied by a tribe of Indians known as the ' Conistigione.' ' The 
last statement agrees with A. Cusick's definition of corn people. 
Ruttenber thought Xiskayuna a variation from the word onatschia, 

( )h-no-wal-a-gan-tle is said by Macauley to have been a con- 
siderable Mohawk town at Schenectady, when the Dutch first bought 
lands there between 161 6 and 1620, but the first purchase was in 
1661, and there is no ground for believing a Mohawk town was 
ever there. The name is like the next. 

O-no-o-la-gone'-na, in the head, is one of Morgan's names for 
Schenectady. Xo-wa-go-na would be this in Onondaga. It may 
be rendered head on a pole, but big head seems better. Sylvester 
defined this pained in the head. 

( )r-ra-ke. called Orakkie in 1695, was on the Mohawk below the 
beginning of the Dellius grant. 

O-wen-di-ere was the beginning of the Dellius grant, mentioned 
in Colonial Laws, and extending up the Mohawk. 

Schen-ec-ta-dy was properly the name of Albany, but was soon 
placed here, being equally significant in coming from the east. It 
is usually translated beyond the pines or openings, and varies much 
in spelling. Spafford said: "The present name of this city was 
originally applied to Albany, pronounced by the Indians Schagh- 


nack-taa-da, signifying beyond the pine plains." In the edition of 
1813 he made it "over the pines," and said, " The country between 
these two places is a sandy plain, thickly covered with pine tr< 
In 1667 it was mentioned as Schoneistade. Among Mohawk words 
Bruyas gives skannatati, on the other side, deriving it from askati, 
on one side. The name therefore does not necessarily include pines 
or plains, hut merely being on the other side of anything of a 
notable character. In this particular case it seems to have been 
popularly associated with local features. 

Scho-ha-rie creek is part of the western line of the county for 
a short distance. 

Scho-no-we is usually defined great Hat, but the adjective is not 
expressed, as in many cases where comparative greatness is promi- 
nent. It was the name of Schenectady when bought by Van Curler 
in 1661. The French called it Corlar after him, and the Indians 
gave his name to the colonial governors. 

Te-quat-se-ra was translated wooden spoon by A. Cusick and was 
Verf kill. Bruyas gives atogonat simply as spoon, and the same 
word as atogouatsera in composition. 

Tou-ar-e-u-ne hills, already mentioned, are on the west line of 
this county and north of the river. French says: "Those on both 
sides of the river above the city were called Tou-ar-e-u-ne," a name 
used in a briefer form by Hoffman elsewhere. Clark called them 
Towereoune, and the next name is essentially the same. 

To-war-jo-en-ny is a name for Lewis creek. Towerjoene appears 
as the west boundary of Schenectady in 1729, and was Towerjoine 
in 1734. 

Vy-o-ge, at the river, was applied to the place near Schenectady 
where Van Curler reached the Mohawk in 1634. His words arc 
" We slept for the night near the stream that runs into their land 
and of the name of Vyoge." Bruyas gives ohioge, at the river. 
Curler defined oyoghi as small river. 

Wach-kee-sho-ka, the fourth flat near Schenectady, was men- 
tioned as Viele's land in 1683. and has also been written Wach- 

Wat-ha-jax was a rapid at Castigione. 

Yan-ta-pnch-a-bcrg was given by French as a name of " mixed 
Indian and Dutch, signifying 'J°hn ear of corn hill' " 



As-ca-le'-ge, defined as black cloth by A. Cusick, is Cobleskill 
according to Morgan. 

Chaw-tick-og-nack was a creek between the Catskills and Scho- 
harie creek on an early map. 

De-was-e-go, at the bridge, was a fall in Schoharie creek in 

Ga-la-ra-ga, a hill west of Schoharie creek in 1734. 

Gog-ny-ta-wee, a hill on the southeast border of the town of 

Kan-jea-ra-go-re or Canjearagra was a hill south of Vrooman's 
Nose in 17 14. This hill was also so called in connection with the 
Bayard patent vacated in 1699, as well as in the application for it 
in 1695. The root of this is kanajea, a brass kettle, adding great, 
in the first form. 

Ka-righ-on-don-te, a row of trees, was a chief's name, given to 
a recent castle in Yrooman's land. A variation of this is seen in 
Bishop Spangenberg's Onondaga name in 1745, which was Tgir- 
hitontie, a row of trees. These personal names were repeatedly 

Ken-han-a-ga-ra is a name applied to Schoharie creek by French, 
in its course through this county. The definition given by A. Cu- 
sick, there lies the river, seems best fitted to its junction with the 
Mohawk, but might be applied to any place where the trail reached 
an important stream. The map now gives a Kehanagara creek 
which is not the Schoharie. 

Mo-he-gon-ter has been defined as a falling off, being the name 
of part of Mohegan hill, southeast of Middleburg. 

On-con-ge-na, mountain of snakes, a hill opposite Middleburg, 
but the definition seems more than doubtful. 

O-neen-ta-da-she, round the hill, a hill north of Seward Valley. 
In its variations this is a frequent name. 

O-ne-ya-gine, stone, is Stone creek. 

O-nis-ta-gra-wa, corn mountain, is a hill on the west side of 
Schoharie creek, just above Middleburg. Some of these names and 
definitions are from Simms, and this one answers very well. 

O-nits-tah-ra-ga-ra-we or Onnitstegraw was a name for Vroo- 
man's Nose in 171 1, and seems the same as the last. 


Ots-ga-ra-gee, hemp hill, is the Indian name for Cobleskill, and 
may be compared with one already given. The name has also been 
applied to Howes cave. The present ( )nondaga word for hemp is 
osekah, but Zeisberger has it ochschiara, and this fairly agrees with 
the name. 

O-wa-ere-sou-ere is a conical hill near the south line of Carlisle, 
and is one of the highest points in the county. 

Oxt-don-tee was a hill east of Schoharie creek, and may be com- 
pared with Karighondontee. 

Sa-ga-wan-nah is a mountain in this county. It might be derived 
from asaga, to have a cough, and gowanne, great, from the hard 
breathing caused in climbing it; or it might come from atsagannen. 
to speak a different language, as being on a border land. 

Scho-ha'-rie, driftwood, is written Sko-har'-le by Morgan. There 
are many early forms. Spafford derived it from its present form, 
which, " according to Brandt, is an Indian word signifying drift or 
Mood wood ; the creek of that name running at the foot of a steep 
precipice for many miles, from which it collects great quantities of 
wood." Simms wrote [Hist. Mag. Ser. 3, 1:129]: "Schoharie — 
driftwood in the river. This is, it is true, the signification of the 
word ; but a better idea of its whole meaning, as the name was local, 
would be ' the drftwood,' as to produce driftwood a stream of water 
is implied." Then he says that about the year 1703 there was a 
great accumulation of this just above the present village of Middle- 
burg. There was heavy timber along the banks, and tributary 
streams made an obstruction when trees fell. A raft was formed, 
which was long used by the settlers and Indians for a foot bridge. 
The word river is not included in the name. Hough has it a natural 
bridge of driftwood. 

To-was-scho'-her is given by French as the original name of 
Schoharie creek, and this certainly implies a bridge of drifttvood. 

To-wok-nou-ra, one that is near, is Spring hill, west of Middle- 

Ut-sy-ant-hi-a lake, beautiful spring, cold and pure; all this is 
implied in this name, though not fully expressed. French says : 
"This lake is 1800 feet above tide. It is often mentioned in old 
documents, and was an angle in the bounds of Albany co. in colo- 
nial times. It is the source of the w. branch of the Delaware." and 
is also called Summit lake, 



Ca-yu'-ta is now the name of a lake, creek, village and town, and 
may have come from geihate, a river, being first applied to the creek. 
It may also have been corrupted from kanyatiye, a lake, but as good 
a derivation would be from keunton, prickly ash. An abbreviation 
of kayahtane is also suggestive, this being the Onondaga name of 

Che-o-quock, Shughquago and Sheoquago are variants of the 
name of Catharine's town, destroyed in 1779. Queen Catharine was 
one of the noted Montour family, from whom Montour Falls de- 
rives its name. The first form given suggests raccoon place. [See 
Shequaga below] 

Con-da w'-haw was an Indian hamlet in 1779, south of Kendaia 
and on the east side of Seneca lake. Most of the journals do not 
notice it. Ken-daw-ya is given for prairie by Gallatin, implying 
any clearing. 

Ga-ni-a-ta-ren'-ge, at the lake, is a name for Cayuta lake in 
CammerhofFs journal of 1750. 

Oue-a-nett-qua-ga was another name for Catharine's town in 

Seneca, an Algonquin name for the nation to whom most of 
Seneca lake belonged. For a considerable time the lake formed 
the boundary between the Cayugas and Senecas. 

She-qua'-ga. Thomas Maxwell applied this name of Catharine's 
town to the falls near Havana (Montour's Falls) and defined it 
roaring or tumbling water. He probably derived it from gaskon- 
chiagon, a frequent name for waterfalls. The town was some miles 
away, yet might have been named in this way as a place in the 


Ca-no'-ga. Morgan wrote the name of this Cayuga village Ga- 
in »'-geh. and defined it oil on the water. Others have called it sweet 
water, but the first definition is preferable. It is near the shore 
of Cayuga lake, and a monument marks it as the birthplace of Red 
Jacket. All the villages here of the recent colonial period seem to 
have been Cayuga. 

Ca-yu'-ga lake. The definitions of Cayuga need not be repeated 


here. That people not only owned but occupied both sides of the 

" Connadaga or Sineca Lake " appears in one journal of 1779, 
for Connadasaga. 

Ga-na-zi-o-ha, now Kendig's creek, was mentioned by Cammer- 
hoff in 1750, probably meaning where there is sand. He found few 
streams in crossing this county, but they are very frequent in going 
from north to south. 

Ken-dai'-a, on the east shore of Seneca lake, was variously given 
in the journals of 1779. It is in the town of Romulus, and by some 
was called Appletown. Kendoa, Kondar, Candaia, Kanadia, Con- 
day are forms of this name. The account of the place is interesting. 
Ken-daw-ya is Gallatin's word for prairie, implying a clearing. 

Nu-qui-age was a Cayuga village near Seneca lake and its outlet 
in 1750. From this Seneca lake had one of its many names. . 

Oe-yen-de-hit is on the west side of Cayuga lake on Pouchot's 
map. A. Cusick defined this there are favorable signs. When trav- 
elers reached the west shore, going east, they often had to signal 
for a canoe to carry them over. Thus when Cammerhoff arrived 
there in 1750, he said: " There was no canoe on this side. We at 
once built a very large fire, hoping that the smoke might be seen 
on the opposite shore, and fired several loud shots." 

On-da-cho'-e was a Cayuga town on the west shore of Cayuga 
lake in 1750, southwest of Union Springs. When about the middle 
of the lake and south of the latter place, Cammerhoff said he saw 
" in the west a town called Ondachoe, said to be larger than Ga- 
juka, about 15 miles from us." From the distance, which it is 
always safe to reduce, General Clark placed this at Sheldrake Point, 
which would be due south and not west. West of them lay. the 
present town of Yarick or the south part of Fayette. 

Sen-e-ca or Sin-ne-ke, an early Algonquin name for the upper 
Iroquois, appears on the Dutch maps of 1614 and 1616 as Sen- 
necas, and all but the :' ohawks were long termed Senecas by the 
Dutch. Some have identified this with the Sickenanes, which is 
clearly erroneous, this being the name of a New England tribe. 
Gen. J. S. Clark and Hon. George S. Conover derived it from the 
Algonquin sinne, to eat; as in we-sin-ne, we eat. The reference, 
might be figurative, as when the Iroquois called Washington the 


devourer of villages, or it might refer to their reputation as eaters 
of men. This word, however, belongs rather to the western than 
the eastern Algonquins. Horatio Hale said that sinako meant stone 
snakes in Delaware, and that Mr Squier was told that here' it meant 
mountain snakes. As the Delawares called all their enemies snakes, 
in this case he thought they simply added this term to the proper 
name of the Senecas. As a matter of fact the Delawares usually 
gave them a different name. Of course, in this interpretation, it is 
not intended that the snakes were of stone, but that they dwelt in 
rocks and hills. There is really no proof that the Delawares meant 
the -Senecas by Sinako. The name occurs but once, and then with 
two others of uncertain locality. 

The derivation would be from achsin, stone, and ahgook, snake. 
Another erroneous derivation is from cinnabar, the classic term for 
vermilion, in allusion to its use by them. The name is too old for 
that, and they used paints no more than others. Mr Conover's 
derivation seems most satisfactory, though Mr Hale's has a fair 

Sha-se-ounse', rolling water, was a name of Seneca Falls. 

Shen-da-ra and Thendara were given for Kendaia in one journal 
of 1779. They are mere errors in copying, as some soldiers took 
much of their journals from those of their friends, often making 
literal transcripts for days at a time. 

Skan-na-yu-te-na-te, on the other side of the lake, was a village 
of 1779, on the west side of Cayuga lake and l A mile northeast of 
Canoga. Most Cayuga towns were on the east side for a long 

Skoi'-yase, place of whortleberries, was Waterloo according to 
Morgan, who differs from all others in this definition. In some 
military journals of 1779 it is Schoyerre. In one it is Scawyace or 
long falls, the accepted meaning. In another it is a " Kauyuga Set- 
tlement Called Shaiyus or large falls." Sauyon and Scauwaga are 
other forms. Spafford, however, said that Waterloo was called 
Scauyz, Scawas and Scawyace, which he thought of German origin. 
It has been defined rapids in the river, but long falls seems better, 
though not essentially different. The name was used for a long time. 

Swah-ya-wan-ah, place of large fruit, a Cayuga town near Ken- 
daia in 1770. It was in the northeast corner of Romulus. 



Ca-na-ca-de-a creek at Hornellsville is Canacadoa on some maps. 

In 1775 some Cayugas came to Philadelphia from Canasadego, 
a village on the Cayuga branch or Chemung river. General Clark 
thought this might be an offshoot from the Seneca castle of Kana- 
desaga. Though the name suggests this it is one occurring else- 
where, and these Indians were Cayugas. As it stands the name 
is that of a chief from whom the place may have been called. As 
Canassatego it thus occurred among the Onondagas and Senecas, 
and probably others, being interpreted upsetting a house once set 
in order. Cornplanter's town resembled this in name, being Jenne- 
sadego, burnt houses. In 1699 was mentioned Canessedage or 
" Canosodage, a Castle of the French praying Indians,"' near Mon- 
treal. Ganasadaga, side hill, is Morgan's name for Lake St Fran- 
cis, and Kanesadakeh, on the hillside, is Hale's name for an early 
Iroquois town. Thus the name is probably correct as it stands, the 
meaning depending on slight variations in sound, not well pre- 
served in writing, yet of importance. 

Ca-na-se-ra'-ga creek rises in this county. 

Ca-nis-te'-o^ board on water, is the name of a town, lake and 

Ca-taw'-ba is a southern name introduced here. There was a 
long war between the Iroquois and Catawbas. 

Che-mung' river, big horn. Conongue, horn in the water, is 
nearly the same. The name properly belongs to one place on the 

Con-hoc'-ton river, trees in the water. Cohocton is now the name 
of a town. Maxwell gives this meaning but says it was the con- 
clusion, of a longer name, meaning stream rising in black alder 
swamp, with trees hanging over it. 

Do-na'-ta-gwen-da, opening in an opening. Bath. This is a good 
description of one valley opening into another. It has also been 
written Ta-nigh-na-quan-da. 

Gach-toch-wa-wunk, a Delaware town near the confluence of the 
Conhocton and Tioga rivers in 1767. There are many Delaware 
names of that period on these rivers, and the German use of letters 
must be remembered. 


Ga-ha'-to, log in the water, is Morgan's name for the Conhocton 
and Chemung rivers. 

Go-wan-is'-que creek enters the Chemung at Painted Post. Boyd 
gives it as Cowanesque, briery or thorn bushy, apparently deriving 
it from the Delaware word gawunsch a brier or thorn bush. It 
would be as easy to take it from gauwin, to sleep or he is asleep, 
referring it to a camping place. Major J. W. Powell said: "The 
word Cowanesque seems to be no other than Ka-hwe-nes-ka, the 
etymology and signification of which is as follows : Co, for Ka, 
marking grammatical gender and meaning it; wan for hwe-n, the 
stem of the word o-whe-na, an island; es, an adjective meaning 
long; que for ke, the locative preposition, meaning at or on; the 
whole signifying at or on the long island. If this is correct the 
island has now disappeared by changes or drainage. Maxwell gives 
the same meaning. 

Kan-hangh'-ton was a village of 36 log houses on the Cayuga 
branch, destroyed in 1764. Though a Delaware town it had an 
Iroquois name, suggesting that of Conhocton. 

Ka-no'-na is a recent name for Mud creek, the outlet of Mud 
lake in Schuyler count}-. A. Cusick defined this on my skin, from 
the Onondaga word konihwa, skin. It might also be derived from 
the Mohawk word gannona, bottom of the water. It is now applied 
to a village, and closely resembles the Iroquois name of New York, 
to which the latter meaning is given. 

Ka-nes-ti'-o for Canisteo on the maps of Pouchot and others. It 
was the largest Delaware town on the Cayuga branch in 1764, and 
had then a bad reputation. 

Kay-gen river, a branch of the Kanestio on Pouchot's map, on 
which there is also a village with this name. 

Ke-u'-ka, a landing on Lake Keuka, formerly Crooked lake. The 
name closely resembles Cayuga, and probably refers to a portage 
at the northern extremities of the lake. 

Knac-to is another village on Pouchot's map. 

Michigan creek. A western Indian name variously interpreted, 
but usually understood to mean great -water or lake. Trumbull 
dissents from this and makes it a kind of fish trap. 

Pa-cih-sah-cunk or Pa-seck-ach-kunk was called a Mingo town 
in 1758, but had a Delaware name. It was then far up the Cayuga 


branch. The inhabitants were mostly Delaware's, and in 1767 we 
have the name of Pasigachkunk, a deserted town, which, said Zeis- 
berger, " was the last on the Tiaogee. . . . It is possible to 
travel to this point on the waters of the Tiaogee." Thence they 
struck across to the Allegany river. On their return Zeisberger 
said : "At night we reached Passigachgungh, on the west branch 
of the Tiaogee, and also the waters of the Susquehanna." On his 
next journey westward he said : " We arrived at Passikatchkunk 
and closed our journey by water for several days." It was called 
Passekawkung in 1757, and Teedyuscung lived there then. It has 
been placed at the mouth of Colonel Bill's creek, and may refer to 
divided rocks, or more probably to a valley. 

Se-caugh-kung was another Delaware town of 1758, but lower 

Te-auch-kung was also mentioned that year and may be the same. 

Te-car'-nase-te-o, board on the water, is Morgan's name for 
Canisteo river. 

Te-car'-nase-te-o-ah, board sign. Painted Post. This slightly 
differs from the last, but has been given another meaning and as- 
signed to one spot on the Tioga river. The well known painted 
post was at the confluence of the Conhocton and Tioga, marking 
the grave of a great chief who died there. On it were many rude 
devices, and it remained long after the white settlement. Such 
memorials were frequent in forests and villages, and graves were 
often marked in this way. h\ an early account of the Iroquois it 
is said of the dead : " When it is a man they paint red calumets, 
calumets of peace on the tomb ; sometimes they plant a stake on 
which they paint how often he has been in battle; how many pris- 
oners he has taken ; the post ordinarily is only 4 or 5 feet high, and 
is much embellished." Living warriors often painted their own 
deeds and this may not have marked a tomb, though this is the 
tradition. The Indian name was well known in the colonial period 
and may not refer to this post. 

Wo-a-pas-sis-qu, a Delaware town near the confluence of the 
Tioga and Canisteo in 1767, mentioned by Zeisberger, who called 
this and Gachtochwawunk old towns, 



The local names in this county are all Algonquin, but in many 
cases much changed. Sometimes, indeed, a name has been changed 
from Indian to English, or the reverse. Of course many are writ- 
ten in several ways, and Mr Tooker has solved many difficulties. 

Ac-ca-po-nack, or Acabonac Harbor in Easthampton, is derived 
from occapand'k, a kind of ground nut. It is on Gardiner's bay 
and may be defined as a place of roots. Trumbull says that in 
Virginia okeepenauk occurs, meaning roots of round shape in dry 

Ac-cob-auke was a name for Beaver-dam brook in 1659, and it 
was Apaucuck in a deed of 1653. It is sometimes called Apocock 
and is in Southampton. 

Ac-com-bo-mack, boundary or inclosure on the other side, is a 
name for the north part of the Shinnecock hills. 

Ac-com-bo-muck, in the eastern part of Southampton, is the same. 

Ag-a-wam, place abounding in fish, is at this village in South- 
ampton. Agawam lake is 3 miles north. 

A-ha-qua-zu-wa-muck, a name for Shelter Island, was written 
Ahaquatuwamock in 1652. The name includes a Hshingplace. 

Am-a-gan-sett is now a village in Easthampton. Trumbull sug- 
gested that it meant at or near the fishing place. Its earliest form 
was Amogonsett in 1683, and this makes a good definition, amaug 
meaning fish taken with a hook. Tooker said it was not a personal 
name, but .he thought it meant the place of the drinking thing or 
well, which at that place was a hollow log, sunk in the ground. Be- 
ginning with 1672 he found many references to this Indian well and 
the plain adjoining. He derives it from wutahamunk, a well, and 
the added locatives. 

A-mus-by-mon-i-ca or Amuskemunnica Neck was mentioned in 
1682, in the records of Huntington. 

An-chan-nock in Southold, called Robert's or Robin's island, was 
bought in 1665. 

An-usk Co-mun-cak was a stream separating East Neck from 
Sampaumes Neck. 

A-que-bauke meadows were on Piaconnock river in 1666. They 
were called Aquebaak in 1667. 

A-que-bogue, or Riverhead, is sometimes Occapogue! In 1667 


Aquebauke was also called Piaconnock river. Ruttenber mentions 
Accopogue as an Indian village on a creek entering Little Peconic 
bay on the north, and adds that Occopogue, now Riverhead, is much 
the same arid derived from accup, a creek, which may be the case. 
Upper Aquebogue now appears on maps north of the village of 
Riverhead, and Old Aquebogue at the east end of the town, on 
Great Peconic bay. Pog is used in compound words for water. 

A-ra-ca Neck was mentioned in 1694, and Arace or West Neck, 
of 1682 may be the same. It may be a derivation from auwassu, 
he warms himself. R was rarely used by the Indians of Long 
Island, and such a change has good authority. 

A-ra-se Co-se-ag-ge, or East Neck, was sold in 1697. 

Ar-ha-ta-munk or Actamunk was on the east line of a deed of 
1659, m Smithtown. It varied much in form, being written Arhata- 
munt in 1659, and Catawamac in 1685. Acatamunk and Catawa- 
muck are other forms. Tooker derived it from arhata, crab ; primar- 
ily meaning they run to and fro, and amuk, fishing place. 

Ar-sha-ma-maque, wild flax, is a place near Southold, and was 
also called Hashamomuk. It seems quite as likely to refer to a fish- 
ing place. 

A-sha-mau-muk seems the same word, but in the Smithtown rec- 
ords it is a fresh-water pond at the parting of the bounds, and would 
thus be a name for Lake Ronconcoma. Here it would probably be 
a fishing place of some kind. 

As-pa-tuck creek is in Southampton, tuk referring to a stream. 

A-wix-a or Kakaijongh brook was also called Owixa. 

Canoe Place is now called from an Indian word for boat, but the 
old name is Merosuck. It is near Southampton, and an aboriginal 
canal united Shinnecock and Peconic bays. This canal was made 
by Mongotucksee or Long Knife, a Montauk chief. 

Can-tas-gun-tah creek, in Islip, is west of Connetquot river. 

The Cat-a-wau-nuck or Cattawamnuck land was given to Gar- 
diner by Wv-an -dance. It was also written Catawamac and Cata- 
wamuck, which would indicate a fishing place. 

Cats-ja-jock was at the east end of Long Island in 1647, when 
its chief was hostile to the Dutch. It was called Catsjeyick in 1645. 

Cau-sa-wa-sho-wy was a swamp in Southold, mentioned in 1680. 

Cans Cung Ouaram, a part of East Neck in Huntington, was sold 


in 1698. About 1670 it was written Guscomquorom and Guscom- 

A tract was bought in Southold in 1659, which ran from a great 
swamp called " Caushawasha by the east side of Dismal to a certen 
creek the Indians call Paugetuck." 

Che-co-a-maug was mentioned in 1667, meaning eel fishing place. 

Cock-e-noe's island, near the mouth of Saugatuck river, retains 
its name in the Coast Survey charts, having received it in 1652 
from Checkanoe, an Indian of prominence. 

Co-mac is a village in Huntington. The name enters into others 
and means an inclosed place. It is also written Comack, Commack 
and Comock. Some think it is here abbreviated from Winnecomac, 
a compound word, and thus Thompson gives it. 

Co-met-i-co is now Old Field point, on the north shore of Brook- 

Com-po-wams, a place in Islip, was mentioned by Thompson. It 
was also called Compowis. 

Con-nec-ti-cott for Fireplace river, was also given by him, but 
is now usually written Connecticut, long tidal river. It was formerly 
Connetquot an*d is in Brookhaven. 

Con-net-quot was also mentioned by him, as a fine trout stream 
in that town. It repeats the last name. 

Con-o-mock is a name of Fresh pond, referring to a -fishing 

Co-nun-gum Mills is a name in Brookhaven. 

Coos-pu-tus was part of the Mastic tract in the same town. 

Cop-pi-ag Neck is near Babylon. It was written Coppiage in 
1666 and Copyag in 1693. Thompson called it Copiag or Strong's 
Neck, in the town of Huntington. 

Co-prog was Hone's Neck in Huntington, according to Thomp- 

Cor-am or Corum, in the center of Brookhaven, is said to have 
been named from a chief. 

Cots-je-wa-minck suggests a name already given, and its sachem 
was mentioned in 1645. In the deed of Shelter Island, one name 
was Cotjewaminick. 

Cum-se-wogue is in Brookhaven. 

Cupt-wauge was on the west line of Southampton. 


Cut-chogue, the principal place, is now the name- of a village m 
Southold. The sachem of Corchaki was one of four who sold Mast 
Hampton in 1648. The Corchogue Indians lived in the north part 
of the island, east of Wading river. The name was written Cor- 
choagg in 1667, and Corchaug when it was purchased in 1649. At 
that time the Curchaulk meadows were mentioned. 

( ut-cum-suck, stony brook. Tooker speaks of Cutscunsuck or 
Cussqunsuck, a brook between Brookhaven and Smithtown, which 
was called Cutsqunsuck in 1702. He derived the name from qus- 
suckque, stone, and suck, a brook, making it qussucqunsuck or stony 
brook. Pelletreau thought the location erroneous. Cuttscumsuck 
was mentioned as two swamps in 1718, and this suggests a differ- 
ent definition. 

The sachem of Cutunomack had sold lands of Oyster Bay in 
1657, and reference was made to this in 1662. 

Ge-or-ge-ka was given by Thompson as an Indian name in the 
east part of Southampton. 

Hap-pogue or Happauge, sweet zvaters, is in Smithtown. Rut- 
tenber wrote it Huppogues, and thought it a contraction of sum- 
huppaog, bcaz'crs. Tooker says that Happauge is on the south line 
of Smithtown, and has its name from Winganhappogue river, one 
-of the boundaries in 1692. He thought the name was contracted 
from this, and referred to a stream flowing through a swampy 
region, abounding in springs of running water. In 1698 it was 
spoken of as the " Place of Springs, called by the Indians Hap- 
pogs." A note in the Smithtown Records, page 385, says: "The 
above shows very plainly the meaning of the Indian name now 
spelled ' Happauge.' This name, which belongs and applies to the 
springs at the head of Nissequogue river, has been extended to a 
village and district some ways to the east; and the land between 
the main river on the west, and the ' Long branch ' on the east 
has always been called Happauge neck. In a mortgage . . . 
1703 . . . the place is called ' Winganheppoge or ye pleasant 
springs.' According to Dr William Wallace Tooker the name is 
originally ' aup pe acke,' a Hooded or oz-crftown water place. Hence 
springs that flow out and cover the land." 

Hash-a-mo-muck, zcild flax, is placed in Southold by Peter Ross. 
In 1659 it was called Hashamamuck al Neshugguncir. In 1645 land 


was sold " called Hashamommock, and Nashayonsixk, right over to 
the North sea." A similar name belonged to Lake Ronconcoma, 
and there is now a place called llashamomuck beach. While hashap, 
hemp, was a generic name for all fibrous material used for strings 
or ropes, ashap was also used for a fish net, and thus, in conjunction 
with amaug, fishing place, may here indicate a fishery of this kind, 
as well as where a similar name occurs elsewhere. 

Hau-que-bauge was mentioned in Southold in 1679, and is a 
variant of a name already given. 

Ho-cum, in Islip, belonged to the AYilletts family. 

Hogonock, near Sag Harbor, has been thought of Indian origin, 
but Mr Tooker has shown that it is a corruption of Hog Xeck. As 
such it appears throughout the Southold town records of 1651, but 
it was written Hoggenock in the Dongan patent of 1686, giving 
an early date for the present name. 

Ka-ka-i-jongh or Awixa brook. 

Kee-mis-co-mock, or Weepose brook. The first name relates to 
an inclosure. The last may be Warpoes, translated hare by School- 

Kes-ka-ech-que-rem, the council place. The locality is uncertain, 
but the name resembles that of East Xeck in Huntington. 

Ket-che-pu-n'ak, the largest kind of ground nuts, is placed near 
Moriches bay, at Westhampton. It differs little from the next. 

Ket-cha-bo-neck or Ketchaponock is between Moriches and Shin- 
necock bay. This is defined place of largest roots, from kehche- 
peuauk. Thus kehchepen may have been Sagittaria, but Xuphar 
a d v e n a has also been suggested. 

Ke-te-wo-moke, the original name of Huntington. 

Konk-hong-an-ok is the name of Fort pond, from the Indian word 
for Wild geese. 

Ma-han-suck river in Southold was mentioned in 1640. Tooker 
derived this from mahan. island, and suck, outlet, applying it to the 
outlet of Pipe's Xeck creek, near Greenport, in which there is still 
a small wooded island. It was mentioned as Mohansuck in 1666, 
being near a place called Five Wigwams. . 

Ma-nan-tick is a peninsula on Shelter island. 

Man-cho-nack was a name of Gardiner's island in the original 
grant, and Professor Timothy Dwight said : " Its Indian name was 


Munshongomuc, and signified a place where a multitude of Indians 
had died'' This would be derived from mauchauhomwock, the 
dead. No other meaning has been suggested. One name was 


Man-han-sick A-ha-quat-a-mock was an early name for Shelter 
island usnallv translated an island sheltered by islands, alluding to 
its protected position in the hay. The second word, however, 
refers to a fishing place, and hence the Rev. Jacob E. Mailman 
made it the protector of others, rendering it at or about the island 
which shelters this fishing place. Manhansick is often used alone, 
and Manhasset may be merely a corruption of this. In one place 
it appears as "Ahaquazuwamuck, otherwise called Menhansack. 

The Man-has-set Indians lived on Shelter island, and the name has 
been derived from munnohan, island. Trumbull gives it as Man- 
basset or Mtmhaussick, a diminutive with locative affix. It would 
thus be at the smaller island as compared with Long Island. On 
some maps it is Manhanset, and should be compared with the 


Man-hau-sak. The sachem of this sold Robert's island in 1665, 

and it seems a variant of those just mentioned. 

Ma-now-tas-squott is a name for Blue Point in Brookhaven, 
where there is an important oyster bed. This may he from manoo- 
tash, baskets, the Indians bringing these to carry the oysters away. 

Mansh-tak creek may mean fort stream, from manshk, a fort. 

Man-tasb is in the east part of Islip, and may have a similar 
derivation, forts, in the plural, being manskash. 

Man-too-baugs, a piece of land bought in Southold in 1660. 1 he 
name may possibly have some reference to baskets. 

Mash-ma-nock or Toyoungs creek appeared in 1648. The name 
might be from masaunock, tax, or mahchummoonk, a waste or 

desolate place 

Mash-o-mack point is on Shelter island, and may have the same 
derivation as the last, or it may be iron, mnshoon, canoe, w.tb 
locative, canoe place. 

Land was sold in Huntington, in t68 2 , between Massapage and 
Merreck Guts. Maspeque Cm was also mentioned m .698 Mrs 
Flint gives the name of Massapequa to Unkway Neck, which is in 
( lyster Bay. 


Mas-tic was a tract in Brookhaven, formerly occupied by the 
Poospatnck Indians. A river bears this name. 

, Ma-to-wacks, land of periwinkles, was a general name for Long 
Island in 1674, but the most important fisheries were at Gardiner's 
bay. Tooker derived this meaning from meteauhock, periwinkle, 
and thence Meht-anaw-ack for the whole name. Heckeweluer 
made Mattanwake, the island country. According to Hubbard the 
name was applied to the east end of Long Island in the Earl of 
Stirling's grant, Matowa appearing as a variant. 

Mat-te-moy was west of Mastic river. 

Mat-ti-tuck has been defined as place without wood, mehtug 
being a tree. With the supposed meaning the derivation would 
probably be from mattateag, having nothing. 

Mat-tuck was one of three necks sold in Smithtown in 1648. It 
may be derived from mehtug, a tree or from moteag, signifying 
nothing; but tuk, in composition, is a rirer. 

Me-cox is the name of a bay in Southampton, which Tooker calls 
a personal name. 

Me-man-u-sack river was mentioned in 1660, as east of Nesa- 
quake river. It is now called Stony brook, and is on the east line 
of Smithtown. Tooker defines this where tzvo streams meet. 

Me-ro-suck is the Indian name of Canoe Place. 

Mer-reck is a bay in Huntington. 

Mi-an-ta-cut was the town of Wyandance in 1648, according to 
the deed of East Hampton. It was called Meantaquit in 1659, and 
Montacut in 1703. It seems to mean a place of assembly, where 
men were called together for any purpose, and this agrees with its 
being the great chief's town. 

Mi-nas-se-roke is Little Neck bay in Brookhaven, and the name 
has been given to Strong's Neck. It may be derived from minne- 
ash, small fruits or berries of any kind, with locative affix. 

Min-na-paugs, a pond northeast of Toms creek in 1690, from 
minne, berry, and pang, frond. 

Min-ne-sunk lake, berry place, is about 3 miles north of 

Mi-o-mog was in Riverhead. French gives this and Mianrogue 
as names of Jamesport in that town. It seems to refer to a place 
where assemblies were held. 

2l6 NEW VMKK MA'I E M I -Sl-.l Al 

Mi-rach-tau-hack-y. The sachem of this was mentioned in 1645. 
Mis-pa-tuck brook in Islip. The name might mean a great fall, 

hut this would depend on local conditions. More probably it means 
a large stream. 

The sachem of Moch-gon-ne-konck was mentioned in [645, and 
the name may he a variant of that for Gardiner's island. 

Mon-co-rum was a place near Peconic river in 1677. 

In the Hashamommock purchase of 1645, " Monnepaught at the 
fresh pann " is mentioned. 

Mon-tauk has been translated both island country and fort 
country. Ruttenber derived it from mintuk, a tree, as given by 
Roger Williams, hut that early writer is not supported in this 
spelling, and this derivation may he dropped for other plain 
reasons. Trumbull gave the original form as Montauket or Mon- 
tacut, and thought it might he from manati, auke and it, col- 
lectively in the island country, or country of islanders. \\ illiams 
wrote it Munnatawkit, which does not strengthen Ruttenber's 

Mo-ri-ches is now the name of a village and hay in Brookhaven. 
Aleroges has been given as the original. In 1685 there was men- 
tioned a " Certain neck of land at Unquachage, known by the name 
of Merrves," which was in Brookhaven. In 1693 it was called 
Merigies Xeck at Unquetague, on the south side of Long Island. 
Tooker thought this a personal name. 

Mot-to-mog was on Mastic Xeck, and is also writen Mattemoy. 

Mus-ka-tuc is in the east part of Islip. From moskeht, grass, 
and either tuk, river, or auke, land, probably the last. 

Nach-a-qua-tuck is supposed to he Cold Spring in Huntington, 
hut some mention it as Xashaquatac, on the east side of that place. 
It may he derived from nashquttag, a fierce fire, hut other deriva- 
tions can he suggested. 

A <]vc(] of Na-gun-ta-togue Xeck was given in [691. It was 

mentioned as Xaguntatoug Xeck more than a score of years earlier. 

This was in Huntington, and was afterward called Kctcham's Xeck. 

It comes from naguntu, on the sand. 

Nam-ke, according to Ruttenber, is a creek near Riverhead, and 

he derives it from namaas, fish, and ke, place. ( )thers have applied 


it to a creek in Islip, and to Blue Point in Brookhaven. Such a 
name might be used for many places. 

Napeague harbor and beach ; sometimes Neapeague, for the 
isthmus uniting Montauk and East Hampton. Ruttenber derives 
this from nepe, water, and eage, land, calling it water land. Spaf- 
ford said of the beach leading to Montauk Point: " It retains the 
name of Napeage from the Montauk Indians, which signifies, 
literally, water land; and in the same dialect, Mori, in Montauk, 
signifies Island." Napeague bay is southeast of Gardiner's island. 

Nar-hig-gan was mentioned in 1675, and on the east end of 
Long Island Nahicans appears on the map of 1616, but in such a 
way as to suggest a people like the Mahicans, rather than a place. 
The former name, however, might be from naiyag, a point. 

Nas-sa-ke-ag is in Brookhaven. 

Nas-sa-yon-suck or Nashayonsuck was land sold in Southold in 
1645. It may be from neeshuongok, eels, or from nashaue, ketween, 
ayeuonk, place, and sauk, outlet. 

Ne-com-mack was part of the Mastic tract, and the name indi- 
cates an inclosure there. 

Xe-sar-as-ke or Pascuuks creek was the east bound of an island 
of meadow in South bay, Huntington, in 1689. Tooker thought 
this a corruption of " his heirs." 

Ne-shug-gun-cir was one name of Hashamamuck in 1651), with 
a probable reference to eels. 

Ni-a-maug, between the fishing places, was one name of Canoe 
Place. It was written Niamock in 1667, and Niamuck in 1662. 

Ni-sinck-quegh-hack-y, a village mentioned in 1645, was m 
Smithtown. There are now Nissequague river and Nissequogue 
neck, harbor and hamlet in that town. Tooker said the tribe and 
river did not have the name from the chief Nesaquake, as some 
have supposed. The name first appears in 1645, as " Nisinck- 
queghhacky, being a place where the Matinnecocks now reside." 
It may be a derivation from the Massachusetts word pissaqna, 
mire or clay; or the Delaware word assisqua, clay or mud. Add 
the terminal hacky or ake, and it is clay or mud country. He 
thought this might mean a land suitable for making potter}-. It 
seems quite as likely that mere mud was meant. In Nichol's order 
of 1670, it is said that the Nesaquake lands were on both sides of 


the river, *' and the parte lyeing on ye west syde, comonly called 
Xesaquage Accompesett, did extend as farre as ye fresh pond 
westward." The last name in full has been defined as neighbors 
on the other side of the neck, by Mr Tooker. The name has been 
written Xasaquack, and translated muddy place. 

Xom-i-nick hills are near Napeague and may be from nomunk- 
quag, a heap. 

Xon-o-wan-tuck is now Mount Sinai. 

Xoy-ack bay in Southampton, a point or angle, from the long 
points on either side. 

Occapogue is usually Ocquabauk in early deeds. In 1648 Pau- 
cump said that " Occabauke was an ancient Seate of sachemship — 
time out of mind." It was at Riverhead, and Ruttenber derived it 
from accup, a creek. It may be better to derive it from oohquaeu, 
at the end or border, and pog, water. This would be almost the 
same as the present English name. 

Oc-com-bo-mock is now Bellport. From acawme, on the other 
side, and komuk, boundary or inclosurc. 

O-nock is a hamlet in Southampton, near Westhampton station. 

Oo-sunk, a stream J2 mile from Yaphank. Perhaps from ooshoh, 
a father, with locative, as though it were his residence. 

Op-cat-kon-tycke river, at the head of Xorthport Harbor, was 
mentioned in 1653, and in 1656 was the west bound of the Eastern 
Purchase of Huntington. It might be derived from opponenauhock, 
oysters, but more probably from some other word. 

Oquenock or Okenock in Islip, was written Oquonock by Thomp- 
son. Some define it a burial place, for which there seems no good 
reason. It might be derived from ohquae, on the other side, and 
ohke, land, but Tooker thinks it has been corrupted from Oak Neck. 

O-ro-wuc or Orewake brook is in Islip. Tooker applies this 
name to a neck having this stream on one side, and says it means 
uninhabited or vacant land. 

O-sa-wack brook, mentioned in 1708, may have been Orawack, 
but probably was flax land. 

O-sha-ma-mucks was a name for Fresh pond in 1694. This was 
in Huntington, and has been noticed in a varying form. 

Ou-hey-wich-kingh, a village of if>45, may have been in this 


O-wix-a or Awixa creek has already been mentioned. 

Pa-he-he-tock or Pahatoc was west of Gardiner's bay in 1648, 
on the north side of the island. 

Pan-tuck, a stream gouig the wrong way, is near Westhampton 

Pas-cu-nks creek was the boundary of a meadow at South bay, 
Huntington, in 1689. 

Pa-shim-amsk was a neck at Toms creek in 1645. 

Pat-chogue. from the Pochough Indians, is defined where they 
gamble and dance. Roger Williams has the word pauochauog, 
they arc playing games or dancing; a merrymaking in general. 
The name is now applied to a village and bay in Brookhaven. 

Pat-chum-muck, a neighboring sea or fishing place, was the 
North Sea at the head of Toms creek in 1660. 

Pa-ter-quos was on Mastic Neck. It may come from Potaun- 
tash, to blow the fire, or from a kindred word for whale, referring 
to that animal's blowing water. 

Pat-ter-squash was an island in Brookhaven, with a name like 
the last. 

Pau-ca-ka-tun is derived by Tooker from Pohguta-tuk, divided 
tidal stream, and is in Southold. 

Pau-cuck-a-tux was a creek to the southward in Southold, men- 
tioned in 1660, as "A certen creek the Indeans call Paugetuck on 
the south side." 

Pau-ge-tuck, clear creek, was in Southold in 1659. 

Pau-man-ack has been interpreted land of tribute, and the name 
was also given to Shelter island. It was written Paumanacke in 
1659 and used for the whole of Long Island. This was tributary 
to the New England Indians, and afterward to the Five Nations. 

Pau-qua-cum-suck, where we wade for thick shells, is now 
Wading river. It was called Pauquaconsuck in 1666, and Pau- 
quaconsit in 1679. Near this river was a beach called " Pequaoc- 
keon, because Pequaocks were found, there." 

Pa-ya-quo-tusk was a neck in Southold in 1645. 

Peakins Neck, near Toms creek in 1658, was often mentioned 

Pe-auke has been defined wet and miry place, and is in Smithtown 

Pe-co-nic river was the principal stream toward the east end of 


the island, and this contracted name is applied to a large hay. In 
1639 Lord Stirling's patent ran " from Peaconnet to ye eastermost 
poynte of ye said Long Island." It was called Peheconnacke in 
1659, an d Pehaconnuck in 1664. Piaconnock or Aquebauke river 
was mentioned in 1667. Tooker derives the whole name from 
Pehik-konik, little plantation. 

Pen-at-a-qnit, a small stream in Islip. There is now a village of 
that name. 

Pe-qnash or Quasha Xeck was in Southold in 1656. 

In 1658 Pnckquashi Xeck was mentioned as an old boundary 
of Southold, west of Toms creek. It may be derived from pequas, 
a fox. 

Pis-sa-punke meadows were mentioned at Corchauge in 1654, and 
were called Peceprnk meadows in 1685 and 1692. The name now 
belongs to a branch of Xissequogue river, and Mr Tooker gives 
the original form as Pessapunk, a sweating place. 

Po-dunk, a clean place, is in Southampton, and is also a Xew 
England name. 

Pog-gat-a-cut was a place where this chief's body was set down 
while on the way to the grave. A hole was dug to mark the spot, 
and this was carefully cleansed for a long time. 

Pon-quogue, shallow water, a beach and hamlet in Southampton, 
on Shinnecock bay. 

Poo-se-pa-tuck is a hamlet in Brookhaven, and was the home of 
the chief of the Uncachogues. Thomas Jefferson took down a 
vocabulary at Pusspa'tok in this town in 1794, from an old squaw 
of that place. 

Po-qua-tuck, clear stream, mentioned in 1641 and now Orient, 
may be the Paugetuck of 1660. Mrs Flint gives this name to 
Oyster ponds. 

Po-quott is now Dyer's Xeck, and may be derived from pukut, 
smoke, but is more likely to be a clear place. Thompson said it was 
a cove between Port Jefferson and Setauket. 

Po-tuck, clear stream, is a hamlet in Southampton. 

Po-tunk island, clean place, is in Southampton, and was men- 
tioned in 1659 as east of Peheconnacke. 

Pox-a-.bogi.te is VA miles from the center of Bridgehampton. 


Poy-has, a swamp, was reserved in a sale in Southold in 1660. 
It may be from pequas, a fox. 

Quag-qua-ont, a place mentioned by Thompson, may have been 
corrupted from Quaquanantuck. 

Oran-no-to-wouck is his name for a place in Easthampton, which 
may be defined place of fir trees, or of long spears, referring to 
something- slender and pointed. 

Quan-tuc hay is in Southampton, and the name is a contraction 
of the next. 

Qua-quan-an-tuck, defined as place where the bay bends, is in 
Southampton. Quaquantucke meadow was mentioned in 1659, and 
it was written Quaquenantack in 1667. The above definition is not 
well sustained, and a place of wild ducks seems preferable. 

Qua-sha Neck, mentioned in 1656, was called Quash Neck in 
1 7 1 5. It is in Southold, and the name has been contracted from 
the Puckquashi of 1658, in that town. In this case it may be from 
pukqussum, lie makes a hole through it, as in drilling shell beads. 
The shorter form suggests queshau, he leaps, as though it were a 
place for sports. 

Quogue and Ouiogue are said to be derived from Quaquanan- 
tuck.. This is possible but seems doubtful. It would be simpler to 
make it from qunnamaug, a long fish, or lamprey. 

Ous-suc-qun-suck, now Stony Brook, Smithtown, has its meaning 
well preserved in its present name. 

Ra-con-co-mey plains were mentioned in 1747, the name being a 
variant of Ronkonkoma. 

Ra-pa-ha-muck is mentioned by Tooker, but he adds that the R 
should be dropped, making it in Indian usage Appeh-amak, a trap 
fishing place. This was at the mouth of a small creek called 
Suggamuck, or fishing place at the outlet. 

Ras-sa-wig, according to Thompson, was a point of land between 
Stony Brook harbor and the sound. Tooker calls this Rassaw-eak 
or-ac, miry land. Hassock occurs in several places on Long Island, 
but the Indians there, according to Eliot and Heckewelder, did not 
sound the R found in the English spelling. 

At Ras-e-peague a lot was mentioned in 1734, west of Stony 
Brook harbor. Rassa means miry or muddy, and thence is the 
definition of muddy zvater place. 


Ra-ti-o-con or Raseokan is derived from Ashawoken by Tooker, 
which he considers the proper form. 

Ri-on-com he also derived from the name of the chief Wcon- 

Ro-an-oke point is on the north shore of Riverhead, and is a 
Virginia name often applied to some shell beads. 

Ron-kon-ko-ma, the name of a considerable lake, has various 
forms. Rnttenber has it Ronconcoa, and says it is very deep and 
has local legends. Spa fiord said: " Ronconquaway, or Roncon- 
coma Pond, in this county, received its name from the Indians, 
which is said to mean Sandy Pond, being surrounded by a fine sandy 
beach." This has little to sustain it. Tooker thought Ronkon- 
kumake came from Wonkonkoonamaug, the fenced in or boundary 
fishing place, several towns and purchases meetings there. 

The Rat-ta-co-neck lands had been owned by Wyandance. There 
was a fresh-water pond at the parting of the bounds, called Asha- 
maumuk, another name for the lake just mentioned, meaning 
either place of wild flax or eel fishery. 

Rug-ua swamp, in Huntington, was mentioned in 1698. 

Runs-cat-a-my or Rungcatamy lands were bought in Huntington 
in 1 69 1. The name suggests that of Rattaconeck. 

Sa-bo-nac, large root place, is on Mastic Neck in Brookhaven. 

Sack-a-po-nock or Great pond was mentioned in 1661. It is also 
called Sagaponack. Rand says sagabon is a ground nut or Indian 

Sagg or Sag Harbor, according to Trumbull, is abbreviated from 
Sagabonack in Bridgehampton. Beside Sag Harbor there is a 
village of Sagg. 

Sag-ta-kos is in Islip, according to Thompson. Airs Flint has 
Saghtokoos for Appletree Neck. The reference may be to the 
mouth of a stream where there are thorns. 

Sam-pa-wams, the right path. Mr Tooker thought this a per- 
sonal name. In 1657 five necks were bought between Sumpwams 
and Copiague necks, and in 1695 Sompawams swamp was men- 
tioned. In 1697 it was writen Sampaumes Neck. It is a name of 
Thompson's creek, one of the principal streams in Islip. 

San-te-pogue Neck at Babylon was written Sautipauge ajid San- 
tapauge in io(,o. Thompson called it Santapog or Fleet's Xeck, 


Saug-a-tuck river, mouth of the river. 

Saug-ust Neck was in Southold in 1656, and was often men- 
tioned later. The name refers to the month of a neighboring 

Scret-ches river was west of Moriches river in 1714. 

Se-as-ca-wa-ny Neck was also called Josiah's Neck by the English 
in 1689. It appeared as Scnraway Neck in Huntington, in 1694. 

Se-a-tuck is a hamlet in Brookhaven, near East bay on the south 
shore. It was called Seacotauk in 1677, and thus might refer 
either to land or water. 

Se-bo-nac, on Peconic bay, was also a large ground nut place. 
Sebon or sepen is the meadow lily root, according to Trumbull. 
There are several places named from roots, and both Trumbull and 
'looker have critically discussed these. 

Se-cou-tagh was the foreland of Long Island in 1656. 

Sc-n-eks is Thompson's name for a stream in Brookhaven. 

Se-tau-ket belonged to the Secatogue Indians in Brookhaven, and 
the name has many forms. In 1639 it appeared as Siketeuhacky, in 
1666 as Seatalcot, and in 1673 as Seatavvcott. Fireplace had this 
name, according to Mrs Flint, being on the shore of Setauket bay. 
From seauhteau, to scatter anything, and ahki, land. 

Se-tuck is Thompson's name for the brook dividing Brookhaven 
and Southampton, and may be derived from see, sour, and tuck, 
river; that is, a stream not tit to drink. 

Shag-wan-go, on the map of 1825, is Shagwong point on some 
later maps, and north of Montauk. Shawango Neck included 
Montauk point. 

Sher-a-wog is now St James in Smithtown, east of Stony Brook 
harbor. Tooker makes this the middle place. 

Shin-ne-cock is a name of many forms, and is applied to a group 
of hills and a bay. It has been translated the level laud, but with 
no satisfactory derivation. The name may refer to a place where 
loose or unstrung wampum was obtained. Spafford said : " Shin- 
acau bay was the ancient residence of the tribe of Indians called 
Shinacau or Shinacaugh." 

Si-a-ses Neck was mentioned in 1670 and earlier. It suggests 

Si-ek-rew-hack-v is Mrs Flint's name for Fire Island, and this 


may be derived from sukquiyeu, powdered or in powder, and ahki, 


Skook-quams is Thompson's name for a place in Islip. 

Sonn-quo-qnas was a name of Tom's creek in Sonthold, in 1660. 
It may be derived from sunukkuhkau, crushed by a heavy weight, 
as in a trap. 

So-was-sett is now Port Jefferson. At the place of unstrung 

Spe-onk is a village near (Cast bay in Southampton. The name 
may have been corrupted from that of a root. 

The Squam or Squam Pit purchase was made in 1699. Trumbull 
considered this a corrupt form of the name of a rocky summit. It 
is often found. 

Squaw-sucks, women, is a village in Brookhaven. 

Sre-cun-kas or Screcunkas was an island of meadow in Sonthold 
bay in 1689. The name may be incorrect as preserved, and pos- 
sibly derived from suckauanausuck, black sJiclls. 

Sug-ga-muck, a small creek, has been defined bass fishing place, 
but seems more correctly rendered fishery at the outlet. 

Sun-quams or Melville has been translated cool place. This was 
a name for Babylon river, according to Thompson. 

Ta-ta-muck-a-ta-kis creek, mentioned in Huntington in 1693, was 
near Coppiag Neck. It suggests the following name. 

Ta-ta-mun-e-hese Neck was in the same town in 1666. It may 
have a reference to an inclosed place. 

Tau-ko-mo Neck was mentioned here in 1696. 

Ti-an-na is one of Thompson's Southampton names, perhaps not 
an Indian word, though it might be derived from tannag, a crane. 

To-youngs was a name of Reed creek in 1665, and Thompson 
said that Toyongs was a brook tributary to Wading river. It is 
often called Toyong, and this was its form in 1679. 

Towd, a low plqcc between the hills. A better derivation may 
be from touweu, it is deserted. 

Tuck-a-hoe, near Southampton, is derived from p'tuckwe, the 
name of a large round root. Trumbull said that the common Tuck- 
ahoe of Virginia, used for Indian bread (Tockwogh of Smith), 
was the root of the golden club, Orontium a q u a t i c u m . 

Un-ca-chaug was written Yncachoag and Vncheckaug in 1667, 


and may be from uhquae, point or end, with locative. The L ncac- 
hogues were a tribe. In 1685 there was a " Certain neck of land 
at Unquachage, known by the name of Merryes." Wilson called 
the place Unquachock. 

Un-che-mau, which appears in connection with Xesaquake in 
1677, is a contraction of the next name. 

Un-she-ma-mnck was a pond west ot Xesaqnake river in 1677. 
In 1696 it was mentioned as the fresh pond of Unshemomuck, on 
the west line of Smithtown. In some records it is Ashamaumuk, 
the pond which is now Lake Ronconcoma. It is sometimes given 
as Untheamnck or Unsheamnck, this being defined as eel fishing 
place, by Tooker. For the present name of the lake he has another 

Un-co-houg was on Mastic Xeck, and may mean a point of land. 

YVains-cott is usually considered an Indian word, but Tooker 
thought it European. Thompson wrote it Wainscut, and Mrs Flint 
derived it from Wayumscutt. Spafford called it YYenscoat, and it 
was mentioned in 1708. If an Indian word it might be derived from 
wanashquonk, the top of anything. 

Wam-pan-o-men, the eastern extremity of Southampton, was an 
early name for the eastern point. In a deed of 1661 it is Wom- 
penanit. Tooker writes it YYomponamon, at the cast. 

YVamp-mis-sic was the Indian name for a swamp near Coram, 
now given to a place in Brookhaven. One form is Wampmissuc. 

War-ac-to Neck is mentioned in the Southold records of 1714, as 
being on the south side of Long Island. 

Wat-chogue Neck was bought in 1694, and is in Smithtown. The 
name is also given to a brook from contiguity. Thompson wrote 
it Wachog, and Tooker Wachogue, hilly land. The derivation is 
from wadchue ohkeit, hill country. 

Wa-we-pex was a name on the west side of Cold Spring harbor, 
and may refer to a winding course. 

We-a-ke-wa-napp was reserved in a sale in Southold in 1660. 

Wee-pose brook was also called Keemiscomock. Schoolcraft 
derives the former name from wawbose, a. hare, but this is not 
thought satisfactory. It may be a corruption of wipochk, a bush, 
referring to a bushy place. 

226 NEW yokk State mi/skim 

Weg-wa-gonck, a place at the end of the hills, is a name given 
by Tooker. 

Wick-a-pogr.e, head of the pond, is in Southampton. End of the 
pond is better. 

Wick-a-pos-sett was the east part of Fisher's island, according to 

Wi-gam swamp was sold by the town of Huntington in 1699. 
Wiquam, and thence wigwam, is the name of a house. 

Win-gan-hep-poge or Winganhoppogue was in Smithtown, and a 
note has already been quoted from the records of that town, ex- 
plaining the meaning of Happauge. Elsewhere Mr Tooker says 
that in 1703 Andrew Gibb gave a mortgage for the neck " called 
by the name of Winganhoppogue, or ye pleasant springs." The 
full word means this, Happauge lacking the adjective. At the 
time of the mortgage the entire name was also given to a creek on 
the east side. In 1692 it was written Winganhappauge and placed 
on the south side of Long Island. Thompson called it Wingatt- 
happagh or Vail's brook. 

Win-ne-co-mack patent appears in the Smithtown records for 
1702 and 1789, the Indian deed having been given in 1698. Mrs 
Flint made this beautiful place. Comack, however, implies a 
boundary or inclosure, and it is on the line of Huntington and Smith- 
town. The adjective has been dropped, and it is now simply 

Wop-o-wog was an Indian settlement on Stony brook in Brook- 
haven, according to Thompson. There are large shell banks there, 
and the name may be from wompi, white, with locative, in allusion 
to these. 

Wy-an-dance is now a hamlet in Babylon, called after a great 
Montauk chief who died in 1659. He was a warm and influential 
friend of the colonists. 

Yam-ke is Thompson's name for a stream in Brookhaven, and 
may mean on the other side. 

Yamp-hank seems the same name as the next, but has been ap- 
plied to the vicinity of South Haven on the Connecticut river. 

Yap-hank was a tributary of that river, and is also the name of a 
village in Brookhaven. It may be derived from appehhanog, traps. 

Ya-ta-mun-ti-ta-hege river was west of Copiag Neck. 


Yen-ne-cock is part of Southold and east of Cutchogue. The 
Yannocock Indians were mentioned in 1667, and the place in 1640. 
looker writes it Yennycott, deriving it from Yaen-auk-ut, at the 
extended country. The early forms vary but little. It might mean 
on one side of some place. 

The practice of buying land gradually and in small quantities 
from the aboriginal owners of Long Island, led to the preservation 
of many Indian names there. 


A-las-ka-ye-ing mountains appear on Sauthier's map as the 
southern range of the Shawangunk mountains. 

Ba-sha or Basher's kill. Basha was an old squaw, according to 
one story, whose husband killed a deer and left her to bring it home. 
She fastened it securely on her back, but in crossing the stream 
fell under her burden. Being unable to release herself she was 
drowned. Another story is that she was shot here during the 
Esopus war. 

Cal-li-coon river is of doubtful origin, but seems to mean turkey 
in either case. On a map of 1825 it is Kollikoen, but in the Xew 
York statutes, etc., it is commonly written Collikoon. Kalkoen is 
Dutch for turkey, and the Delaware word gulukochsun means the 

Chough-ka-wa-ka-no-e was a small stream mentioned in 1665. 

Co-chec-ton or Cashington is said to have originally been Cush- 
nun-tunk or loiv grounds. This is preferable to Boyd's definition of 
a finished small harbor, but Kussitchuan, a rapid stream, seems 
better than either. In 1755 Cashiektunk was an Indian village on 
a branch of the Delaware called Fishkill, and it appears on Sauthier's 
map as Cashiegtonk island and falls. It was also written 
Cashickatunk, and the name may refer to its being an old or princi- 
pal place. The Delaware, near this place, was the former home of 
the Cashigton Indians, and they sent a belt to Governor Clinton in 


Hag-ga-is pond is in Lumberland. Hogki is clothing, and thence 
we have fish scales and shells. 

Ho-mo-wack has been defined water fion's out, but this lacks 
support. It seems better to derive it from aumauog, they fish, or 


some kindred word. It is now the name of a postoffice in 


Ke-no-za lake, pickerel. Also Cahoonzie. 

Ki-a-me-sha has been denned as clear water, but doubtfully. 1 his 
is Pleasant pond, near Monticello. 

Kon-ne-on-ga has been called white lake, in allusion to Us white 
sand, but the definition is much more than doubtful, having no 
foundation. It is a pond in Bethel. 

Lack-a-wack is the west branch of Rondout creek, and means a 

river fork. _ ... 

Ma-hack-a-mack is on Sauthier's map for the Neversmk nver. 
It was called Maggaghkamieck in 1694, and the name may allude 

to a fisherv. . 

Ma-ma-ka-ting is said to have had its name from an Indian 
chief but the form of the word does not suggest this, nor is such a 
chiefs name on record. Gordon's Gazetteer gives it as Mamma- 
cotta, dividing the waters. Spafford speaks of « Mameakating or 
Basler's kill " On Sauthier's map the Indian village is called Mame 
Cotink. Memakochcus, red, is -the most suggestive component in 
Zeisberger's lexicon, and the name may be either a red or bloody 

^Me-tau-ques or Metongues pond is in Lumberland. From 
mehtugques, small trees. 

Mon-gaup is Mangawping or Mingwing river on Sautluer s map. 
It has been defined dancing feather, and also several streams n 
allusion to its three branches. The last is the best but ts not we 
sustained. Mnnnequomin, com growing ,n the field, ts better, but 
the name may refer to islands. 

Nev-er-sink has many forms and defimuons. among which are 
m ad river, water between highlands, and fishing place. Some have 
thought the name merely an English allusion .0 the h.ghlands or 
Z waters of the river, but it is clearly aboriginal. These supposed 
u anings are not satisfactory. Schoolcraft derived the name from 
" later or between waters, and sink, a place, but „ not sus- 
"Zli by eastern lexicons. Ruttenber thought it a place abound- 
ZlnZirds, but this lacks support. Nauwuchunke, afernoon 
from Zeisberger, might be applied to a region lymg west o any 
pC, in accordance with IndUn usage, " a .and where „ ,, always 


afternoon." Nahiwi, down the river, from the same writer, with 
locative, suggests a fair derivation. 

Sha-wan-gunk has been derived from shongum, white, making it 
white stone. More probably it is southern rocks or hills. It has 
been more fully treated under the head of Orange county. 

Ten-na-nah or Tenannah. 

Toch-pol-lock creek, near Callicoon. 

To-ron-to pond. Morgan elsewhere gives Toronto as De^on'-do, 
log -floating on the water. Here, of course, it is a recent name. 

Wil-lo-we-moc or Williwemack creek is in the town of Rockland, 
and may be from wulagamike, bottom land. 

All these are Algonquin names but one. 


Ah-wa'-ga, zvhere the valley zuidens, is Morgan's name for 
Owego, but no early writer gives this form. 

Ap-a-la'-chin creek is Appalacon on a map of 1825. 

Ca-ne-wa'-na. N. P. Willis gave this as the name of a place 
between his home at Glenmary and Owego. Gay's Historical 
Gazetteer of Tioga County, 1888, says that part of Owego, near 
the mouth of Owego or Canawana creek, was called Canewanah. 
This is said to have been from Newana Canoeush, little living 
water, in the Seneca dialect, from Indian Spring, west of Owego 
creek and north of Main street bridge. This word comes very near 
Solomon Southwick's name for the Chemung, in the Sullivan cam- 
paign, which is Conewawa, head on a pole. 

Cat'-a-tunk creek is a tributary of Owego creek, and its name 
seems Algonquin, the Iroquois name being quite different. It may 
mean the principal stream. 

Ca-rant'-ouan, big tree, seems to have been the village of the 
Carantouanis in 1615, at or near Waverly and between the Susque- 
hanna and Chemung rivers. 

Ca-yu'-ta creek may be simply a form of geihahate, a river. 

Ga-na-to-che'-rat was a Cayuga village on the Chemung and near 
Waverly, visited by Cammerhoff in 1750. Hence this was the 
Cayuga branch, and the name may mean the last village of the 
Cayugas, or more exactly village at the end. 

Ga-now-tach-ge-rage, there lies the creek or village, indicating 


the proper trail. A name for West creek in 1745, and also written 
Ganontacharage. Much like the last. 

Manck-at-a-wan-gum, red bank, mentioned in the journals of 
j //(j and opposite Barton. It was then a ruined place, sometimes 
called the Fitzgerald farm. Macktowanuck is one of several forms. 
Delaware names began to appear in that region in the 18th century, 
due to migration. 

Nan'-ti-coke creek. The Iroquois removed the Xanticokes several 
times, and thus the name appears in various places. 

On-on-ti-o'-gas, subdued by the Iroquois and placed in the Seneca 
county. Gen. J. S. Clark thought they originally lived at Spanish 
hill, Waverly. Onontioga would mean great hill at the river forks; 
otherwise great hill at Tioga. 

O-we'-go, where the valley widens, according to Morgan. It has 
also been erroneously defined swift water, as though from Cana- 
waga. The town had several sites near the mouth of the creek, and 
was burned in 1779 to celebrate the union of Sullivan's and Clin- 
ton's armies. Owego was an early form, reasonably persistent. It 
was thus written in Conrad Weiser's journal of 1737, and in all the 
later Moravian journals. 

She-ag'-gen is on the Susquehanna on Pouchot's map, and was 
probably Theaggen or Tioga, though it might have been Seshequin, 
a little below. 

Susquehanna river has been sufficiently noticed. 

Ti-a-tach'-schi-un'-ge was the Iroquois name for Catatunk creek, 
mentioned in Spangenberg's journal of 1745. Having Iroquois 
guides his New York names are in that language but in a German 

Ti-o'-ga, at the forks, being a town at the point formed by the 
Chemung and Susquehanna rivers. It has been improperly trans- 
lated gate. The name is Iroquois, though they placed a Delaware 
village there. 

Wap-pa-sen-ing creek enters the Susquehanna at Nichols. Spaf- 
ford said : " The Wappa-suning, or Wappesena creek, comes in on 
the south side from Pennsylvania." This Delaware name seems 
from wapanneu, east, though other derivations might be suggested. 
It enters the river at the left bank, which is generally the east side. 



Cayuga lake and inlet. The name has been already treated. 

Co-re-or-go'-nel was an Indian village 2 miles south of the site 
of Ithaca in 1779. Major Xorris said it is " Call'd Corcargonell 
and is the Capital of a Small Nation or Tribe." 

Major Grant's journal of 1779 says that Colonel Dearborn burned 
" a town situate on the great Swamp called De Ho Riss Kanadia," 
being the same place. This seems to refer to the lake, and perhaps 
to its old name of Thiohero, a place of rushes. 

Ga-ni-a-ta-re-ge'-chi-at was defined by A. Cusick as from here we 
see the lake. It was the first view of Cayuga lake from the south, 
and the name is in CammerhofFs journal of 1750. In Zeisberger's 
journal of a conference at Cayuga in 1766 it occurs again. The 
Cayuga chief spoke of a proposed settlement " at Ganiataragechiat, 
that is, the upper end of the lake," and this seems the received 
meaning then. In both cases there is a local reference to reaching 
or leaving the lake at that end, and it may properly be defined end 
of the lake. Morgan gives a similar meaning to another word. 

Ga-non-tach'-a-rage or Ganowtachgerage, was West creek, be- 
tween Cortland and Owego. It has been defined as there lies the 
village or creek, that is, in that direction. 

Gi-en-tach'-ne was Salmon creek, on the east side of Cayuga lake. 

Ka-yegh-ta'-la-ge-a'-lat, valley between mountains, between Ithaca 
and Coreorgonel. It is in the Oneida dialect and on a map in the 
Secretary of State's office. 

Ka-yegh-ta'-la-ge-a'-lat, valley between mountains, between Ithaca 
more exactly end of the lake. The word lake is contracted. 

Noch-wa-i-o creek, near Ithaca in 1750, is properly Cayuga inlet, 
being defined place of rushes or flags. 

No-ga-e'-ne creek was Fall creek near Ithaca and was mentioned 
in CammerhofFs journal. 

Xo-tan-tak'-to creek was in the same valley, being Sixmile creek. 
The meaning is to go around the bend. 

On-och-sa-e, cave in the rock, was the name of a place on the 
west shore of the lake at Ithaca, in 1750. The same name occurred 
at a place on the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania. 

O-was'-co inlet, bridge on the water, but with no local signifi- 


Po-ney Hollow is supposed to be so called from a Saponey village 

Sto'-ke creek was thought to be the present Butternut creek by 
General Clark. The name may be from atoge, north, but atoka 
also means cranberries. 

Taug-ha'-nick is locally pronounced Ti-kaw-nik, and is applied 
to a creek and falls. It has several forms and may be a corruption 
of an Iroquois name, but seems an Algonquin word from the eastern 
part of New York. 

Ti-an-on-ti-a-ou was the eastern base of Saxon hill in 1750. 

To-ti-e-ron'-no, where the Tederighroonas lived in 1747, at the 
head of Cayuga lake. Ronon means people, and the historic account 
is clear. 

Tschoch'-ni-oke was Taughanick creek in 1750. 

Un-ta-ge-chi-at, a high hill along the foot of which Cammerhoff 
passed on emerging from the dense forest. It has been defined 
the hill from which a fine view is had, equivalent to prospect hill. 
Father Bruyas had the Mohawk word gannontagenhiat, at the end 
of the mountain, and this may be its equivalent, the view opening 
when the brow of the hill was reached. 


As-sinck island, in Rondout creek in 1676, probably refers to 

At-kar-kar-ton or Atkankarten, an early name of Esopus creek 
and Kingston, is said to mean smooth land by French. Ruttenber 
says that this was not the name of the village, but of the meadow 
called Great Plot by the Dutch, adding that "At is equivalent to 
at or by the stream." In an account of the " State of the Churches 
in New Netherland ; anno 1657" [O'Callaghan, 3: 107], a place is 
described " called by the Dutch Esopus or Sypous ; by the Indians 
Atkarkarton." A hamlet now bears this name. 

Ca-na-se-ne was the Sager's kill. Canasenix creek was the south 
line of Lockerman's tract and is the same name. It may be from 
ganscheweu, it roars. 

Clough-ka-wa-ka-no-e was a small creek included in a land sale 
in 1665, lying west and southwest of Kahankson creek. It has been 
noticed in Sullivan county, where it may belong. 


Cock-singh was a tract almost behind Marbletown in 1678. It 
was also described as a point of land below Esopns island and behind 
Marbletown. It may be owl place, but Hecke welder made Cohock- 
sink pine lands. 

Cuck-sink was bought without a license in 1683, and has the same 

E-a-si-neh was included in a tract belonging to the Dutch in 1681, 
and seems the Sager's kill. It may be from eiassunck, a knife, or 
ehes, a clam. 

E-so-pus, once Sopus, was derived by Heckewelder from seepu, 
the Delaware word for river. Seepu s was made equivalent to 
Sopus, and Esopus was formed from this, being so called in 1655. 
It sometimes appeared as Sopers. The Indians there were of the 
Algonquin family, and there would be more force in the alleged 
origin had they not called the place by another name, and the Dutch 
invariably by this. It became prominent at an early day. 

Fruy-de-yach-ka-mick, or the Great river, appears as the east 
boundary of the Esopus Indians in 1677, being the Hudson river 
near Rondout. F does not appear in Algonquin words, and R is 
rarely used, so that the name is erroneously given. It may be from 
kehche, greatest, and amaug, fishing place, or a coiruption of 
kittangamunk, great zvater on the other side. 

Ho-mo-wack has been defined zvater Hozvs out, probably an error. 
It is a village in Wawarsing, on the line of Sullivan county. 

Ka-ha-kas-nik was a creek west of Rondout creek in 1677, and a 
tract of land in Rochester was called Kahanckasinck in 1709. 

Ka-ka-ta-wis was the name of one of the four Esopus tribes. 

Ker-honk-son is now the name of a village as well as creek, but in 
1665 land was sold west and southwest of Kahankson creek. It 
has been written Kerhonkton, and in these later forms is place of 
wild geese. 

Ket-se-pray was one of the four Esopus tribes. 

Kyserike has been thought an Indian name by some, and is a 
hamlet in Rochester, but a conveyance of land called Keysserryck 
was given in 1703, and this was purchased of the Keysers, who were 
early settlers. 

Lack-a-wack, at the forks, is a village in Wawarsing, on the 


Ma-cha-be-neer Sha-wen-gonck was the name of lands in this 
county in 1701. The first name is also written Massachabeneers. 

Ma-chack-a-mock was called Machakamick in 1758. 

Ma-ga-at Ra-mis was the Indian name of Jeffrouw's hook in 
1677, and was applied to a tract south of Maggonck. 

Ma-gat-scoot was mentioned in 1698. 

Ruttenber says that Paltz Point was called Maggrnapogh by the 
Indians, and was distinguished as a high mountain. At its foot he 
placed a swamp called Moggonck. 

Ma-go-wa-sin-ginck was a creek north of Kahakasnik creek in 
1677, and there were Magowasinck Indians, being an Esopus tribe. 

Ma-gunck is like a name below, but may be different in meaning, 
being placed at the southwest corner of Marbletown. It might be 
derived from megucke, a plain without timber. 

Ma-he-uw was one of the four Esopus tribes. 

Mas-kekts lands were near Machabeneer and were called Mask- 
aeck in 1702. This name implies meadows. 

Mat-tas-sink or Matissink island, apparently at Rondout creek 
and probably Assinck island. 

Me-och-konck was mentioned by Ruttenber as a Minisink village, 
cither in this or Orange county. 

Met-te-ke-honks of 1709 was Mattecohunks in 1718. It is now 
Mettacahonts creek in Rochester, and was a personal name. 

Min-i-sink. In King William's reign it was enacted that "great 
and little Minisink should be annexed to the county of Ulster." 

Min-ne-was-ka is a recently applied name. 

Mog-gonck was a swam]) at the foot of the hill at Paltz Point, 
according to Ruttenber, but in a i\ted of land in Xew Paltz, in 1677, 
Moggoneck appears as a high hill. It is also written Maggonck, 
and may be derived from mogge, it is great, with suffix, or from 
megucke, a plain without timber. 

Mo-honk lake, from mohoan, to eat solid food, or mohewoneck, 
a racoon skin coat. Some have thought it meant great hill, but 
this lacks support. 

Mom-bac-cus was the Indian name of the town of Rochester, 
written Mombach in 1772. Spafford said of this: " Mombackus, 
which means Indian face, was the aboriginal name, legislated away 


from it"; but it is still the name of a creek. The definition has no 
foundation. The name may have been Mohshequssuk, flinty rock. 

Mo-na-yunk creek appears on recent maps. Heckewelder called 
this our place of drinking. 

Xa-as-se-rok was a tract in Rochester in 1709. 

Xa-no-seck was an island in Esopus. 

Xap-a-noch or Xapanock is a village in YVawarsing, called after 
an Indian chief. 

Xev-er-sink river has been treated elsewhere. 

O-nang-wack creek was east of Rondout creek. 

Pa-ca-na-sink lands were on record in 17 17, and may be the fol- 

Pack-a-se-eck was on the line of a tract sold in 1678, and may be 
derived from pachsajeek, a valley. 

Pa-wach-ta was a tract sold in 1678. The name was also applied 
to a creek west of the great swamp on the Hudson, and may be 
derived from paswohteau, it is near. 

The Papagonk Indians were in this county in 1774 according to 
Tryon's report. 

Pat-au-tunk creek is on a recent map. 

Po-chuck creek is mentioned here. 

Ponck-hock-ie is a place near Kingston. Ruttenber thought the 
Dutch fort was " at the place still bearing the aboriginal name of 
Ponckokie." French said : " The site of the first Dutch fort is said 
to be upon a plateau in the w. bounds of Rondout. The locality is 
still called by its Indian name, Ponckhockie, said to signify canoe 
harbor." It may be derived from ponkque, dry, and hackv, land. 

Quas-sa-ic creek, stony, is in the town of Plattekill. Some docu- 
ments of 1718-19 speak of the Palatine settlements on Quassaic 
creek in Ulster, which properly belong in Orange county, but this 
became the name of a tract farther north. 

Ra-ga-wa-sinck was a name for Rondout kill in 1677. 

Rap-hoos was the name of an island in Crum Elbow in that year, 
and was also applied to a tract on the north side of Rondout creek. 

Sche-pin-a-i-konck, a Minisink village, may have been here or in 

Se-wak-an-a-mie was a tract on both sides of a creek in 1678. 

Shan-da-ken. Spafford says this, " in the Indian dialect of the 


aborigines of this region, means rapid waters, a name descriptive 

and appropriate." There seems no ground for this. It is now the 
name of a town. 

Shawangunk mountains and creek [see Orange county]. 

Shen-she-chonck, a tract near Pacanasink, but south of Shaw- 
angunk creek. 

Sho-kan' was sometimes written Ashokan, and is now a village in 
Olive. It was called Shokaken in the Marhletown records of 1677, 
and was often mentioned. It may be derived from chogan, a black- 
bird, or sokan, to cross the creek, the last being preferable. 

Taugh-caugh-naugh creek is on a recent map, suggesting 

Ta-wer-sta-gue was a high hill in New Paltz in 1677. It has also 
been written Tauarataque. 

Ten-de-yack-a-meek was a place on the Hudson at Sawyer's kill 
in 1677. It may be the true form of Frudeyachkamick applied to 
another place, perhaps referring to a great fishing place, or possibly 
being a corrupt form of tauwatamik, uninhabited land. 

Ti-ca-to-nyk mountain is on a recent map, and may be derived 
from tohkootauonk, a ladder, referring to a steep ascent. 

To-to-a, mentioned in 1763, may be in another count}'. 

Wa-er-in-ne-wangh was a name for Esopus in 1655. 

Wagh-ach-a-mack was annexed to Ulster at an early day, and 
may refer to a fishing place of some kind. 

Wa-kan-ko-nach was on the line of the Pawachta tract in 1678. 

Wa-ka-se-ek was on the line of the same tract. 

War-a-ca-ha-es was bought in 1677. It was also called War- 
atakac, in the mountains west of Raphoos in New Paltz. 

Wa-war-sing or Warwasing was the place of a blackbird's nest, 
according to Schoolcraft, but this has no support. It might be 
derived from woweaushin, a winding about, in allusion to its many 
streams, but the terminal syllable seems that of place. It was writ- 
ten Wawasink in 1779, and the Rev. X. W. Jones defined it as 
a holy place for sacriH-f easts and war dances. Xo ground exists 
for this meaning. 

Weapons creek may have an Indian name, possibly corrupted 
from waping, an opossum. It was mentioned in 1719. 


Weigh-quat-en-honk was place at the end of the hills, according 
to Tooker. 

Wich-qua-nis was a tract at Esopus in 1663. 


Ad-i-ron'-dacks, tree caters. This name has been given to a 
village and to the mountains. It is a very old name of derision. 

An-di-a-ta-roc'-te, the place where the lake contracts, according 
to O'Callaghan, but not with the usual translation of the words of 
Jogues. These were, referring to Lake George: " Les Iroquois le 
nomment Andiatarocte' comme qui diroit, la oil le lac se ferine"; 
commonly rendered there where the lake is shut in. The other 
definition would do well for the southern end of Lake Champlain, 
but was not thus applied. 

At-al-a-po'-sa, sliding place, has been applied to Tongue moun- 
tain on Lake George. 

At-al'-a-po-se, sliding place, is the name for Rogers' Slide on 
Lake George. According to Sabattis evil spirits there seize the 
souls of bad Indians, slide down and drown them in the lake. The 
name seems derived from occoeposu, he slips or slides backward. 

At-a-te'-a, a river or at the river, is Hoffman's name for the 
upper part of the Hudson, which is a shortened form of the proper 
word. French calls the east branch of the river At-a-te-ka, which 
is a corrupt form. 

Bou-to-keese is Sabele's name for Little Falls at Luzerne. 

Can-a-da mountain is in the town of Chester. The name was 
often used for places and streams toward Canada. 

Ca-ni-a-de-ros-se-ras was the great tract north of Schenectady. 
As the first part of this form means lake, it may throw some light 
on the true meaning of Kayaderosseras, the usual form. 

Can-kus-kee is Northwest bay on Lake George on a map of 1776. 
A better form appears below. 

Che-pon-tuc, a difficult place to climb or get around, was a name 
of Glens Falls according to Sabattis. 

Ga-in-hou-a-gwe, given as crooked river, is a name for Schroon 
river, but lacks the adjective. 

Ga-na-ous-ke, where you get sprinkled, according to A. Cusick, 
perhaps from sudden showers, is Northwest bay. Holden says: 


"Judging from analog)- this should mean the battle place by the 
water side." The Canaoneuska Indians, mentioned in 1753 as sub- 
jects of the Iroquois, naturally suggest this name, but as they appear 
with those on the Susquehanna they have no local relations to it. 

Hor'-i-con, now the name of a town and small lake, has been 
applied to Lake George and erroneously translated silver waters. 
Cooper bestowed this name on the lake, and said the French and 
English " united to rob the untutored possessors of its wooded 
scenery of their native right to perpetuate its original appellation of 
Horican." French said of this: " However poetic and appropriate 
this designation may appear, or however euphonious it may sound, 
it may be questioned whether a term suggested by fancy alone, and 
never used by the aborigines, will ever find place among the geo- 
graphical names of the State as one of Indian origin." The name 
of the Horikans, however, appears on an early map as an Indian 
people west of Lake George, and Cooper did not invent but trans- 
ferred it. 

Kah-che-bon-cook, great root place, is Sabele's name for Jessup's 

Ka-yan-do-ros-sa, said to have been an Indian name of Glens 
Falls, has been defined by A. Cusick as long deep hole, in allusion to 
the ravine. Slight changes in this name affect the meaning much, 
and it varies greatly. 

Mi-con-a-cook, Sabele's Algonquin name for Hudson river, may 
refer to something large, or be derived from mekonook. to fight 
with, as in early battles. 

Moos-pot-ten-wa-cho, thunders nest, is his name for Crane's 
mountain, the highest peak in Warren. This meaning may be par- 
tially correct, wadchu being a mountain, and pedhacquon, thunder, 
but it might also be from moosompsquehtu, among the smooth 
stones, weathered by ages of exposure. 

O-i-o'-gue', at the river, where Jogues crossed the Hudson in 
1 646. 

( )regon is a western name, applied to a place here. 

Rogh-qua-non-da-go, child of the mountain, a name recently ap- 
plied to Schroon lake. 

Sa-ga-morc is of recent application here, being a New England 
title for an Indian king. In the Delaware dialect it is Sagkimau. 


Schroon, from Ska-ne-tagh-ro-wah-na, largest lake, according to 
Gordon. The definition is good but the derivation may be doubted, 
and others have been given. 

Se-non-ge-wok, hill like an inverted kettle, according to Hoffman. 
This is east of Hudson river and 4 miles north of Luzerne. It is 
also called Segongenon or Mount Kettle-bottom. 

Skmo-wah-co is Sabele's name for Schroon river, though the 
name may refer to Schroon mountain, wadchu meaning mountain. 

Sknoo-na-pus is his name for Schroon lake, nippis being a lake. 
Sohke-num-nippe means he pours out water. 

Te-kagh-we-an-ga-ra-negh-ton was a mountain west of Lake 
George in 1755. Tekagh is locative in this. 

Waw-kwa-onk is Sabele's name for the head of Lake George, 
meaning place at the end. 


An-a-quas-sa-cook was the title of a patent issued in 1762, and a 
village in Jackson retains the name. It may be derived from 
anaqushauog, they trade, with a reference to early transactions. 

Ca-nagh-si-o-ne is a name for the Two Rocks, 10 miles below 
Whitehall, but the meaning has no reference to these. It is prob- 
ably from Konosioni, to show that the land there was really in the 
Iroquois country. 

In 1766 Governor Pownall spoke of " Lake Champlain, or, as the 
Indians call it, Caniaderiguarunte, the lake that is the gate of the 
country." This more properly belongs to the lake north of Ticon- 
deroga, but might be applied to the whole. Gallatin gives 
kunnookorloonteh as the Mohawk word for door. 

Caniaderi Oit, tail of the lake, is given by several for Lake Cham- 
plain and applies to its long and narrow southern end. 

Cos-sa-yu-na, lake at our pines, is applied to a lake, creek and 
mountains, and is derived from coos or cowhass, \vhite pine. The 
full definition was given by some St Francis Indians to Dr Fitch, 
who restored this name to the lake in Argyle. 

Di-on-o-en-do-ge-ha, a creek east of the Hudson in 1683, at the 
northeast corner of the Saratoga tract. 

Di-on-on-dah-o-wa Falls. Lower falls on the Batten kill, near 
and above the Devil's Caldron, Galesville. This name seems the 


original of the preceding, and Sylvester applies it to the Batten kill 
near Fort Miller. It was written Dionondehowe in 1709, and prop- 
erly belongs to the creek. A. Cnsick defined it, she opens the door 
for them. 

Hoo-sick river is partly in this county. 

Spafford said of Whitehall : " The Northern Indians named this 
place, Kah-cha-quah-na, the place where dip fish, at the foot of the 
falls, near the Village." This seems an Iroquois word. 

Ka-non-do-ro has been applied to the Narrows of Lake Cham- 
plain, but Capt. John Schuyler called a place north of Crown Point 
by this name in 1690. 

Kin-gi-a-qua-to-nec, a short portage between Fort Edward and 
Wood creeks, in Kingsbury. 

Mag-kan-e-we-ick creek was mentioned in 1688, some Scaghti- 
coke Indians being there. 

Met-to-wee or Pawlet river is in Granville. From meetwe, a 
poplar, or metewis, black earth. 

On-da-wa was a name for White creek in the town of the same 
name. A. Cusick defined this coining again. 

On-der-i-gue-gon, the drowned lands on Wood creek, near Fort 
Ann. Holden quotes Pownall as defining this conflux of waters, 
but this may be a misquotation. 

Pe-to-wah-co, Sabele's name for Lake Champlain, seems to mean 
mountain lake. 

Pit-tow-ba-gonk, the name given by Sabattis, seems a corruption 
of the last, but may be another word. Palmer has it Petawa- 
bouque, defined as alternate land and water, and gives another form 
as Petow-pargow or great -water. Watson made it Petaonbough, 
lake branching into two. Sabele's name seems from petau, enter- 
ing, and wadchu, mountain, and is to be preferred. 

Po-dunk brook is in the town of Fort Ann, and the name is found 
in New England and on Long Island. It may refer to a place 
where something is brought, or be derived from petunk, to put 
anything into a bag. Perhaps a better meaning would be clean 

Pom-pa-nuck, a place for sports, is now Pumpkin Hook creek in 
the town of White Creek. French observes that this is said to be a 


corruption of the Indian word Pom-pa-nuck, the name of a tribe of 
Indians who came here from Connecticut. 

Ska-ne-togh-ro-wa largest lake, is another of Palmer's names for 
Lake Champlain. This is a corruption of an Iroquois word mean- 
ing large lake. 

Tagh-ka-nick mountains extend into this county. 

Ta-kun-de-wide was Harris's bay on Lake George. 

Tam-a-rack swamp in Argyle is so called from the Indian name 
of that tree. 

Tigh-til-li-gagh-ti-kook was a name for the south branch of Bat- 

Tom-he-nack, now Tomhannock, was the early name of a creek 
in Cambridge, and may be derived from tomogkon, it is flooded. 

Ty-o-shoke was the Indian name for their large cornfield in the 
same town, and may be from toyusk, a bridge, or tooskeonk, a ford. 

Wah-co-loo-sen-coo-cha-le-va is Sabele's name for Fort Edward. 

Wam-pe-ca'ck creek is in Cambridge, and may mean place of 


As-sor-o-dus for Sodus, has been erroneously defined silver 
water. Morgan wrote it Se-o-dose', and applied it to both Great 
and Little Sodus bays. In Oneida it is Ah-slo-dose, and on a ma]) 
of 1 77 1 it is Aserotus. In 1779 it was mentioned as "Aserotus 
abt thirty-five miles West of Oswego." J. Y. H. Clark said the 
Jesuits called it Osenodus, but I do not find this in the Relations 
or on their map. The meaning seems lost, but the name may be 
from asare, a knife. 

Cha-ra-ton is Sodus bay on a map of 1688, but in the form of 
Chroutons this belongs to Little Sodus bay. 

Can-an-dai-gua outlet unites with Ganargwa creek at Lyons, 
forming the Clyde river. It has its name from the Indian village 
cf Canandaigua, the chosen settlement. 

Ga-na-at'-i-o, beautiful or great pond, is Sodus bay on the Jesuit 
map of 1665. 

Ga'-na-gweh or Ganargwa, a village suddenly sprung up, is a 
name of Mud creek and Palmyra. 

Baye de Goyogoins (Cayugas) is Sodus bay on Pouchot's map, 
and Charlevoix gave it the same name. 


Hu-ron, an applied name, is usually considered French, but is 
strongly suggestive of the frequent I [uron-Iroquois word ronon. 
a nation. Charlevoix derived it from the French word hures, wild 
boars, with a fanciful story, but the Hurons were not known to the 
French by this name for some time. It seems to have been used 
only after visits to their country, and is probably of aboriginal 

Je-dan-da'-go, a landing place east of Jerondokat in 1687. 

On-ta'-ri-o, great or beautiful lake. A town is named from this. 

Seneca river is so named from leading to the Seneca county. 

Se-o-dose' is Morgan's name for Sodus bay. Blind Sodus bay 
is farther east, and there are several French names for some of 
these bays. 

So-doms, a creek in the Seneca country in 1726, was called 
Sodons in 1763, and is usually identified with Sodus. 

Squa-gon'-na is given by J. V. II. (lark for the Montezuma 
marshes, and suggests Morgan's name of Squa-yen'-na, a great 
way up, for another place. This would refer to the tedious passage 
of the marshes. It might also be derived from the Cayuga word 
neskwagaonta, toad or frog. 

Te-ga-hone'-sa-o'-ta, child in baby frame, is Morgan's name for 
Sodus bay creek. The first two syllables are locative, and Sodus 
may have come from the others. 

Te-ger-hunk'-se-ro-de, a hill east of Sodus bay and belonging to 
the Cayugas in 1758. It was called Tegerhunckseroda in 1726, and 
strongly suggests the preceding name. The name was also applied 
to hills still farther east, and thus another meaning is possible — 
even probable. 

Thi-o-he-ro, river of rushes. Though the name is appropriate 
through all its course, this name of Seneca river is most significant 
at the great marshes here. 


In this county the Indian names are purely Algonquin, several 
tribes of that family living here. 

Ac-qua-si-mink creek was by the tract bought in 1695, and east 
of the Sachus tract, It may be- derived from agweshau, icood- 
chuck, and locative terminal. 


Ac-que-ho-unck is now Hutchinson's or East Chester creek. It 
has been also written Aqueanounck and Achquechgenom. There 
are many variations and the name is also applied to a place in West 
Farms. Tooker derived it from the Delaware word achwowangeu, 
high bank, while others interpret it red cedar tree. 

Al-ip-eonek, place of elms, at Tarry town, has Mr Tooker's valued 
indorsement. Schoolcraft defined it place of leaves. 

A-mack-as-sin, the great stone, was one of several names for a 
great rock, near the Hudson and west of the Neperha. 

Am-a-walk, an abbreviated name, was in the east part of York- 
town according to Bolton, while Scharf places it in Somers. 

A-o-keels pond was in or near Lewisboro in 1708. 

Ap-aw-quam-mis or Moquams creek was derived by Tooker from 
appoqua, to cover, mis, the trunk of a tree; in full the covering tree, 
perhaps intending the birch. He placed it at Budd's Neck in Rye. 
Ruttenber assigned the name to Rye Neck. Apawamis and Epa- 
wames are variants. 

Ap-pa-magh-pogh was a name for a tract near Yerplanck's point, 
bought in 1683, and for a place east of Cortlandt. According to 
Tooker this is from appoqua, to cover, with paug, water, and he 
defines the whole lodge covering water place, or a place where cat- 
tails were cut for mats to be used in covering wigwams. 

Ap-pan-ragh-pogh was a general Indian name for lands east of 
Cortlandtown, according to Bolton, being the same as the last. 

Ap-won-nah, in Rye, is oyster, but apwonau also means he roasts, 
and may be applied to roasting any shellfish. 

A-que-hung much resembles the name of Hutchinson's creek, but 
is a name of the Bronx. Ruttenber applied it to Byram river and 
derived it from aquene, peace, making it place of peace. Tooker, 
however, assigns the name to a place on Bronx river, deriving it 
from aquehonga, high bank or bluff, or else from hocqueunk, on 
high. Staten Island had the same name. 

Ar-men-pe-rai or Armenperal is Sprain river. Tooker says the 
word is much corrupted and the meaning unknown. 

Ar-monck, usually defined beaver, was an early name for Byram 
river. This would derive it from the Delaware word amochk, 
bca-t-cr. Tooker. however, preferred amaug, a fishing place. It is 
also applied to a lake and to a village in North Castle. 


As-ke-wa-en has its name from an undefined personal name. 

As-o-qua-tah mountain was in Lewisboro in 1708. 

As-pe-tong mountain retains its name and is northwest of Bed- 
ford village. Tooker derives this from aspe, to raise up, while 
ashpohtag means something that is high. 

As-sum-so-wis was a place in Pelham, and Tooker thought it a 
personal name. 

Be-tuck-qua-pock or Dumpling pond was originally in Xew York, 
and is on Van der Donck's map. It is now in Greenwich, Ct., and 
is sometimes written Petuquapaen. Tooker thought the proper form 
was Pituquapaug or round pond. 

Bis-sigh-tick creek was on the north side of some land bought 
in 1682. Tooker derived this from Pissigh-tuck, muddy creek. 

Ca-no-pus is from the name of a chief. 

Can-ta-to-e or Katonah is sometimes written Cantitoe. It is the 
name of a chief of 1683, and is applied to the Jay homestead. It 
is also written Catonah, and may be derived from Ketatonah, great 

Ca-ra-nas-ses was mentioned by Bolton. 

Cay-way-west or Caquanost was a neck in Mamaroneck, bought 
in 1661. The first name may be from koowa, a pine tree, while the 
last resembles caukoonash, stockings. 

Chap-pa-qua pond, hill, springs and station are in New Castle 
[see Shappaqua]. Tooker made it a boundary, but it might be from 
the Delaware word scaphacki, a well watered land, and this seems 

Cha-ti-e-mac. In the Indian in his Wigwam, Schoolcraft gives 
this name to the lower Hudson, defining it stately swan. Usually 
he wrote it Shatemuc, pelican river [see Shatemuc]. 

Cis-qua creek [see Kisco]. Tooker says this does not mean 
bearer dam, as some have thought. This and a meadow of the same 
name appear in an Indian deed of 1700. It is from kishke, by the 
side of anything. 

Co-bo-mong, written also Comonck and Cobamong, has been 
applied to Byram river, and is partly derived from amaug, a fish- 
ing place. Tooker says that, considered as a boundary, it may rep- 
resent Chaubun-kong-amaug, boundary fishing place. Scharf says 
the district about Byram lake is called Cohemong, which James 


Wood interpreted where wampum is made. This seems without 
support unless in tradition. The name of Cohamong appeared in 
a deed of 1700, and it has been shortened into Coman. French 
places Cobamong pond a mile east of Byram pond. 

Co-han-sey is a name almost forgotten. 

Con-o-val was mentioned by Bolton. 

Co-wan-gongh, boundary place, is a name in West Farms. 

Cro-ton is a personal name applied to a place. Schoolcraft sug- 
gested kenotin or knoton, wind or tempest, as its origin. Tooker 
preferred the Delaware word kloltin, lie contends. It is now the 
name of a river, lake and town, and occurs elsewhere. 

E-auk-e-tau-puck-u-son is now Rye Woods. Tooker has Euke- 
taupucuson or Ekucketaupacuson for a high hill in Rye, as well as 
the woods. Ruttenber writes it Enketaupuenson, and makes it a 
high ridge east of Blind Brook. In old records the wonder some- 
times is that proper names can be read at all. This is interpreted 
where a stream widens on both sides; i. e., overflows. 

Go-wa-ha-su-a-sing is a place in West Farms. Tooker considers 
this a Delaware word, meaning place of briars, or where there is a 
hedge. Zeisberger has gawunschenack for hedge in that dialect. 

Ha-se-co is a meadow on Byram river. Some have derived this 
from the English word hassock, suggestive here of marshy tufts, 
but it is an Indian word meaning fresh meadozi' or marshy land. 
Miossehassaky was a meadow adjoining this. The name occurs in 
New England and elsewhere, and may be translated a bog. 

Hickory Grove is in Mamaroneck. We have adopted many In- 
dian names of trees and plants, and this is a familiar one. 

Ho-ko-hon-gus was near Pocanteco creek. 

Hon-ge, the upper part of Blind Brook, may be Aquehung, re- 
ferring to its higher banks. 

Ka-to-nah has been briefly noticed. Tooker defines this as great 
mountain, the prefix keht meaning great. It is now a village on 
Cross river, named from a chief of 1683, who also sold land in 

Ke-a-ka-tis creek is mentioned by Bolton. 

Kech-ka-wes creek, near the East river, was a name for Ma- 
harnes river in 1649, anc ^ may be defined as a principal stream, from 
kehche, it is chief. 


Ke-ke-shick was a place in Yonkers, and was called Kekeskick 
in 1639, when it was a general term for Yonkers. Tooker derives 
this from ketchauke, principal or greatest place, and thought there 
was a stockade there. 

Ken-si-co is a village in North Castle. 

Kes-kist-konck, a village of the Nochpeems, above Anthony's 
Nose. Tooker thinks this is the original of Kisko. 

Kes-tau-bai-uck or Kastoniuck was a village on Van der Donck's 
map, and Bolton mentions Kestaubauck creek. Tooker writes this 
Kestaubnuck, and derives it from Keche-tauppen-auke, the great 

Ke-wegh-teg-nack, Kiwigtinock and Heweghtiquack are names 
for an elbow of Croton river. Tooker derives this from whquae- 
tign-ack, land at the head of the cove. 

Kigh-to-wank was called Knotrus river by the English in 1682, 
and thence may have come the name of Croton. 

MounttKis-ko, according to Tooker, is from kishkituck-ock, land 

on edge of a creek, for the Indian village was thus placed. It is 

•now applied to a village on the west border < of Bedford, and also 

to a tributary of Croton river. Cisqua and Keskisko are variants of 

this name. 

Kith-a-wan or Kicktawank, usually defined large and swift cur- 
rent, is Croton river near the Hudson. Tooker makes it a wild, 
dashing stream, from kussi-tchuan. Trumbull defined this word, 
it flows in a rapid stream or current. It was called Kightawonck 
creek in a deed of 1699, and Kichtawangh in 1663. In a deed of 
1685 it is mentioned as a " creek called Kitchawan, called by the 
Indians Sinksink." 

There was a Kitchawanc also in Mamaroneck. 

Kit-ta-ten-ny is a name applied to Anthony's Nose by Ruttenber, 
and defined by, him endless hills, more properly very long. Zeis- 
berger defines kituteney as a chief town, but it has a wide applica- 

Ki-wig-ti-gu. Elbow, on Sauthier's map, is on Croton river, and 
may be a variant of Kitchawan, but is probably a local term. 

The Ko-a-mong purchase of 1683 was the second Indian deed in 

La-ap-ha-wach-king, place of stringing beads, according to 


Heckewelcler, was a Delaware name for New York and West- 
chester. The story has been mentioned under the head of New 
York county. Tooker places this in Pelham and disagrees with 
Heckewelder, defining the name as a cultivated field or plantation, 
from lapechwahacking, land again broken up. 

Ma-cok-as-si-no, at the big rock, is used by Bolton for a tract 
along the Hudson, but varies from the original name. 

Ma-cook-nack point. Sauthier has also a Macookpack pond, but 
in Dutchess county. 

Ma-en-ne-pis creek was mentioned by Bolton. It may be de- 
rived from manunne, it is sloiv, and nepis, water. 

Ma-gri-ga-ri-es or Magriganies lake is in Yorktown. Perhaps 
something large. 

Ma-gri-ga-ri-es is also an Indian name for the creek at Peeks- 

Ma-har-nes or Mehanas was also called Kechkawes kill, and 
flows through Bedford. Tooker gives it as Myanas, Mehanos, 
Meahagh, etc., and says it was from the name of Mayanne, who 
was killed in 1683. It means he who gathers together. Meanous 
river appears in a deed of 1700. 

Ma-ka-kas-sin is also written Meghkeekassin, Mehkakhsin, 
Amackassin, etc., and may be derived from the Delaware word mee- 
chekachsinik, at the big rock. It was a large rock and landmark 
west of the Neperah, and has been briefly noticed as giving name to a 
tract of land. It was mentioned in 1682 as a great rock, Megh- 
keekassin, on the Neperhan. The name was also given to a neigh- 
boring stream in the manor grant of Philipseborough, " a rivulet 
called by the Indians Meccackassin, so running southward to 
Neperhan." Ruttenber defined it the great stone, the one called 

Mam-ar'-o-neck has been defined place of rolling stones, a mani- 
fest error. French says it is " pronounced both Mam-a-ro'-neck and 
Mam-ar'-o-neck. The latter is more generally used, and is often 
contracted to Mor-neck or Mar-neck, in common speech." Tooker 
says the river was named after Mamaronock, who was a chief at 
Wiquaeskeck in 1644, and he derives it from mohmoanock, he 
assembles the people. Moworronoke is a variant, and Mamarack 
river was mentioned in 1661. Scharf says the present spelling dates 


from the early part of the 18th century, and that the name means 
place where the fresh water falls into the salt, a ledge of rocks 
marking the division. I have the chief's name as Mamarranack, 
slightly varying from Tooker's form. His definition is probably 
correct, the others having no good foundation. 

Ma-man-as-quag appears in a Lewisboro deed of 1708, on the 
northwest corner of the land then purchased, and on the outlet of 
Mamanasquag pond. 

Mam-ga-pes creek was on the west side of the Mamaroneck lands 
in 1 661. A neck east of this was also called by the same name. 

Man-gop-son was the west neck at New Rochelle, and a creek 
had also the same name. 

Man-sa-ka-wagh-kin island was mentioned by Bolton. 

Ma-nun-ket-e-suck was a place on the sound. Tooker has it 
Maminketsuck, a stream in Pelham, from manuhketsuck, a strong- 
flowing brook. Early forms suggest other meanings. 

Ma-nur-sing is little island, according to Tooker, who writes it 
Minusing. It is in Rye. 

Me-a-hagh was Verplanck's Point, according to Ruttenber. On 
Van Cortlandt's purchase of 1683 Meanagh is a name for Ke-wigh- 
ta-hagh creek in that purchase, and is retained as Meanagh creek 
between Verplanck's and Montrose points. 

Men-ti-pat-he, a small stream in West Farms, is from a personal 

Min-na-he-nock, at the island, is Blackwell's island. 

Min-ne-wies, for Manursing island, has been defined pine island, 
but Tooker says it was called Minnewits, after Peter Minuit. 

Mi-os-se-has-sa-ky adds an adjective to Haseco, making it great 
fresh meadow or marshy land. It is on By ram river, adjoining 

Mock-quams is now Blind Brook in Rye. It has another Indian 
name from which this is a variant, being called Moaquanes in 1660. 
It seems to mean something rapidly enlarging. 

Mo-har-sic or Mohansic lake in Yorktown is sometimes called 
Crom pond. 

Mo-he-gan lake in Yorktown is called after that important peo- 
ple. Heckewelder's definition may be rejected, and the meaning of 
wolf retained as given by Champlain. 


Mo-nak-e-we-go is Bolton's name for Greenwich point. 

Mo-pus was a brook in North Salem, and Mr Tooker thought 
this a variant of Canopus. 

Mos-ho-lu or Tibbett's brook in Yonkers. Tooker says this is 
either made or corrupted, and thus without meaning. It might 
refer to smooth stones or gravel. 

Mus-coo-ta, meadow or place of rushes, a name often given to 
wet lands or grassy flats, but there is a Muscoota mountain near 
Croton river. In this case it would be mountain at the grassy place, 
though there might be one on its side. Muscoot river is in Somers, 
and the lowlands along the Harlem river were also called Mus- 

In the manor grant of Fordham is mentioned " the first point on 
the mainland to the east of the island Pepiriniman — there where 
the\ill Moskuta is." 

Mu-tigh-ti-coos, the hare, is from a personal name. Mattegticos 
and Titicus are variants. This is a branch of the Croton, mentioned 
in 1699. 

My-an-as is a variant of Meanagh. 

Na-na-ma is mentioned by Bolton, and may be from the chief 

Na-nich-i-es-taw-ack, an early village in Bedford, is on Van der 
Donck's map. Tooker derived it from the Delaware word nanat- 
schitaw-ack, a place of safety, and thought it was a fort. 

Nap-peck-a-mack, an Indian village at Yonkers. Ruttenber de- 
fined this rapid water settlement, which Tooker calls erroneous. 
The same name on Long Island is Rapahamuck, and he thinks both 
N and R are intrusive, deriving the name from appeh-amack, a trap 
fishing place. Traps were much used. 

Nar-a-haw-mis was at the southwest corner of a tract in Lewis- 
boro in 1708. 

Nau-a-shin village was mentioned by Bolton. 

Na-vish was a tract which included Senasqua meadow in 1683. 

Nep-er-han or Nepera creek has an early name, but is sometimes 
termed Sawmill creek. Land at Nipperha was mentioned in 1666. 
Ruttenber derives this from nepe, water, but Tooker from apehhan, 
a trap or snare, which is more satisfactory. 


Ne-so-pack pond was on the line of land bought in Lewisboro in 
1708. This is from neeshauog, eels, and paug, zvater or pond. 

Nim-ham mountain was called after a noted chief. 

Ni-pi-nich-sen was a fort at Spuyten Duyvil creek, and was on 
ihe north side of the creek at Berrian's Neck. Tooker interprets 
this small pond, deriving it from nipisse, the diminutive of nippe, 
thus making it mean small water. 

Xoch-pe-em has Noapain and ( )chpeen as variants, and its sachem 
was mentioned in i6_|4. Jt appears on Van der Donck's map. 
Tooker makes this a dwelling place, but the reason is not clear. 

Xoname's hill still hears the name of that chief. 

O-nox had its name from the oldest son of Ponus, a chief of 

Oregon is a western name applied to a village in Cortlandt. 

Os-ca-wa-na. The sachem of this place was mentioned in 1690, 
and the name is now given to ( )scawana island, apparently referring 
to grass, or any green herb. 

Os-sin-sing, stone upon stone, is now the town of Ossining. Sing 
Sing is derived by Ruttenber from ossin, a stone, and ing, place, and 
thence comes place of stones. This is the usual general definition. 
In a deed of 1685 there is mentioned " a creek called Kitchawan, 
called by the Indians Sink Sink." The former name is that of the 
Croton river, hut both are appropriate for many places. 

Pa-cha-mitt was the name of a tribe from the place where they 
lived, given by Tooker as meaning the turning aside place. The 
chief Pachami had his name from this. 

Pa-pir-in-i-men was Bolton's name for Spuyten Duyvil creek, 
but O'Callaghan applied it to land cast of the creek. As early as 
1669 a causeway was to be made over marshy land between Papa- 
rinimon and Fordham. Tooker assigned it both to the creek and 
a place at the north end of Manhattan island, and thought it a per- 
sonal name, meaning to parcel out or divide. In 1682 was men- 
tioned a creek called " Papparinemo, which divides York island 
from the main, and so along the said creek or kill as it runs to the 
Hudson's river." In the manor grant of Fordham is also mentioned 
"the first point on the mainland to the east of the island Peperi- 
niman." It is evident that it was a general name, covering other 
local names. 


Pa-quin-tuck, at the clear creek, was a boundary of the purchase 
of 1695. 

Pas-qua-sheck was an Indian village on Van der Donck's map, 
and it has unimportant variants. It was a Nochpeem village, placed 
above Anthony's Nose by Ruttenber. Bolton wrote it Pasquashic, 
and Tooker defined it land at the bursting forth, that is, at the out- 
let of a stream. Perhaps as good a derivation would make it place 
of night-hawks. 

Pa-to-mus ridge was mentioned by Bolton. 

Patt-hunck, is given as a personal name for a place by Tooker, 
and defined as pounding mortar. This derivation is not clear, but 
it might be primarily from petau, to put into, whence has been 
formed petunk, to put anything into a bag. 

Pa-uns-kapdiam was a place in Cortlandt and seems a personal 

Pech-quin-a-konck, an Indian village in North Salem, is on Van 
der Donck's map. Tooker derived this from pachquinakonck, at 
the land raised up or high. Scharf mentions Lake Pehquenna- 

Pe-pe-migh-ting was a river in Bedford, derived by Tooker from 
Pepemightug, the chosen free, probably a boundary mark. 

Pep-pen-eg-kek creek and pond in Bedford, is the chosen stake, 
according to Tooker. marking a boundary. Peppensghek or Cross 
river was mentioned in a <.\Qcd of 1699. 

Pe-quot Mills has its name from an important eastern tribe. 
Trumbull defines it as clear river. 

Pe-tu-qua-pa-en was mentioned by Bolton. From puttahwhau, 
he entraps. 

1 Po-can-te-co creek was mentioned in 1680, and was also written 
Puegkandico the next year. Tooker derives it from pohki-tuck-ut. 
at the clear stream, giving several variations. Weghkandeco he 
did not mention. Ruttenber gave one form as Pereghanduck, and 
derived the name from pohkunni, dark, and thence pecontecue, 
night, making the whole meaning dark river. His first derivation 
is better than his second. Bolton makes it a run between tzvo hills, 
but the choice is between the first two definitions. The name was 
placed at Wickers creeke in 1680, that being a general name for 
this region, 


Pock-cot-es-se-wake is a brook in Rye, and was also applied to 
Mamaroneck. Tooker thought this a personal name, there being 
a chief called Meghtesewakes. It suggests the next. 

Pock-e-o-tes-sen creek is now Stony brook or Beaver dam. Rut- 
tenber wrote it Pockestersen. It may be a corruption of pohpoh- 
kussu, a partridge. 

Pock-er-hoe was a village, and Tooker thought it a corruption of 

Poh-ki-tuck-ut is defined by Tooker at the clear creek. 

Po-ho-ta-sack creek was mentioned in 1695. It was east of the 
Sachus tract, and the beginning of the purchase line. 

Po-nin-goe or Peningoe, a neck in Rye and the residence of a 
Siwanoy chief. Tooker thought this a personal name, but it was 
applied to the town by the Indians, and the tract bought in 1660 
had this name. It may be from penackinnu, it grozus and spreads, 
like a vine. 

Po-nus was a chief's name, meaning he places (something) , ac- 
cording to Tooker. Ponewhush, lay down your burdens is im- 
perative in the Narragansett dialect. 

Po-ti-ti-cus is in Bedford, and Tooker calls it a trail, deriving it 
from Mutighticoos. Something might be added to this definition, 
but the Potiticus path was mentioned in a deed of 1700. 

Pus-sa-pa-num or Pussatanun was a place near Annsville, mean- 
ing a miry place. 

Qua-haug was given by Bolton, and is from po-quau-hock, round 

Quar-op-pas, or White Plains, was bought in 1683, and includes 
Scarsdale. Tooker thought it a personal name. 

Quin-na-hung was Hunt's point in West Farms. Tooker called 
it long high place, while Ruttenber derived it from quinni, long, 
and ung, place. Quinni-onk means longer than, and thus would 
refer to the longest point in the vicinity. It was sometimes applied 
to the southern part of West Farms. 

Ra-ho-na-ness, a plain east of Rye, was considered a personal 
name by Tooker. It lay on the east side of the Peningoe tract, pur- 
chased in 1660, and was also mentioned in 1720. 

Ran-ach-que is the Bronx tract or Bronck's land. It was also 


called Wanachque, and Ruttenber gives Raraque. Tooker defined 
it as the end, stop or point, which is a good definition. 

Rip-po-wams was a place at Stamford, on both sides of Mill river. 
It was also called Xippowance, and Tooker thought it from nipau- 
apuchk, standing rock. It was the name of a tract of land, and 
was assigned to Connecticut in 1655. 

Sach-ke-ra, a place in West Farms. Extended land. 

Sach-us or Sackhoes was on the site of Peekskill. Tooker thought 
it a personal name, but defined it as the mouth of a stream, com- 
paring it with Saugus or Lynn in Massachusetts. 

Sack-a-ma Wick-er is sachem's house. 

Sac-ra-hung or Mill river is derived by Ruttenber from sacra, 
rain, but Tooker writes it Sackwahung, places it in West Farms, 
and makes it a variant of Aquehung, a high bank. 

Sa-cun-yte Na-pucke was a place in Pelham, derived by Tooker 
from Sakunk Napi-ock, at the outlet of a pond. 

Sa-per-wack is a bend in a stream in West Farms. Extended 

Sap-rough-ah was a creek in the same town. Land spread out. 

Sas-sa-chem or Sachem creek. 

Sen-as-qua Neck or Croton Point. Tooker derived this name 
from wanasque, a point, and said Wanasquattan was a similar name 
on Long Island, but without giving location. 

Sen-sin-ick, stony place, is like Sing Sing. 

Se-pack-e-na was a small creek at Tarrytown, on the north line 
of a purchase by Philipse. Tooker defined this and some similar 
names as either land on a river or extended land, sepagenum mean- 
ing he spreads out. Its relation to sepu, a river, is less obvious but 
may be traced. 

Se-pe-a-chim creek is mentioned by Bolton. The name is de- 
scriptive of the creek or river, or may be derived from sepagenum. 

Sep-par-ak, land on a river, is a place in Cortlandt, where it is 
also a name for Tanracken creek. In all these names river comes 

Se-wey-ruc was a name for Byram river in 1649, being a bound- 
ary of the land then sold. It may be from seahwhoog referring to 
scattered or loose wampum. 

Shap-pe-qua is in Bedford and New Castle, and the name is 


applied to Shappequa hills. Chappaqua is a variant, looker de- 
fined it as a boundary or place of separation, which is the meaning 
of chadchapunum. Bolton said it meant "a vegetable root." In 
this case it might be from tschuppic, called "Aaron root " by Zeis- 
berger. Chipohke, unoccupied land, sounds much like this name, 
and seems as good a derivation as those mentioned, if not very 
much better. 

Sha-te'-muc was a name for the lower Hudson, and Schoolcraft 
defined this Pelican river, from shata, a pelican, though he did not 
know of this bird there. It does, however, occur far inland in 
New York. He afterward made it mean the stately swan. Wash- 
ington Irving seems to have first used the name in print. 

Shin-ga-ba-wos-sins was defined by Tooker as a place of flat 
stones. Other derivations might be suggested. Shingebis is a west- 
ern name for the diver. 

Ship-pam is New Rochelle and was mentioned in 1640. Tooker 
thought this a personal name, derived from keechepam or shore. 

Sho-rack-ap-pock, the j miction of Spuyten Duyvil creek with 
the Hudson. In the manor grant of Philipseborough the creek is 
called " the kill Shorackkapock," forming part of the south line. 
Tooker places the name at the outlet, writing it Shorakapkock, and 
defining it as far as the sitting down place or portage. The need 
of a portage is not clear. 

Sick-ham, a place in Cortlandt, Tooker thought a personal name. 

Sigg-hes was a great boulder and landmark in Greenburg. In 
one deed it is mentioned as " a great rock called by the Indians 
Sigghes." It was also called Meghkeekassin, the great stone. 
Tooker derives it from siogke-ompsk-it, at the hard rock. 

Sin-na-mon was mentioned by Bolton. 

Sint Sinck is derived by Tooker from the Delaware word asine- 
sing, stony place. Maetsingsing, on the Delaware river, thus means 
place where stones arc gathered together. In various forms it fre- 
quently occurs. Locally the name was written Sintinck in 1650. 

Si-o-as-cock is one of Bolton's local names. 

The Si-wa-novs were a people living on the sound and East river, 
from Norwalk to Hellgate. They were probably Suwanoes or 
south people. 

Sna-ka-pins is now Cornell's Xeck. Tooker thought this a per- 


sonal name, but also considered that it might be from sagapin, a 
ground nut. 

So-cak-a-tuck, mouth of a stream, is a place in Pelham. 

Suck-e-bouk or Suckebout, in Bedford, has been anglicized to 
Suckabone. Tooker writes it Suckehonk, black place or marsh. 

Tam-mo-e-sis was a small creek near Verplanck's Point, on the 
south side of which land was bought in 1683. Tooker thought this 
a personal name, meaning little wolf. This derivation is not very 
clear, and the name may have some reference to the beaver, which 
is tamaque in Delaware, and from which the name of Tammany is 

Tan-ke-ten-kes or Tantiketes, a people living back of Sing Sing. 
Tooker defines this as those of little worth. 

Tan-ra-ken or Tanrackan creek was near Senasqua meadow. It 
was derived from tannag, a crane, by Tooker, and was also called 
Sepperack creek. It might also be defined a fertile place. 

Tap-pan bay has the form of Tuphanne, meaning cold spring. 
according to Heckewelder, but was often written Tappaen. 

Tat-o-muck is a name for Mill river in Poundridge. Tooker says 
that part of the name is lost, and that it probably meant crab fishing 

Ti-ti-cus is abbreviated, as the name of a river, from Mughtiti- 
coos, the name of an early chief. 

To-quams was a tract of land mentioned in 1640. Tooker 
thought it indicated a boundary mark, meaning at the round rock. 
Toquamske was another form. 

Tuck-a-hoe was a name applied to the root of Orontium aquati- 
cwm, from which the Indians made a kind of bread. The word 
is derived from p'tuckwe, and the name is given to a village and 
hill in Yonkers. 

Um-pe-wauge pond was on the line of the Lewisboro purchase 
of 1708. 

Wac-ca-back lake in Lewisboro may be derived from wequa- 
baug, end of the pond. 

Wa-chi-e-ha-mis, a pond on the Van Cortlandt purchase of 1695. 
From wadchuemes, a hill as contrasted with a mountain, and thus, 
with proper designation, pond on a hill. 

Wam-pus pond was called after a resident chief of the Tanke- 


tenkes. Tooker rendered this name opossum, which is waping in 

Wa-na-ka-wagh-kin of 1683 is now Iona island, a pleasant place. 

Wau-ma-in-uck is Bolton's name for Orienta, which Scharf says 
is an error, and that East Xeck should have been Mamaroneck, 
agreeing with French. Tooker accepts Bolton's name for Delancey's 
Neck, defining it land round about. 

Weck-qua-es-keck is the more frequent form of a very variable 
name. In a deed of 1682 the tract thus called extended "southerly 
to a creek or fall called by the Indians Weghquagsike." In another 
the creek is called Weghqueghe. It was Wickerscreeke in 1680, 
and Wechgaeck in 1642. O'Callaghan included under this name 
a tract from the Hudson to the East river, defining it as the country 
of birch bark, from wigwos, birch bark, and keag, country. Bol- 
ton made it place of the bark kettle, which was made of birch. 
Tooker wrote it Weckquaskeek, saying that Bolton's definition was 
wrong, and that it should be at the end of the marsh or bog. 

Wegh-kan-de-co is a name for Pocanteco, slightly changed. 

We-nan-ni-nis-si-os, a small pond on Van Cortlandt's purchase, 
may be derived from weenomesippog, a grapevine. 

Wen-ne-bees, a place in Cortlandt. Tooker says it is a personal 
name, but with locative might mean at the. good tasted spring. 

We-puc creek may be derived from weepit, a tooth, but woapeck, 
ginseng, is better. 

Wes-se-ca-now for Weckquaeskeck. The chiefs of Wossecamer 
and Wescawanus were mentioned in 1690. 

Wheer-cock was the southeast corner of the Lewisboro purchase 
of 1708. 

Wi-ki-son island in the East river. The name may refer to 

Wish-qua appeared as a tract north of Croton river in 1685. It 
is applied to Canopus creek, and Tooker defines it the end, probably 
from wanashque. 

Wo-nonk-pa-koonk was the northeast corner of the Lewisboro 
purchase, and may now be in Connecticut. It may be a contrac- 
tion of Wunnompamukquok, in an open place. 

Wys-qua-qua creek was at Dobbs Ferry. It may be from weh- 
quohke, the end of the land, either as a boundary or from crossing 
the river. 



Cat-ta-rau-gus creek and lake are in the town of Java. 

Ca-yu-ga creek is partly in this county, and flows toward Buffalo. 

Chi'-nose-heh-geh, on the side of the valley, is Morgan's name for 

Ga-da'-o or Gar-dow', bank in front, is his name for the Mary 
Jemison Reservation, and Gardeau was a nickname for her hus- 
band. She said it was not named from him, but from a hill called 
Kautaw by the Senecas, meaning up and dozen. A. Cusick defined 
it muddy place. 

Ga-da-ges-ga'-o, fetid banks, is Morgan's name for Cattaraugus 
creek, but this name properly applies to the lake shore at its mouth. 

Ga-na'-yat is his name for Silver lake and outlet. A. Cusick de- 
fined this stone at the bottom of the water. 

Genesee river and its upper falls are here. 

O-at-ka, the opening, is Morgan's name for Allen's creek. 

Pe-o'-ri-a village is in Covington, having a western name. 

Te-car'-ese-ta-ne-ont, place with a signpost. Wyoming village. 

To-na-wan'-da creek, swift running water. 

Wis'-coy creek is Owaiska, under the banks. Derived from this 
is East Coy creek, as a contrast in sound. 

Wy-o'-ming is an introduced Pennsylvania name. Heckewelder 
said of the Susquehanna : " The north branch they call M'chewa- 
inisipu, or to shorten it, M'chwewormink, from which we have 
called it Wyoming. The word implies, The river on which are 
extensive clear Hats." The Moravians usually wrote it Wajomik, 
meaning great plains or bottom lands. The Iroquois name meant 
the same, but not the one Heckewelder gave. 


Ah-ta'-gweh-da-ga is well represented by its usual name of Flint 
creek. Atrakwenda is the Cayuga word for flint. More exactly 
the name is the place where there is flint, an important thing in 
early days. 

Can-an-dai'-gua lake takes its name from the Indian village, the 
place chosen for a settlement. As in other cases the lake had sev- 
eral Indian names. 

Ge-nun-de'-wah is usually applied to Nundawao in the town of 


Naples, with a tradition that the Senecas originated there. Hence 
the name is translated people of the lull. The location is evidently 
wrong in connection with the story, which clearly belongs to Hare 
Hill, on the east shore of Canandaigua lake. Seaver tells the story 
of the great serpent there in his account of Man- Jemison, but it 
is well known on all the Xew York reservations. 

Ka-shong' creek had many names in the journals of the Sullivan 
campaign, or rather the village destroyed there had. Among these 
were Gaghsonghgwa, Gaghasieanhgwe, Gaghsiungua, Kashanqi ash. 
etc. The present name has been interpreted the limb has fallen. 

Ke-u'-ka, boats drawn out, is now commonly applied to Crooked 
iake. The name probably alluded to a portage across Bluff point, 
and differs little from Cayuga in its proper sound. 

O-go'-ya-ga, promontory extending into the lake. This also ap- 
proximates Cayuga and Keuka in primitive sound, and may be com- 
pared with D. Cusick's definition of Goiogogh or Cayuga, mountain 
rising from the u'ater. 

The common name of Seneca lake has already been considered. 
It had several others. 

She-nan-wa'-ga was a name given to Kashong in several journals 
of the Sullivan campaign, and is distinct from those in which the 
^resent name can be traced. In fact in one it is given as an alter- 
nate name. 



There are some names of a general character, or which can not 
now be assigned to their proper places. Among these are those 
mentioned as villages of the three principal Iroquois clans in one 
of the condoling songs, which follow as given in my Canadian copy. 
To the Turtle tribe is given Ka-ne-sa-da-keh, on the hillside, which 
was long the name of a village near Montreal, taken there by Mo- 
hawk emigrants. Other early villages of this clan were On-kwe-i- 
ye-de, a person standing there, Wagh-ker-hon, Ka-hen-doh-hon, 
Tho-gwen-yah and Kagh-hi-kwa-ra-ke. 

To the Wolf clan are assigned Kar-he-tyon-ni, the broad zvoods; 
Ogh-ska-wa-se-ron-hon, grown up to bushes again; Gea-ti-yo, beau- 
tiful plain; O-nen-yo-te, protruding stone; Deh-se-ro-kenh, bctieecn 
two lines; Degh-ho-hi-jen-ha-ra-kwen, two families in a long house, 


one at each end; Te-yo-we-yen-don, drooping wings, and Ogh-re- 

The Bear clan have De-ya-o-kenh, forks, usually of a river; Jo- 
non-de-seh, it is a high hill; Ots-kwi-ra-ke-ron, dry branches fallen 
to the ground; and Ogh-na-we-ron, the springs. Later villages are 
mentioned as belonging to this clan. ' These are Kar-ha-wen-ra- 
dough, taken over the woods; Ka-ra-ken, white; De-yoh-he-ro, place 
of rushes or flags ; De-yo-swe-ken, outlet of the river; and Ox-den- 
keh, to the old place. Some of these names are familiar in connec- 
tion with recent places. 

The Iroquois country was Akanishionegy, land of the Konosioni, 
as mentioned by the Seneca chief Canassatego, not the Onondaga 
of that name. 

Ha-who-na-o is the Onondaga name for North America, which 
they thought a great island. Schoolcraft called it A-o-na-o. 

Ka-noo'-no is fresh-water basin, according to Brant- Sero, who 
called it the name of New York harbor in Mohawk, thence applied 
to the city and State. Morgan gave Ga-no'-no as the Seneca form, 
but said the meaning was lost. A. Cusick recognized a reference 
to water, but gave no exact definition. Bruyas gave but two Mo- 
hawk words approaching this, one of which was gannonna, to guard, 
which might refer to soldiers on duty at the mouth of the Hudson. 
The other is gannona, bottom of the ivater, like the Canadian defi- 
nition. . It might also be corrupted from the Mohawk gannhoha or 
kanhoha, a door. This also would be appropriate to the port of 
New York, and resembles the name now used. 

Before the Revolution the Iroquois called the American party 
was'-to-heh'-no, people of Boston or Bostonians, and this is their 
general name for our people still. The latter term was much used 
by the loyalists and the Indians adopted it. As the Iroquois had no 
labials Wasto was their nearest approach to the sound of Boston. 

After Sullivan's campaign the Senecas called George Washing- 
ton Honandaganius, destroyer of towns, and this has been the Iro- 
quois name for all the presidents since. The Oneida form is An-na- 
ta-kau'-yes. Some French governors had the same name, and some 
Seneca chiefs were also thus called. 

Zeisberger gave the Onondaga name of the Dutch in New York 
as Sgach-nech-ta-tich-roh-ne, a people who came from across the 


water. One of their names for an Englishman was Tiorhaenska. 
because they dwelt where the morning began ; that is, either in 
England or New England. A common name for Europeans was 
Asseroni, makers of axes or knives. 


A few Pennsylvania names are of interest as relating in some way 
to New York. Ashaagoon, big knife or sword is now the Iroquois 
name for Pennsylvania and the states farther south. This was 
first given to Virginia, and is thus mentioned in the conference of 
1 72 1 : "Assarigoe, the name of the Governors of Virginia, which 
signifys a Simiter or Cutlas, which was given to Lord Howard, 
anno 1684. from the Dutch word Hower, a Cutlas." The Iroquois 
were fond of playing upon words, and hence came the well known 
term of Long Knives. 

The proper name for the governors of Pennsylvania has the same 
character, as mentioned in the same conference : " Onas, which 
signifies a Pen in the language of the 5 Nations, by which name 
they call all the Governors of Pennsylvania, since it was first set- 
tled by William Penn." The Delawares used the name of Miquon. 
with the same meaning, but Zeisherger wrote it Migun. 

Ach-wick, brushwood fishing place, is variously spelled. It was 
the name of a stream and early town where the Iroquois at one 
time kept a viceroy or half king. 

I'oucaloonce was also called Conawaago in 1758, near the New 
York line. 

Casyonding creek was mentioned as an affluent of Allegany river 
in [791, and was the Broken Straw. 

( onewango creek was also mentioned that year. 

Cayantha or the cornfields, was Cornplanter's town, apparently 
named from him. 

Cheningue' of 1749 has been placed at Warren. 

Coaquannock, grove of tall pine trees, is a name assigned to 

Conestoga, name of place and Indians, corrupted from Andas- 
toegue', the ancient foes of the Iroquois, people of the cabin poles. 

Doenasadago, near Conawago and on Conawago creek. Corn- 
planter's town of Onoghsadago was the same. Shenango is another 


local name at the junction of Conewango creek and the Allegany. 

Diahoga was Tioga, now Athens. This is from teyogen, any- 
thing between two others, or, as commonly used, teihohogen, forks 
of a river. Heckewelder gave a very erroneous definition of the 
word, saying: " Tioga is corrupted from Tiao'ga, an Iroquois word 
signifying a gate. This name was given by the Six Nations to the 
wedge of land lying within the forks of the Tioga (or Chemung) 
and North Branch— in passing which streams the traveler entered 
their territory as through a gate. The country south of the forks 
was Delaware country." The latter did not own it. but the Iro- 
quois allowed them to live there. 

Ga-na-ta-jen-go'-na. big town, was Zeisberger's Onondaga name 
for Philadelphia. 

Ginashadgo. Cornplanter wrote from this in 1794, and it seems 
an erroneous form of the name of his town. 

Goschgoschunk, mentioned in 1766, is now Tionesta. It seems 
to mean ferrying place. 

Ingaren was a Tuscarora village destroyed at Great Bend in 


Onochsae. hollow mountain, mentioned by Cammerhoff at Me- 
hoppen. The name also occurs in New York, but in their travels 
the Iroquois placed many names in other states. 

Osgochgo was mentioned by Spangenberg in his journey to On- 
ondaga in 1745. It is now Sugar creek, and in T737 Weiser called 
it Oscahu, the fierce. 

Ostonwackin near the Ostonage is another of these Iroquois 
names, derived from ostenra. a rock, one being prominent opposite 
the Indian village at Montoursville. Often written Otstonwackin. 

Panawakee or Ganawaca was a Seneca town north of Tionesta 
in [766. The latter form is the correct one, referring to rapids. 

Paghsekacunk was 6 miles below Tioga in 1757. It was far above 
that place in 1766. 

Quequenakee, place of long pines, is Heckewelder's name for 

"Scahandowana alias Wioming," was mentioned in 1755. The 
first is the Iroquois name, meaning great plains. 

Senexe was the Iroquois name of the west branch of the Susque- 


Sheshesquin, a Delaware town below Tioga, destroyed in 1778. 
It has been called Calabash town, the word meaning the gourd 
used for rattles. 

Shamokin, now Sunbury, was a noted place and the seat of the 
Iroquois viceroy Shikellimy. This was his Delaware name. Sha- 
mokin is derived from the Delaware schachamekhau, eel stream. 

" Tsanogh alias Shamokin " was mentioned in 1755. It was also 
called Tsinaghsee, which was its Iroquois name. 

Tenachshagouchtongu, burnt house, is a name for O'Beal's 
(Cornplanter's) town in 1794. 

Tenkghanacke was as far above Wyoming as Fort Allen was 
below. Tunkhannock. 

Tschochniade was the Iroquois name for Juniata river in 1752 

Washinta was the falls on the Susquehanna to which the Onon- 
dagas and Cayugas extended the protection of New York in 1684. 
This is a contraction of Tawasentha, the Mohawk word for water- 

Wyalusing, home of the old warrior. Luken defines it " Ye Great 
Big Old Man's creek, or Old Man's town." Reichel said that 
M'chwihilusing signified the place of the hoary veteran, from mihi- 
lusis, an old man. A noted mission. The Iroquois called it Gahon- 
toto, to lift the canoe at the falls there. 

Yoghroonwago, a Seneca town destroyed in 1779, by Brodhead. 

Pennsylvania Indian names have had much attention, and as 
much of the province was subject to the New York Iroquois after 
1675, their local names abound. 


Absecom, a beach 16 miles southwest of Little Egg Harbor. 
Schoolcraft derived this from wabisee, a swan, and ong, place. 

Acquackinac was an Indian town on the Passaic, 10 miles north 
of Newark. Schoolcraft's fanciful derivation was from aco, a limit, 
misquak, red cedar, and auk, stump of a tree. 

Ahasimus was opposite New York, and was sold in 1630. A 
tract north of this and reaching to Hoboken was sold the same year. 

Amboy, from emboli, a place resembling a bowl or bottle, ac- 
cording to Heckewelder. 

Apopalyck was a name of Communipaw in 1649. 


Arissheck was Paulus Hook, now Jersey City. The island called 
Aressick, in New Jersey, was sold in 1630. 

Arromsinck was sold by the Newesingh Indians in 1663. 

Epating, in the rear of Jersey City, is from ishpa, high, and ink, 
place. Ruttenber makes this Ishpatink or Espating, a high place, 
applied to Snake Hill. 

Gamonepa, the original of Communipaw, was mentioned in 1660, 
and was called Gemoenepa in 1674. It may be derived from che- 
maun, a canoe. 

Hackinsack or Ackkinkashacky is defined by Ruttenber as the 
stream that unites with another in low level ground. Its chief was 
mentioned in 1655 and 1660, and the people earlier. 

Hackingh, opposite New York, was sold with Hobocan in 1630, 
and Ruttenber unites them as Hoboken-hacking. 

Haquequenunck or Aquackanonk was at Patterson. 

Hobocan, now Hoboken, was sold in 1630. The name is usually 
referred to tobacco pipes, but means something crooked or bent. 
Hence Ruttenber thought it might here be defined as crooked shores. 
Schoolcraft said there was a prominent Dutch family of this name 
in Amsterdam in colonial days, but it is clearly an Indian name. 

Mankackkewachky is a name for Raritan Great Meadows. 

Mingaghque was a Dutch village in Bergen in 1674. 

Naosh, point surpassing all others, is Schoolcraft's name for 
Sandy Hook. 

Narowatkongh was sold by the Newesingh Indians in 1663. 

Passaic is from pakhsajek, a valley. 

Pemrepogh, a Dutch village in Bergen in 1674. 

Pompton, crooked mouth, is thus defined by Ruttenber, from the 
way in which the Ringwood and Ramapo flow into the Pompton. 

Potpocka or Ramspook, according to Ruttenber, is a river zvhich 
empties into a number of round ponds. 

Raritan is a forked river, according to Ruttenber. The Raritans 
once lived at Wiquaeskeck, and had no chief in 1649. They aban- 
doned their later lands because of floods and enemies. 

Sankhicans. fire workers, were Indians on the west side of New 
York bay. 

The Dutch were called Schwonnack, people of the salt water, in 
1655. Their Iroquois name was Aseronni. ax makers. 


Sheyickbi was a Delaware name for most of New Jersey. Hecke- 
welder gave this as Schiechpi, flat land bordering on the sea, or 

Totama, for Passaic falls, according to Ruttenber, was to sink 
or be forced down by the weight of water. 

Wachtung, mountain. A range of hills 12 miles west of the 

Weehawken, rows of trees, with some reference to the Palisades. 


It seems well to note a few Canadian names bordering on New 
York or connected with its history, omitting some already men- 

A-ga-rit-kwas was an Iroquois name for the Hurons. 

At-ti-gou-an-ton has been applied to Lake Huron, but is a national 

Ca-na-ga-ri-ar-chi-o was the abandoned Huron country, north 
of Lake Erie, called Cahiquage or Sweege in 1701. 

Ca-nes-se-da-ge was an Iroquois settlement near Montreal in 
1699, called Canassadage, a castle of praying Indians in 1700. Stod- 
dert wrote it Conasadagah in 1750. It is usually rendered side 
hill, but is capable of other definitions. 

Caugh-na-wa-ga, at the rapids, was another Mohawk village near 
the last. The name was carried from New York and was applied 
to the Indians living there. 

De-se-ron-to, the lightning has struck, a place on the north shore 
of the Bay of Quinte', called after a Mohawk chief, once a great 

De-tvo-de-nonh-sak-donh, the curved building, is St Catharine. 

Ga-nan-o'-que in 1695 was mentioned as " Gannanokony, six 
leagues from Fort Frontenac." It has been interpreted mild po- 
tatoes, and also rendered Kahnonnokwen, meadow rising out of the 

Ga-na-ta-ehes-ki-a-gon, a Cayuga village near Port Hope in 
1671. but some place it near Bowmansville. 

Ga-ne-i-ous, a Cayuga town of 1673, retains its name. 

Ga-noun-kou-es-not, and Ka-nou-en-es-go were islands at Fron- 
tenac in 1674. 


Ga-nu-as'-ke, a Cayuga village on the shore of Lake Ontario, 
near the River Trent, was called Ganeraske in 1673. 

Hah-wen-da-ger-ha was a name the Mohawks applied to the 
Hurons after their overthrow, because they sought refuge on islands. 
This is flerived from gahwendo, an island. 

I loch-e-la'-ga, the name by which Cartier designated a town on 
the island of Montreal. It is an Iroquois word, and Hough sug- 
gested its derivation from Oserake, a beaver dam. Atsaroguan, the 
noise of many who arc talking, is quite as near as this, and might 
refer to the voice of the people or the roar of the rapids, but both 
words are conjectural. 

Iroquois or Richelieu river had the first name because the Mo- 
hawks invaded Canada by this stream. 

Ka-nack-ta-neng is a book imprint for the Lake of the Two 
Mountains near Montreal. 

Ka-na-ti-och-ta-ge, a place where some Dowaganhaes settled in 
1700, on the north shore of Lake Ontario near the Senecas. 

Kat-si-da-gweh-ni-yoh. principal council fire. This is the Cana- 
dian Onondaga name for Ottawa city. 

Ke-be-nong is the imprint for Quebec in Chippewa. 

Ken-te or Quinte' was a Cayuga town of 1673, 12 leagues from 
Ganeraske. and probably on or near the site of Nappane. 

Mis-si-sau -ga. De la Potherie derived this from missi, several, 
and sakis, mouths of rivers, which is nearly correct. Others make 
it from missi, great, and sakiegun, lake. 

Mo-ni-ang is the imprint for Montreal in the Nipissing dialect. 

O-dish-kua-gu-ma, people at the end of the water, is the Ojibwa 
name for the Algonquins at the Lake of the Two Mountains, near 

( )h-ron-wa-gonh, in the valley, is Hamilton. As an imprint it 
appears as Oghroewakouh and Oghronwakon. 

O-non-di-o was the name for the French governor, and from 
this Onontioke appears as an imprint for Paris. 

O-pish-ti-ko-i-ats is the imprint for Quebec in Montagnais. 

O-tin-a-o-wat-wa was an Iroquois village near Burlington bay, 
visited by La Salle in 1669, but Gallinee's journal places it at 
Grand river. 


Skan-ya-da-ra-ti-ha, on the other side of the water, is a general 
name for Europe, applied to England in Canada. 

Ta-ne-wa-wa, Iroquois village near Westover, Ontario, visited 
by Gallinee. 

Tcho-jach-ni-age was on the north shore of Lake Ontario, near 
the Senecas. 

Te-gi-a-ton-ta-ri-gon, two rivers which reunite. Early name for 

Te-i-o-ta-gi, Tiohtiaki and Tiohtake are book imprints for Mon- 

Tha-na-went-ha-go'-weh, great stream falling. Canadian Onon- 
daga name for Niagara Falls. 

Ti-och-ti-a-ge, Iroquois name for Quebec in Cammerhoff's jour- 
nal, and thence Tiochtiagega for Frenchmen. It should be 

T'kah-eh-da-donk, land barrier before the entrance. Canadian 
Onondaga name for Hamilton. 

To-ne-qui-gon creek near Fort Frontenac on Sauthier's map. 

To-ronto or Tarento was a French post in 1687, and the " portage 
of Taronto " appeared. 

Tsi-ka-na-da-he-reh, property on a hill, is Brantford. 

Tsit-ka-na-joh, floating kettle (money), is Ottawa. 

Ty-on-yonh-ho-genh, at the forks. Paris, Ontario. 

Un-non-wa-rot-she-ra-ko-yon-neh, at the old hut. Dundas. 

Wa-wi-yat-a-nong or Wyastenong is the Ottawa book imprint for 


New England names have little to do with New York Indian 
history. The Iroquois had names for their foes there, but not many 
for places. It will suffice here to say that Wastok appears as the 
imprint for Boston in a little Seneca book published by the Rev. 
Asher Wright in 1836. To this name is added tadinageh, they live 
far away. There is also the imprint of Mushauwomuk on an 
Algonquin book, for the same place, this being an early name for 
Boston, afterward contracted to Shawmut, and meaning he goes by 

A Mohawk book of 181 3 has the imprint of Skanentgraksenge 
for Burlington, Vt. Several Canadian imprints have been given. 


Among western names the Algonquins called Detroit Wawyach- 
tenok, and the Iroquois termed it Tiughsaghrondy, hoth meaning 
place of turning, or turned channel. 

Aragiske was a name for Virginia in 1686, but it was best known 
officially as Asaregowa, big sword. The Delawares also called the 
Virginians Mechanschiton, long knives. 

The Iroquois called Roanoke river Konentcheneke. 

Joquokranaegare was an official name for Maryland, used by 

The Iroquois called the Potomac Kahongoronton, which might 
mean to' turn the canoe. Heckewelder defines Potomac, they are 
approaching by water, or in a canoe. 

Rather strangely he made the Mississippi, which is the great 
river, a derivation from Namaesi Sipu, fish river. In 1750 Cam- 
merhoff was told that the Iroquois called it Zinotarista. D. Cusick 
said it " was named Ouau-we-yo-ka, i. e. a principal stream, now 
Mississippi." He made this Onauweyoka afterward, and this' is 
better. Such errors are natural and frequent. 




Ga-nyehs-sta-a-geh. the hill of chestnuts, according to Chief Corn- 
planter is the Seneca name for Perrysburg. 


Dyoh-ge-oh-ja-eh, grassy place, is Cornplanter's name for Irving. 
Irving is at the month of the Cattaraugus creek and when first 
known to white, men was a grassy plain where deer in great num- 
bers fed. 


Saranac. Some Abenakis derive this from Salonack, sumac 
buds, but this is doubtful. More probably it is a corruption of 
S'nhalo'nek mouth of a river. 

Sen-hah-lo-ne. The name given by Sabattis as the original of 
Saranac is more exactly S'nhalo'nek entrance of a river into a lake. 


I)yo-a-his-tah, place of a depot, is the Seneca name for Angola. 

Dyo-ne-ga-de-gus, burning ivater, is the Seneca for the mouth 
of Big Indian or Burning Spring creek. The name is so given be- 
cause of the fissure from which a stream of natural gas issues and 
bubbles through the water. Burning Spring is an important land- 
mark on the Cattaraugus Indian reservation. 

Hey-ya-a-doh, where all roads meet, is Cornplanter's name and 
definition for North Collins. 



Ka-oh-dot. standing pole, is the Seneca name for Brant Center, 
in allusion t<> the tall liberty pole which once stood in the public 

You-a-goh, place of the hollozv, is Taylor Hollow, afi old settle- 
ment near Collins. 


Wahepartenie. Wawobadenik, white mountains, is the Abenaki 
name for Mt Marcy and perhaps neighboring peaks. 


Ki-was-sa lake at Saranac Lake village. This means a new word, 
but may have been intended for another similar word meaning a 
nezv boat. 

( )-see-tah lake, gray willows. This is a new name for an expanse 
of water below Lower Saranac lake. 

Po-kui-zas-ne is an Abenaki name for the Saint Regis reservation, 
probably a corruption of the Iroquois word. Sabattis however, 
said it meant half shriek, in allusion to battles there. 

Po-kui-zas-ne-ne-pes is a similar name for Saint Regis lake and 
a variant of the name above. 

Wa-sa-ba-gak, clear water, is the Abenaki name for Lake Clear. 


Muk-wa-kwo-ga-mak, literally bog lake, is the term for a pond of 
that name. 

Ni-gi-ta-wo-ga-mak is the Abenaki equivalent of Forked lake. 

Pa-pol-po-ga-mak, deceptive lake, from the many bays in Ra- 
quette lake. 

Pas-kan-ga-sik-ma, side or branch pond. Little Tupper lake. 

Pa-te-gwo-ga-mak. Hog lake with the same meaning. 

Pa-te-gwo-ga-ma-sik, an Abenaki name for Round pond. 

Wi-lo-wi wa-jo-i ne-pes. is the Abenaki equivalent for Blue 
Mountain lake. 


Gar-no-gwe-yoh was a name for Onondaga lake given to A. B. 
Street by am Onondaga chief in 1847. 

< )h-jees-twa-ya-na is Clark's name for the upper part of Butter- 
nut creek. It suggests Gis-twi-ah-na at Onondaga valley. 


Oost-sta-ha-kah-hen-tah, hole in the ruck. This is a cave at the 
quarry, commonly called the Cat Hole. It is the traditional place 
for killing and burying witches. 

Te-wah-hah-sa, road comes right across. Bear mountain west of 


Sa-wan-ock was a tract which the people of New Paltz were 
allowed to purchase in 1683. 


2 7 I 


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Absecom, 262. 

Acabonac Harbor, 209. 

Acatamunk, 210. 

Acawaisic, 46, 48 

Acawanuck, 46. 

Accaponack,' 209. 

Accobauke, 209. 

Accombomack, 209. 

Accombomuck, 209. 

Accopogue, 210. 

Achkinkehacky, 187. 

Achkinkeshaky, 187. 

Achquechgenom, 243. 

Achquetuck, 19. 

Achsgo, 34. 

Achsining, 41. 

Achsinnessink, 41. 

Achsinnik, 160. 

Achwick, 260. 

Achwowangen, 186. 

Ackkinkashacky, 263. 

Ackkookpeek lake, 46. 

Acquackinac, 262. 

Acquasik, 48, 54. 

Acquasimink creek, 242. 

Acquickak, 85. 

Acquitack, 85. 

Actamunk, 210. 

Adagegtingue, 51. 

Adagughtingag, 51. 

Adaquagtina, 51. 

Adiga creek, 172. 

Adiquetinge, 173. 

Adiquitanga, 51. 

Adirondack, 68, 93. 

Adirondack mountains, 67, 68, 237. 

Adirondack*, meaning of name, 67, 
88, 237. 

Adjuste, 101, 103. 

Adjutoa, roi. 

Adjuton, 101. 
Adjutsa lake. 102. 
Adjutso, 101. 
Adriochten, 119. 
Adriucha, 119. 
Adriutha, 119 
Adyutro, 101. 
Aepjen's island, 184. 
Aganuschion, 68. 
Agaritkwas, 264. 
Agavvam, 209. 
Agawam lake, 209 
Aghquessaine, 76. 
Agniers, 119. 
Agusta, 101. 
Ahanhage, 168. 
Ahaouete, 168. 
Ahaquatamock, 214. 
Ahaquatuwamock, 209. 
Ahaquazuwamuck, 209, 214. 
Aharigdowanighanigh, 119. 
Ahashewaghkameek, 46. 
Ahashewaghkick, 46. 
Ahasimus, 262. 
Ahequerenoy, 186. 
Ahgotesaganage, no. 
Ahquasosne, 76, 189. 
Ahquasusne, 76. 
Ahslodose, 241. 
Ahtagwehdaga, 155, 257. 
Ahwaga, 229. 
Ahwagee, no. 
Aiaskawosting, 160. 
Aionyedice, 155. 
Ajoyokta, 131, 167. 
Ajulsa, 101. 
Akanishionegy, 259. 
Akoesan, 76. 
Akouanke, 135. 
Akron, 62, 66. 
Akuttasquash, 94. 
Akwissasne, 76, 189. 
Alabama, 82. 



AJaskayeing mountains, 227. 
Alaskayering mountains, 160. 
Albany, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24. 
Albany county, 18-24. 
Albion, 167. 
Mden, Rev., cited, 39 
Aleghin, 25. 
Alexander, 82. 
Algonquin, 76. 
Algonquin mountain, 68. 
Algonquins. Ojibwa name, 265. 
Alipconck, 243. 
\llegany county, 24-27. 
Allegany river. 31, 32, 33. 44. 
Alleghany, 24. 
Alleghany mountains, 25. 
Alleghenny, 25. 

Allen's creek, 83, 116, 118, 257. 
Allickewany, 25. 
Alligewi Sipu, 24. 
Alligewinengk, 24. 
Alligewisipo, 24. 
Allighene, 24. 
Allnapooknapus, 88. 
Amackassin, 243, 247. 
Amagansett, 209. 
Amawalk, 243. 
Amber creek, 93, 94, 138 
Amboy. 142. 168, 262. 
Amenia, 58. 
\niique, 177. 
Amissohaendiek, 194. 
Amogonsett, 209. 
Amsterdam. 123. 
Amsterdam creek, 124. 
Amusbymonica. 209. 
Amuskemunnica Neck. 209. 
Anagaugoam, 155. 
Anajot. 44. T37. T39. 
Anajota, 44. 
Anajotta. 138. 
Anaquassacook, 239. 
Ar.aquayaen, 155. 
Anehannock. 209. 
Andarague, 119'. 
Andaraque. 119, 127. 
Andastoegue. 260. 
Andes. SI. 
Andiatarocte, 68, 237. 

Andiatarontagot, 116. 
Andiatarontawat. 116. 
Angelica, 26. 
Angola, 268. 
Annaquayen, 157. 
Annatakauyes, 259. 
Anniegue, 119. 
Annies, 119. 
Annoniogre, 142. 
Annsville, 137, 141. 
Annuck, 160. 
Anojotta, 27. 
Anoka, 27. 
Anthony's kill, 197. 
Anthony's \ose, 176, 24^ 
Antouhonorons, 155, 169 
Anusk Comuncak. 209, 
Anyaye, 155. 
Anyayea, 155, 157. 
Anyocheeca creek, 167. 
Aokeels pond, 243. 
Aonao, 259. 
Aontagilban, r37, 194. 
Aontagillon. 137. 
Aowegwa, 115. 
Apalacliin creek, 229. 
Apaucuck, 209. 
Apawamis, 243. 
Apawquammis creek. 243 
Apocock, 209. 
Apokeepsing, 56. 
Apopalyck. 262. 
Apoquague, 54. 
Appalacon. 229. 
Appamaghpogh, 243. 
Appanraghpogh, 243. 
Appehamak, 221. 
Appletoun. 204. 
Appletrce Neck, 222. 
.Apulia. 148. 
Vpwonnah, 243. 
Aquackanonk. 263. 
'Aquanuschioni, 68. 
Aquarage, 131 
Aquasing, 54. 
Aqueanounck, 243. 
Afjucbaak, 209. 
Aquebauke meadows. 2ocj 
Aquebauke river, 210. 220. 



Aquebogue. 209; old, 210; upper, 

Aquehonga, 99, 186. 
Aquchonga Manacknong, 186. 
Aquehounck, 243. 
Aquehung, 243, 245. 
Aquetuck, 19, 20. 
Araca Neck, 210. 
Arace, 210. 
Arach Soghno. 91. 
Arackhook, 160. 
Aragiske, 267 
Arase Coseagge. 210. 
Aressick, 263. 
Arty una, 190. 
Argyle, 241. 
Arhatamunk, 210. 
Arhatamunt, 210. 
Aringee, 186. 
Arissheck, 263. 
Armcnperai, 243. 
Armenperal, 243. 
Armonck, 243 
Arroinsinck, 263. 
Arshamamaque. 2x0. 
Asanhage, 168. 
Asaregowa, 267. 
Walege, 201. 
A sco, 34. 
Aseronni, 263. 
Aserotus, 24 r. 
Ashaagoon, 260. 
Ashamaumuk, 210. 222. 225. 
Ashibic, 128. 
\shokan, 236. 
Asinsan, 41. 
Askewaen, 244. 
Asoquatah mountain, 244. 
Aspatuck creek, 210. 
Aspetong mountain, 244. 
Assarigoe, 260. 
Asseroni. 260. 
Asserue, 1 19. 125. 
Assinapink creek, 165. 
Assinck island, 232, 234. 
Assinissink, 41. 
Assinnapink creek, 160. 
Assiskowachkeek, 83. 
Assiskowachkok. 83. 

Assorodus, 241. 
Assumption river, 96. 
Assumsowis, 244. 
Astenrogen, 91. 
Astonrogon, 91. 
Astorenga, 91. 
Astoria, 180. 
Astraguntera, 52. 
Asueshan, 32. 
Atalaposa, 237. 
Atalapose, 237. 
Atatea, 19, 87, 88. 194, 237. 
Atateka. 237. 
Atege creek, 172. 173. 
Atenharakwehtare, 95. 
Athedaghque, 119. 
Athens. 261. 
Athethquanee, 30. 
Atkankarten, 232. 
Atkarkarton, 232. 
Atsagannen. 174. 
Atsinsink. 41. 
Attica. 82. 
Attigonanton, 264. 
Attiwandaronk, 135. 
Attoniat, 37, 40. 
Auburn, 36. 37. 
Aughquagey, 28. 
Aulyoulet, 53. 
Auquago, 52. 
Auries creek, 125. 
Aurora. 34, 36. 
Ausable Forks, 75. 
Ausable ponds. 70. 
Ausable river, 45, 73. 
Ausatenog valley, 54. 
Avalanche lake, 75. 
Avon. 104, 105. 
Avon Springs, 102 
Awanda creek, 52. 
Awixa brook. 210, 213, 219. 
Awosting lake, 160. 
Axoquenta, 155. 

Babylon, 222. 226. 
Babylon river, 224. 
Bachawassick pond. 181. 
Mackberg, 189. 
Bald Eagle, 167. 



Bald Pate, 72. 

Bald Peak, 72. 

Baldwinsville, 151. 

Banagiro, 120. 

Bancroft, Hubert H., cited, 271, 41. 

Barber, J. W., cited, 271, 24, in, 124. 

Barclay, Rev. Henry, cited, 271, 74. 

Bare hill, 258. 

Barnhart's island, 192. 

Barren island, 98. 

Bash Bich, 58. 

Basha kill, 227. 

Basha mountain and pond, 161. 

Basher's kill, 160, 227. 

Basic creek, 19, 83. 

Basler's kill, 228. 

Batavia, 82. 

Batavia kill, 83. 

Bath, 206. 

Battenkill, 239, 240, 241. 

Bay creek, 172. 

Bavard, Blandia, mentioned, 186, 

Bayard. S., mentioned, 187, 188, 189. 
Bayard patent, 201. 
Bear clan, villages, 259. 
Bear island, 22. 
Bear mountain. 270. 
Beauchamp, William M., cited, 271. 
Beaver dam, 252. 
Beaver dam brook, 209. 
Beaver river, 89, 101. 
Bedford, 246, 249, 251, 252, 253, 255. 
Bedloe's island, 130. 
Beekman, Henry, mentioned. 57, 84. 
Beekman, 54, 57. 
Beeren island, 21, 22, 23, 181. 
Belknap, Rev., cited, 140. 
Bellport, 218. 
Belmont, cited, 105. 
Belvidere, 26. 
Bennett's creek, 29, 54. 
Benson, Egbert, cited, 271, 99, 130. 
Bergen, 263. 
Berne, 2^. 
Bethany, 82. 
Bethel, 228. 
l'etnckquapock, 244. 

Big Flats, 42, 43- 

Big Indian creek, 268 

Big lake, 50. 

Big Tree (Seneca chief), 101. 

Big Tree (council name), 113. 

Big Tree town, 82. 

Billiard, Father, cited, 78, 192 

Bing'.iamton, 27, 29. 

Bird island, 63. 

Bissightick creek, 244. 

Black creek, 26, 82. 

Black lake, 190, 193. 

Black Prince, 154. 

Black river, 96, 97, 101 

Black Rock, 63. 

Blacksmith, Chief, cited, 64. 

Blackwell's island, 130, 248. 

Blake, W. J., cited, 176. 

Bleecker, John, mentioned, 121. 

Bleecker, 81. 

Blind Brook, 245, 248. 

Blind Sodus bay, 242. 

Bloody Lane, 132. 

Bloody Run, 132. 

Blooming Grove, 165. 

Blue mountain, 90. 

Blue Mountain lake, 269. 

Blue Point, 214, 217. 

Bog lake, 269. 

Bolton, cited, 243-54, 256. 

Bonnecamps, cited, 40. 

Borrhas, 87. 

Boston, 266 ; people of, 259 

Boucaloonce, 260. 

Boughton hill, 156, 157, 158. 

Boutokeese, 237. 

Boyd, Stephen G., cited, 271, 27, 28. 

52, 57, S8, 119, 191, 207, 227. 
Bradstreet, Col., mentioned, 53. 
Brainerd, David, mentioned, 181. 
Brandt, cited, 19, 202. 
Brant-Sero, J. Ojijateckha, cited, 

27 r, 128, 259. 
Brant center, 269. 
Brantford, 266. 
Brasher's Falls, 194. 
Bread creek, 124 

Brewerton, 143, 144, 147, 149, 153. 
Bridgeliampton, 222 



Brighton, 145. 

Bristol, 159. 

Brockport, 116. 

Brodhead, cited, 55. 262. 

Broken Straw, 260. 

Bronck's land, 252. 

Bronx, 243. 

Bronx tract, 252. 

Brookhaven, 211, 214, 215, 216, 217, 
219, 220, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226. 

Brooklyn, 100. 

Brooklyn Heights, 99. 

Broome county, 27-30. 

Brown, Joshua, mentioned, 90. 

Bruyas, Jacques, cited, 271, 12, 23, 
35, 38, 44, 45. 70, 79, 86, 112, 120- 
22, 124, 126, 140, 169, 173, 174, 200, 
232, 259. 

Bryant, W. C, quoted, 41. 

Buckram, 177. 

Budd's Neck, 243. 

Buffalo, 60, 61, 62. 

Buffalo creek. 60, 61, 62. 63, 64, 65. 

Buffalo Historical Society, Trans- 
actions, 25. 

Burgoyne, mentioned, 183, 184. 

Burlington, Vt, 266. 

Burnetsfield patent, 92. 

Burning Spring creek, 268. 

Burning spring of La Salle, 158. 

Burton creek, 32 

Buskrum, 177. 

Buttermilk falls, 119. 

Butternut creek, 143, 146. 2^2. 269. 

Byram river, 243, 244. 245, 248, 253. 

Cabrickset, 54. 

Cachtanaquick, 181 
Cacquago, 52. 
Cadaraqui lake. 169 
Cadaredie. 119. 
Cadaughrita. 120 
Cadaughrity, 119. 
Cadosia, 52. 
Cadranganhie, 168. 
Cadranghie, 95. 
Caghnuhwohherle i, 122 
Cahaniaga. 120. 
Cahaquaragha, 61. 

Cahaquaraghe, 131, 132. 

Cahhoos, 19. 

Cahihououage, 95. 

Cahiquage, 61. 66, 132, 264. 

Cahogaronta, 87, 88. 

Cahohatatea, 19, 194. 

Cahoonzie lake, 228. 

Cahunghage, 142. 

Caiadion, 25, 102. 

Caijutha, 81. 

Caiohahon, 92. 

Caiougo, 34. 

Cairo, 85, 86. 

Cajadachse, 154. 

Cajonhago, 168. 

Cajugu, 34- 

Calabash town, 262. 

Caldwell, Col., cited, in. 

Caledonia, 102, 104, 105. 

Caledonia spring, 107. 

Calkoewhock, 54. 

Callicoon river, 227. 

Cambridge, 241. 

Camden, 138. 

Camguse, 186. 

Camillus, 149. 

Cammerhoff, Frederick, cited, 271, 

34-37, 43, 60, 153, 155-57, 159, 203. 

204, 229, 231, 232, 261, 266, 267 
Campbell, cited, 174. 
Campfield, cited, 159. 
Camskutty, 52. 
Canacadea creek, 206. 
Canacadoa, 206. 
Canachagala, 91. 
Canada, 82. 264-66. 
Canada creek, 137. 
Canada lake, 81. 124. 
Canada mountain. 237 
Canadagua, 155. 
Canadahoho, 34. 
Canadarago, 172. 
Canadasseoa, no. 
Canadawa creek, 38. 
Canadaway creek. 38, 40. 
Canaderagey, 156 
Canadice, 155. 
Canadisega, 156. 
Canaedsishore, 121. 



Canagariarchio, 264. 

Canagere, 120. 

Canaghdarox, 124. 

Canaghsione, 194, 239. 

Canaghsoos, 103. 

Canaghtaraghtaragh, 112. 

Canagora, 120, 155. 

Canahogue, 67. 

Canainda, 146. 

Canajohae, 120. 

Canajoharic, 92, 93, 120. 126, 127. 

Canajoharie creek, 126. 

Canajoharoo, 121. 

Canajoharrees, 92. 

Canajorha, 121. 

Canajoxharie, 120. 

Canandague, 156. 

Canandaigua, 155, 156, 157. 

Canandaigua lake, 157, 159, 257. 

Canandaigua outlet, 241. 

Canaoneuska Indians, 238. 

Canaquarioney, 199. 

Canarage, 190. 

Canarsie, 98, 99, 177. 

Canarsie Indian Fields, 98. 

Canasadego, 156, 206. 

Canasawasta, 44. 

Canasaweta, 44. 

Canaseder, 25. 

Canasene, 232. 

Canasenix creek, 85, 232. 

?eraga, 25, 102. 105, 107, no, 


Canaseraga creek, 112, 142, 206. 
Canassadage, 264. 
Canassaderaga creek, ill. 
Canassatego, 77, 206, 259. 
Canastagione, 195. 
Canastota, 96, in, 115. 
Canawage, 190. 
Canawago, 32. 
Canawagoras, 102. 
Canawagoris, 102. 
Canawaugu's, 102, 107. 
Canayichagy, 158. 
Candaia, 204. 
Candajarago, 172. 
Caneadea, 25, J02. 
Canesaah, 10.?. 

Canessedage, _'<>o, 264. 
Canewana. 229. 
Canewanah, 229. 
Canexa, 103. 
Caniadaraga, 172. 
Caniaderi-Guarunte, 69. 
Caniaderi Oit, 239. 
Caniaderiguarunte. (>o. 89, 239. 
Caniaderioit, 69. 
Caniaderosseras r 237. 
Caniadutta, 81. 
Caniaxudd, 81. 
Caniderioit, 69. 
Canijoharie, 121. 
Canisee, 106. 
Caniskek, 21 , 83. 
Caniskrauga creek, 102 
Canistaguaha, 195. 
Canisteo, 206, 207. 
Canisteo river. 25, 208 
Caniyeuke, 121. 
Canjearagra, 201. 
Cankuskee, 237. 
Cannehsawes, 103. 
Cauneoganaka lonitade, 121. 
Canniengas, 121. 
Canniungaes, 121. 
Canniuskutty, 52. 
Canoe, 54. 

Canoe Place, 210, 215, 217. 
Canoenada. 150. 
Canoga, 203. 
Canohage, 168. 
Canohogo, 121. 
Canopus. 176, 244, 249 
Canopus creek, 256. 
Canorasset, 177. 
Canosodage, 206. 
Canough, 103, 156. 
Canowarode, 121. 
Canowaroghare, 137. 
Canowedage, 01. 93. 
Canquaga, 61. 
Cantasguntak creek. 210. 
Cantatoe, 244. 
Cantitoe. 244. 
Cap Scononton, 45 
Capiaqui, 195. 
Caquanost, 244. 



( 'aracadera, 25. 

> "arahaderra, 25, 26. 

Caranasses, 244. 

Carantouan. 229. 

Carillon, 75. 

Carleton island, 95. 

Carlisle, 202. 

Carmel, 176. 

Carrollton, 33. 

t an 's creek, 174. 

Carrying Place, 65. 

Cartier, cited, 265. 

Carver, Jonathan, cited, 271, 41. 

Caryville, 82. 

1 wavalatetah. 102, 106. 
Casconchiagon, 115. 
Cashickatunk, 227. 
Cashiegtonk, 227. 
< 'ashiektunk, 227. 
Cashigton Indians, 227. 
Cashington, 227. 
Cashong, 158. 
Cashuteyie, 98. 
Caskonchagon, 116. 
Caspar creek, 56. 
Cass, Lewis, cited. 271, 16, 17. 
Cassadaga lake and creek, 40. * 
Cassontachegona, t68. 
Castigione, 200. 
("astle hotel, 152. 
Castleton, 184. 
Castuteeuw . 98. 
Casyondiny creek, 200. 
Cat Hole, 270. 
Catagaren, 95. 
Cataraqui lake, 169 
Catargarenre, 95. 
Catatunk creek, 229, 230. 
Catawamac, 210. 
Catawamuck. 210. 
Catawaunuck, 210. 
Catawba, 206. 

Catharine. Queen, mentioned, 203. 
Catharine's town, 203. 
Cathatachua, 91. 
Cathecane, 91. 
Catlin, cited, 22. 
Catonah, 244. 
Catoraogaras, 31. 

Catsjajock, 210. 
Catsjeyick, 210. 
Catskill, 85, 86. 
Cat skill Indians, 86. 

Catskill patents. 83. 

Catskill plains. 86. 

Catskills, 85. 

Cattaraugus, 31. 

Cattaraugus county, 30-33, 268 

Cattaraugus creek, 38 257. 

Cattaraugus lake, 257. 

Cattawamnuck, 210. 

Caughdenoy, 142, 146, 149, 169. 

Caughnawaga. 120, 121. 122. 190, 20.4 

Caughnewassa, 122. 

Caugwa, 64. 

Caumsett, 177. 

Cauquaga, 64. 

Caus Cung Quaram, 210. 

Causawashowy, 210. 

Caushawasha, 211. 

Cawaoge. 122. 

Cayadutha, 81. 

Cayadutta, 122. 

Cayadutta creek, 81, 122. 

Cayantha, 38, 260. 

Cayhunghage, 168. 

Cayonhage, 168. 

Cayontona, 3^. 41. 

Cayuga. 36. 

Cayuga branch, see Cayuga river 

Cayuga bridge, 37. 

Cayuga county. 34-37. 

Cayuga creek. 35, 61, 132. 133, 257 

Cayuga inlet, 231. 

Cayuga island, 132. 

Cayuga lake, 34, 35, 3j\ 203, 231. 

Cayuga river, 42, 149. 

Cayugas, name, 135. 

Cayugas. bay of, 241. 

Cayuta, 42, 203. 

Cayuta creek, 42, 203, 229 

Cayuta lake, 203. 

Caywanot, 69. 

Caywaywest, 244. 

Cazenovia, 1 10. 

Cazenovia Bluff, 65. 

Cazenovia lake, no, 113, 114. 

Celoron, De. cited, 40. 



Cenosio, 102. 

Centerville, 144. 

Chaamonaque, 42 

Chadagweh, 38. 

Chadakoin, 40. 

Chadakoin, Lake, 40. 

Chadakoins river, 40. 

Chadaqua, 38. 

Chambers creek, 164. 

Champlain, Samuel de, cited, 271, 46, 
156, 169. 

Champlain, lake, 46, 69, 72. 73, 75, 
239, 240, 241. , 

Chanougon, 40. 

Chappaqua, 244, 254. 

Charaton, 241. 

Charlevoix, P. F. X. de, cited, 271, 
26, 63, 68, 79, 115, 116, 150, 170, 
171, 191, 193. 241, 242; map, 34, 
150. 153, 169. 

Charlotte river, 51. 

Chase, J. Wickham, cited, 271. 

Chatacoin, 40. 

Chatacouit, 38. 

Chatakouin, 40 

Chataquas, 38. 

Chateaugay, 76, 77, 78. 

Chateuaga, 77. 

Chatiemac, 244. 

Chaugeuen, river of, 17;. 

Chaughtanoonda creek. 198. 

Chaumont bay, 96. 

Chautauqua county, 37-41, 268. 

Chautauqua lake, creek and town, 

Chautauqua portage, 37 
Chautauqua Valley, 25. 
Chavangoen, 161. 
Chawangong, 165. 
Chawtickognack, 201. 
Checkanango, 82. 
Checkanoc, mentioned, 211. 
Checoamaug, 21 1. 
Checomingo kill, 46. 
Cheektowaga, 62. 

Cheesecock's patent, 161. 186, 189. 
' • esekook creek, 187 
Chegaquatka, 137. 
Chegwaga, 190. 

Chehocton, 52. 

Chekomiko, 54, 57. 

Chemung, 42, 44, 229. 

Chemung county, 41-44. 

Chemung river, 42, 43, 206, 207 

Chenandoanes, 103. 

Chenango, 28, 30, 44, 50. 

Chenango county, 44. 

Chenango Point, 27. 

Chenango river, 27, 44, 112, 138 

Chenashungautau, 31. 

Chenasse river, 26. 

Cheningo, 27. 

Cheningo creek, 50. 

Cheningue, 260. 
; Chenisee, 106. 

Chenondac, 132. 

Chenondanah, 103. 

Chenonderoga, 69. 

Chenunda creek, 25 

Chenussio, 102, 106. 
Cheonderoga, 69, 75. 
1 Cheoquock, 203. 

Cheorontok, 116, 117 
, Chepachet, 92. 
I Chepontuc, 237. 
Cheragtoge, 197. 
Cherry Valley, 173. 
Cherubusco, 45. 
Chescodonta, 19 
Chester, 237. 
Chickawquait, 141. 
Chicomico, 57. 
Chicopee, 195. 
Chictawauga, 62. 
Chiekasawne, 31. 
Chili, 115. 
Chiloway. 52. 
Chimney island, 192 
Chinange, 29. 
Chinesee lake, 157. 
Chinonderoga, 69, 70. 
Chinosehehgeh, 257 
Chinoshahgeh, 156. 
Chippewa hay, 190. 
Chippewa creek, 132. 190, 
Chippewiyan, 190 
Chitening, 112 



Chittenango creek, 112, 115, 141, 142 
144, 149, 170. 

Chitteningo, 112. 

Chittilingo, 112. 

Choconut creeks, 27. 

Choharo, 34. 

Chondot, 34. 

Chonodote, 34. 

Chosen Town, 156. 

Choueguen river, 34, 171. 

Choueguin, 153. 

Chouendahowa, 195, 197. 

Choughkawakanoe, 227. 

Choughtighignick, 83. 

Christian hollow, 143. 

Chroutons, 34, 241. 

Chuckunhah, 82. 

Chuctenunda, 81, 122. 

Chuctenunda creek, 8l, 124, 127. 

Chucttonaneda, 123. 

Chudenaang, 112. 

Chugnutts, 27. 

Chukkanut, 27. 

Chunuta, 132. 
Chutonah, 132. 

Cicero swamp, 143, 144, 145, 146. 
Ciohana, 92. 
Cisqua, 246. 
Cisqua creek, 244. 
Clarence Hollow, 67. 
Clark, John S., cited, 272, 42, 43, 50, 
117, 150-51, 160, 168, 199, 200, 204, 
206, 230, 232, 269. 
Clark, J. V. H., cited, 272, 113, 143, 

152, 170, 171, 241, 242. 
Clarkstown, 188. 
Claverack, 21, 48, 181. 
Claverack creek, 49. 
Clayton, 95. 
Clear, Lake, 269. 
Clifton Park, 195, 197. 
Clinton, George, mentioned, 227; 

cited, 272. 
Clinton, 45, 138. 
Clinton county, 45-46, 268. 
Cloughkawakanoe, 232, 
Clyde river, 241. 
Coaquannock, 26b. 
Cobamong, 244. 

Cobleskill, 201, 202. 

Cobomong, 244. 

Cochecton, 227. 

Cockenoe's island, 211. 

Cocksingh, 233. 

Coesa, 69. 

Coeymans, 21, 22, 23. 

Coeymans creek, 22. 

Coeymans Hollow, 19. 

Coeymans Landing, 22. 

Cohamong, 245. 

Cohansey, 245. 

Cohemong, 244. 

Cohocton, 206. 

Cohocton river, 104, 206. 

Cohoes, 19. 

Cohongorunto, 27, 172. 

Cokeose, 52. 

Cokonnuck, 27. 

Cold Spring, 63, 180, 216. 

Cold Spring creek, 31. 

Colden, Cadwallader, cited, 272, 8, 

-'7- 68, 75. 76, 126, 172. 
Colden, Lake, 75. 
Coletien, 52. 
Collikoon river, 227. 
Colonel Bill's creek, 26. 
Columbia county, 46-50. 
Comae, 211, 226. 
Comack, cited, 226. 
Comack (village), 211. 
Coman, 245. 
Cometico, 211. 
Commack, 211. 
Communipaw, 262, 263. 
Comock, 211. 
Comonck, 244. 
Compowams, 211. 
Compowis, 211. 
Conasadagah, 264. 
Conawaago, 260. 
Concepcion, la, mission of, 118. 
Condawhaw, 203. 
Conday, 204. 
Conestagione, 195. 
Conestoga, 260. 

Conesus, 101, 103, 104, 108, 109 
Conesus lake, 103, 108. 
Conewango, 31, 41. 



Conewango creek, 40, 260. 
Conewango river, 40. 
Conewawa, 229. 
Conewawawa, 42. 
Coney island, 100. 
Congammuck, 77. 
Congamunck creek, 88. 
Conhocton river, 207. 
Coni.iunto, 172- 
Conistigione, 199. 
Connadaga, 204. 
Connadasaga, 204. 
Connatchocari, 121. 
Connecticott, 211. 
Connecticut, 21 1. 
Connectxio, 104. 
Conneogahakalononitade, 195. 
Connestigune, 195, 196. 
Connetquot, 211. 
' 'onnoliarriegoharrie, 198. 

noirtoirauley creek, 31. 
Connoisarauley creek, 31. 
(''.nnondauwegea, 40. 
Conongue, 43 

Connughhariegughharie, 198. 
Conomock, 211. 
Conongue. 206. 
Conopus, lake, 176 
Con oval, 245. 
Conover, George S. cited, 272, 

204. 205. 
Constantia. 172. 
Conti, 63. 

Conungum .Mills, 211. 
Conyeadice lake, 155- 
Cookhouse, 52. 
Cookpake, 46. 
Cookriuago, 28, 52. 
Cooper, J. V.. cited, 174. 238. 
Cooperstown, 174. 
Coosputus, 211. 
Copake, 46, 176. 
Copiag, 211. 
Coppiag Xeck. 211. 
Coppiage, 211. 
Coprog, 211. 
Copsie point, 128. 
Copyag, 211. ' 
Coram, 211. 


argonell, 231. 
Corchaki, ai2 

Corchaug, 212. 
Core lauge, 220. 
Curchoagg, 212. 
Corchogue Indians, 212. 
Coreorgonel, 231. 
Corlaer's Hook, 130. 
Corlaer's kill. 84. 
Corlaer's Lake, 70, ~< 
Corlar. 198, 200. 
Cornelius creek, 66. 
Cornell's Xeck, 254. 
Cornplanter, cited, 38. 268: men- 
tion ed. 39, 206. 260. 261. 262 
Cornwall. 167. 
Cornwall island, 191. 
Cortland. 50. 
Cortland county, 50-5 1. 250. 251. 253, 254. 256 
Corum. 211. 

uga, 40. 
Coshaqua creek, 107. 
una, 239. 
Costeroholly. 102. 
Cotjewaminick, 211. 
Cotsjewaminck, 21 1. 
Couchsachraga. 69, 88 
Coughsagrage, 88. 
Coughsarage, 88. 
Covington, 257. 
Cow bay, 178. 180. 
Cow Xeck, 17H 
Cowanesque, 2^7 
Cowangongh, 245. 
Cowenham's kill. 161. 
Cowilliga creek. 123 
Coxsackie, 21, 83, 84. 
Coyne, James H., cited. 272 
Crandall's pond. 50. 
Crane's mountain. 238. 
Crawford. 163. 
Cristutu. 78. 
Crom pond. 248. 
Crooked lake, 207. 
Cross lake, 37, 152. 153. >M 
Cross river, 251. 
Croton. 52, 245 



Croton lake, 176. 

Croton Point, 253. 

Croton river, 54, 176, 246, 249, 250. 

Crown Point, 75. 

Crum creek, 125. 

Crum Elbow creek, 54, 56. 

Crum pond, 176. 

Cuba, 26. 

Cucksink, 233. 

Cumberland Head, 4.5 

Cumsewogue, 211. 

Cunnusedago, 158. 

Cunstaghrathankre, 123. 

Cuoq. Rev. Jean-Andre, cited. 272, 


Cuptwauge, 211. 

Curchaulk meadows, 212. 

Cusaqua, 26. 

Cushietank mountains, 161. 

Cushnuntunk, 227. 

Cusick, Rev. Albert, cited, 272. 27, 
28, 32, 34-36. 43-45. 50, 52, 53, 
64, 65, 69, 7h 74. /8, 81, 82, 85. 
92, 93. 95-97. J03, no. 112. 113, 
121-25. 132. 133, 136, 138, 140, 143, 
144, MS, 146, 148-54, 157. 158, 
167. 168, 170. 172-75, 192. 195. 196. 
199, 200. 201, 204, 207. 231. 237. 
238. 240, 257, 259. 

Cusick, David, cited, 272, 23. 35, 40. 
41, 44. 61, 62, 65, 83, 94, 95, 96. 
106, 109, in, 112, 113, 114, 126, 
'32-35- 137, r.39, 158, 160. 167. 169. 
170, 173, 183, 191, 258. 267. 

Cussqunsuck 212. 

Cutchogue. 212. 

Cutcumsuck, 212. 

Cutscunsuck, 212. 

Cutsqunsuck, 212. 

Cuttscumsuck, 212. 

Cutunomack, 212. 

Cuyahoga river, 67, 96, 16?. 

Cuylerville, 104. 

Dadanaskarie, 123. 
Dadenoscara, 123. 
Dadeodanasukto, 62. 
Dagaayo, 37. 
Dageanogaunt, 167. 


Danforth, 151. 

Danoncaritaoui, 104, 

Danoncaritarui, 105, 156. 

Danoscara, 123. 

Dansville, 102, 105, 107. 

Daosanogeh, 82. 

Darien, 83. 

I )asshowa, 62. 

Datecarskosase, 132. 

Dategeadehanageh, 132. 

Dategehlioseh, 167. 

Datekeaoshote, 34. 

Datewasunthago. 138. 

Datskahe, 34. 

Daudehokto, 31. 

Daudcnosagwanose. 112. 

Dawasego, 201. 

Daweennet, 101. 

Dayahoowaquat, 92. 138. 

Dayodehokto, 118. 

Dayohjegago. 70. 

Dayoitgao. 104. 

Dayton, Gen. Elias. cited; 272. 

De, for names beginning with prefix, 

see under word following prefix 
Deagjo'iarowe, 81. 
Deane, Judge, cited, 140, 141. 
Dean's creek. 112. 138. 
Deaonohe, 142. 

Dearborn, Col., mentioned, 231. 
Deasgwahdaganeh, 62. 
Deashendaqua. 31. 
Deawendote, 34. 
Deawonedagahanda, 96. 
Decanohoge. 121, 123. 
Dedyodehnehsakdo, 62. 
Dedyonawah'h, 62. 
Dedyowenoguhdo, 62. 
Deer Park, 163, 164. 
Deer river. 101, 192. 
Degahchinoshiyooh, 106. 
Dcghhohijenharakwen. 258. 
Degiyahgo, 61. 
De Ho Riss Kanadia, 231. 
Dehserokenh. 258. 
Deiswagaha, 142. 
Dekanoge, 123. 
Dekayoharonwe, 92. 
De la Barre, mentioned. 169. 171. 



De Laet, cited, 129. 

Delancey"s Neck, 256. 

Delaware county, 51-54. 

Delaware river, 52, 54. 

Delawares, called women, 52; on 

Manhattan island. 188; statement 

at Buffalo, 272. 
Dellius grant, 91, 197, 199. 
Denontache, 169. 
Deodesote. 105. 
Deodosote, 132. 
Deonagano, 31, 104, 132. 
Deonakehae, 142. 
Deonakehussink, 143. 
Deondo, 167, 229. 
Deonehdah, 108. 
Deongote, 62. 
Deonosadaga, 31. 
Deonundagaa, 104. 
Deoongowa, 82. 
Deosadayaah, 143. 
Deoselatagaat, 112. 
Deoselole, 62. 
Deostehgaa, 63. 
Deotroweh, 62. 
Deowainsta, 138. 
Deowesta, 104. 
Deowundakeno, 167. 
Deowyundo, 143. 
Deposit, 52. 
De Schweinitz, Edmund, cited, 272, 

30, 37- 
Deseronto, 264. 
Deskonta, 81. 
Detgahskohses, 132. 
De Tracy, cited, 119. 
Detroit, 266, 267. 
Detyodenonhsakdonh, 264. 
Deunadillo, 172. 
Devil's Hole, 132. 
De Vries, cited, 186. 
De Witt, 145. 
Deyaohsaoh, 62. 
Deyaokenli, 259. 
Deyehhogadases, 62. 
Deyohhero, 259. 
Deyohhogah, 62. 
Deyoshtoraron, 92. 
Deyosweken, 259. 

Deyowahgeh, 132. 

Deyudihaakdo, 118. 

Deyuitgaoh, 104. 

Diahoga, 261. 

Diaoga, 94. 

Dionoendogeha, 239. 

Dionondahowa Falls, 239. 

Diononde.iowe, 240. 

Dionondoroge, 70. 

Diontarogo, 40. 

Dobbs Ferry, 256. 

Doenasadago, 260. 

Donatagwenda, 206. 

Dongan, Gov., quoted, 72. 

Dongan patent, 213. 

Doshoweh, 63. 

Dosyowa, 62, 65. 

Doty, L. L., cited, 272, 102, 103, 104, 

105, 106, 108 109, 118. 
Dowaganhaes, 265. 
Duhjihhehoh, 132. 
Dumpling pond, 244 
Dundas, 266. 
Dunkirk, 38. 

Dunlop, William, cited, 272, r8o 
Dutch, Indian names, 131. 
Dutch kills, 178. 
Dutchess county, 54-59. 
Dwasco, 36. 
Dwight, Timothy, cited, 272, 121, 

139, 213; map of, 30, 40, 51, 64. 
Dyagodiyu, 156. 
Dyer's Neck, 220. N 
Dyoahistah, 268. 
Dyoeohgwes, 63. 
Dyogeohjaeh, 63. 
Dyogowandeh, 31. 
Dyohensgovola, 58. 
Dyohgeohjaeh, 268. 
Dyonahdaeeh, 63. 
Dyonegadegus, 268. 
Dyosdaahgaeh, 63. 
Dyosdaodoh, 63. 
Dyoshoh, 63. 
Dyudoosot, 104. 
Dyuhahgaih, 105. 
Dyuneganooh, 63, 104. 
Dyunondahgaeeh, 104. 
Dyunowadase, 132. 



Dyusdanyahgoh, 132. 

Eager, Samuel W., cited, 272, 162, 

164, 165. 
Eagwehoewe, 191. 
Eaquaquannessinck, 54, 55. 
Eaquarysink, 54. 
Easineh, 233. 
East Bloomfield, 156. 
East Canada creeek, 81, 82, 91, 92, 

93, 94, 120, 126. 
East Chester creek, 243. 
East Coy creek, 257. 
East Greenbush, 182. 
East Neck, 210, 213, 256. 
East river, 256. 
Easthampton, 209, 215, 221. 
Eauketaupuckuson, 245. 
Eghquaons, 186. 
Eghwaguy, 138. 
Eghwagy, 138. 
Eghwake, 138. 
Ehlaneunt, 43. 

Eighteenmile creek, 64, 65, 67, 132. 
Ekucketaupacuson, 245. 
Elbridge, 146. 
Eliot, cited, 15, 221. 
Elko, 31. 
Ellicott, 64. 
Ellicottville, 31. 
Ellis island, 128. 
Elmira, 43. 
Emmons Mount, 90. 
England, 266. 

Englishmen, Indian name for, 260. 
Enketaupuenson, 245. 
Enneyuttehage, 112. 
Entouhonorons, lake of, 155, 156, 

Epating, 263. 
Epawames, 243. 
Ephratah, 81. 
Equendito, 98. 
Equorsingh, 54. 
Erie, 40. 

Erie county, 59-67, 268-69. 
Erie, Fort, 64. 
Erie, Lake, 61/65, 66, 67, 132, 133, 

134, 171. 

Erieh, 63. 

Eries, 30, 63, 64. 

Esopus, 232, 233, 235, 236, 237. 

Esopus creek, 232. 

Espating, 263. 

Essawetene hill, 187. 

Essex county, 67-76, 269. 

Etagrago, 125. 

Etagragon, 123. 

Etcataragarenre, 95. 

Euketaupucuson, 245. 

Europe, Indian name, 266. 

Europeans, Indian name, 260. 

Evans, map, 39, 50, 138, 141. 

Evans patent, 160, 161, 162, 163. 

Eyensawyee, yj. 

Fabius, 152. 

Fall brook, 159. 

Fall creek, 59, 231. 

Famine, la, 95, 168, 171. 

Fallkill, 56. 

Farmer's Brother's point, 66. 

Fayetteville, 143. 

Ferer Cot, 58. 

Fillmore, Millard, cited, 272. 

Fire Island, 223. 

Fireplace, 223. 

Fireplace river, 211. 

Firestone creek, 155. 

Fish creek, 54, 140, 141, 194. 

Fish Creek Reservation, 137. 

Fisher's Hook, 56, 58. 

Fisher's island, 226. 

Fishkill, 55, 57, 58. 

Fishkill creek, 55. 

Fishkill mountains, 59. 

Fitch, Dr, cited, 239. 

Fitzgerald farm, 230. 

Five Wigwams, 213. 

Flat creek, 125, 127. 

Flatlands, 98. 

Fleet's Neck, 222. 

Flint, Martha Bockee, cited, 272, 99, 

177 > 1-79, 214, 220, 222, 223, 225, 

Flint creek 155, 257. 
Florida, 120, 123. 
Floyd, 141. 



Fly creek, 173. 

Flying Corner, 84. 

Fogg, Major, cited, 102," 157. 

Fonda, 122, 123. 

Fonda's creek, 81. 

Forbes, Rev. Eli, cited, 175. 

Fordham manor grant, 249, 250. 

Forester, Frank, cited, 66. 

Forked lake, 269. 

Fort Ann, 240. 

Fort Desolation, 141. 

Fort Edward, 241. 

Fort Frontenac, 169. 

Fort Hamilton, 100. 

Fort Herkimer, 93. 

Fort hill, 156, 158. 

Fort Hunter, 127. 

Fort Johnson, 124. 

Fort Kienuka, 133. 

Fort Plain, 126, 127. 

Fort pond, 213. 

Fort Schuyler, 141. 

Fourmile creek, 136. 

Franklin county, 76-80, 269. 

Freeland, Daniel N., cited, 273, 161, 
163, 166. 

French, J. H., cited, 273, 42, 43, 52, 
54, 65, 83, 84, 88, 90, 92, 102, 105, 
114, 120, 123, 125, 126, 130, 137, 
138, 163, 164, 171, 173, 181, 182, 
185, 188, 199-202, 215, 232, 235, 
237, 238, 240, 245, 247, 256. 

French Camp, 153. 

French creek, 95. 

Frenchman's island, 150, 172. 

Frenchmen, Indian name, 266. 

Frenow, cited, 131. 

Fresh pond, 211. 

Frontenac, Count, cited, 86; men- 
tioned, 171. 

Frontenac, 264. 

Frudeyachkamick, 236. 

Fruydeyachkamick, 233. 

Fulton county, 81-82. 

Gaahna, 143. 
Gaannadadah, 63. 
Gaanogeh, 132. 
Gaanundata, 40. 

Gaaschtinick, 20. 
Gacheayo, 143. 
Gachtochwawunk, 206, 208. 
Gadageh, 61. 
Gadagesgao, 31, 257. 
Gadahoh, 106. 
Gadaioque, 169. 
Gadao, 106, 257. 
Gadaoyadeh, 64. 
Gadokena, 115. 
Gadoquat, 143. 
Gaensara, 156. 
Gagahdohga, 64. 
Gaghaheywarahera, 102, 106. 
Gaghasieanhgwe, 158, 258. 
Ciaghchegwalahale, 102. 
Gaghcoughwa, 158. 
Gaghehewarahare, 102. 
Gaghsiungua, 158, 258. 
Gaghsonghgwa, 258. 
Gaghsuquilahery, 102. 
Gagwaga, 64. 
Gahahdaeonthwah, 105. 
Gahaoos, 19. 
Gahato, 43, 207. 
Gahayandunk, 156. 
Gahdahgeh, 61. 
Gahdayadeh, 64. 
Gahenwaga, 169. 
Gaheskao creek, 35. 
Gahgsonghwa, 158. 
Gahgwahgegaaah, 64. 
Gahgwahgeh, 64. 
Gahnawandeh, 116. 
Gahnigahdot, 105. 
Gahnyuhsas, 103. 
Gahonta, 28, 29. 
Gahontoto, 262. 
Gahskosahgo, 116. 
Gahskosonewah, 116. 
Gahskosowaneh, 116. 
Gahtarakeras, 31. 
Gahuagojetwadaalote, 96. 
Gaigwaahgeh, 64, 133. 
Gainhouague, 169. 
Gainhouagwe, 237. 
Gaischtinic, 20. 
Gajikhano, 35. 
Gajuka, 34. 



Galaraga, 201. 
Galesville, 239. 
Galette, la, 89. 
Galinee, De Brehant de, cited, 27s, 

159, 265; map, 96; mentioned, 266. 
Galkonthiage, 169. 
Gallatin, Albert S., cited, 273, 23, 

A3, 47, 7i, 73, 88-91, 108, 122, 203, 

204, 239. 
Gallop rapid, 194. 
Gamonepa, 263. 
Ganaatio, 241. 
Ganadadele, 44. 
Ganadawao, 38. 
Ganadoque, 138. 
Ganagweh, 241. 
Ganajohie, 141. 
Ganakto, 104. 
Gananoque, 264. 
Gananowananeh, 28. 
Ganaouske, 237. 
Ganargwa, 241. 
Ganargwa creek, 241. 
Ganasadaga, 190, 206. 
Ganasadago, 77. 
Ganasowadi, 44. 
Ganata, 35. 

Ganatacheskiagon, 264. 
Ganatajengona, 261. 
Ganataqueh, 156. 
Ganatarage, 35. 
Ganataragoin, 190. 
Ganatisgoa, no, 112, 114. 
Ganatocherat, 44, 229. 
Ganawae, 261. 
Ganawada, 121. 
Ganawaga, 96, 190. 
Ganawaya, 143. 
Ganayat, 257. 
Ganazioha, 204. 
Gandachioragon, 115. 
Gandagan, 156. 
Gandagaro, 120. 
Gandawague, 122, 199. 
Gandiaktena, Catharine x mentioned, 

Gandougarae, 156. 
Ganeasos, 103. 
Ganechstage, 156. 

Ganegahaga, 92. 
Ganegatodo, 101. 
Ganehdaontvveh, 105. 
Ganehsstaageh, 268. 
Ganeious, 264. 
Ganentaa, 143, 146. 
Ganentouta, 96. 
Ganeodeya, 105. 
Ganeowehgayat, 26. 
Ganeraske, 265. 
Ganhotak creek, 43. 
Ganiataragachrachat, 50. 
Ganiataregachraetont, 50. 
Ganiataregechiat, 35, 231. 
Ganiatarenge, 203. 
Ganiatareske, 50. 
Gannagare, 120. 
Gannagaro, 157. 
Gannanokouy, 264. 
Gannatsiohare, 121. 
Gannerataraske, 50. 
Ganniatarontagouat, 117. 
Gannogarae, 156. 
Gannondata, 105. 
Gannongarae, 156. 
Gannounata, 105, 108, 115. 
Ganoalohale, 113, 138. 
Ganoaoa, 138. 
Ganoaoha, 113, 138. 
Ganochsorage, no, 113. 
Ganogeh, 203. 
Ganohhogeh, 64. 
Ganondaeh, 157. 
Ganondaseeh, 105. 
Ganono, 128, 259. 
Ganontacharage, 230, 231. 
Ganoondaagwah, 157. 
Ganos, 26, 23- 
Ganosgago, 102. 
Ganosgwah, 70. 
Ganounkouesnot, 264. 
Ganowalohale, 138. 
Ganowaloharla, 138. 
Ganowauga, 122. 
Ganowauges, 102. 
Ganowiha, 113, 138. 
Ganowtachgerage, 229, 231. 
Ganovvungo, 40. 
Gansevoort, Col., mentioned, 143. 



Ganuaske, 265. 
Ganudayu, 70. 
Ganundagwa, 155- 
Ganundaok, 157. 
Ganundasaga, 158. 
Ganundasey, 64. 
Ganundoglee, 138. 
Ganuntaah, 143- 
Ganuntaskona, 169. 
Ganusgago, 102, 105. 
Ganussusgeh, 65. 
Ganyehsstaageh, 268. 
Ganyeodatha, H5- 
Ganyusgwah, 70. 
Gaondowanuh, 105. 
Gaosaehgaaah, 157- 
Gaosagao, 157- 
Gaowahgowaah, 133- 
Gaoyadeo, 25. 
Gardeau, 106. 
Gardiner, mentioned, 210. 
Gardiner's bay, 215- 
Gardiner's island, 213. 216. 
Gardow, 106, 257. 
Garnawquash, 157- 
Gamier, Father, cited, 104. 
Garnogweyoh, 269. 
Garoga, 81. 

Garoga creek, 81, 123. 
Garoga lake, 81. 
Garondagaraon, 9 2 - 
Garonkoui, 191- 
Garonouy, 191. 
Garontanechqui, 35- 
Gasconchiage, 169. 
Gaskonchagon, H5, Il6 > l6 9- 
Gaskonsage, 169. 
Gaskosada, 65, 133- 
Gaskosadaneo, 65. 
Gaskosaga, 115. 
Gaskosagowa, 116. 
Gasotena, 170. 
Gasquendageh, 62. 
Gasquochsage, 169. 
Gassonta Chegonar, 169. 
Gastonchiague, fall of, 169. 
Gasuntaskona, 169. 
Gasunto, 143- 
Gaswadak, 82. 

Gathtsegwarohare, 102. 

Gatschet, Albert S., cited, 273, 39- 

Gaudak, 82. 

Gaujeahgonane, 77- 

Gaundowaneh, 105. 

Gaustrauyea, 133- 

Gawahnogeh, 65. 

Gawamus, 99. 

Gawanasegeh, 98, 1/7- 

Gawanowananeh, 173- 

Gawehnowana, 35- 

Gawenot, 65, 133- 

Gawisdagao, 70- 

Gawshegwehoh, 102, 106. 

Gawshegwehoh, 109. 

Gay, W. B., cited, 273, 229. 

Gayagaanha, 35- 

Gayaguadoh, 65. 

Gayahgaawhdoh, 65. 

Gayohara, 92. 

Geatiyo, 258. 

Geattahgweah, 40. 

Geddes, 152- 

Geihate, 19. 

Geihuhatatie, 194. 

Geihutatie, 19- 

Gemakie, 187. 

Gemeco, 177- 

Gemoenepa, 263. 

Geneganstlet creek and lake, 44- 

Genentota, 9 6 - 

Genesee, 26, 82, 106. 

Genesee county, 82-83. 

Genesee creek, 26. 

Genesee Falls, 169. 

Genesee lake, 157- 

Genesee river, 26, 107, "5. Il6 > l &> 

169, 257- 
Geneseo, 102, 104, 106, 108. 
Genesinguhta, 31- 
Geneundahsaiska, 82. 
Gennisheyo, 82. 
Gennusheeo, 106. 
Gentaieton, 4°- 
Genundewah, 257. 
George, Lake, 69, 237, 238, 241. 
Georgeka, 212. 
German Flats, 93- 
Gerundegut, H7- 



Gesmesseeck, 184. 

Gessauraloughin, 102. 

Gewaga, 35. 

Ghent, 48. 

Gientachne, 231. 

Gillatawagh, 161. 

Ginashadgo, 261. 

Ginisaga, 116. 

Giohara, 92. 

Gistaquat, 26. 

Gistweahna, 144. 

Gistwiahna, 269. 

Glens Falls, 137, 238. 

Glenville, 198. 

Goghkomckoko, 46. 

Gognytawee, 201. 

Gohseolahulee, 102. 

Goienho, 113, 144. 

Goiogoh, 35. 

Goioguen, 35- 

Golden Hill creek, 133. 

Gonahgwahtgeh, 64. 

Gordon, Thomas, cited, 273, 228, 239. 

Goschgoschunk, 261. 

Goshen, 164, 166. 

Gothsinquea, 158. 

Governor's island, 99, 130. 

Gowahasuasing, 245. 

Gowanda, 31, 32. 

Gowanisque creek, 207. 

Gowanus, 98. 

Goyogoins, Baye de, 241. 

Grand Island, 65, 133. 

Grand river, 66, 67, 265. 

Grand Sachem mountain, 55. 

Grand Famine, la, 168. 

Grant. Major, journal, 155, 231. 

Granville, 240. 

Grass river, 192. 

Gravesend, 99. 

Great Bay river, 29. 

Great Gully brook, 35. 

Great Neck, 178. 

Great Nine Partners tract, 57. 

Great Plot, 232. 

Great pond, 222. 

Great river, 233. 

Great Serdas, 167. 

Great Valley creek, 32, 33. 

Great Wappinger's kill, 55. 

Green, A. B., cited, 273. 

Green lake, 145. 

Green pond, 145, 154- 

Greenburg, 254. 

Greenbush, 181, 182, 185. 

Greene county, 83-86. 

Greenfield, 197. 

Greenhalgh, Wentworth, cited, 273, 

15. 37, 105, 107, 118, 152. 
Greenwich, 128. 
Greenwich point, 131, 249. 
Greenwich, Ct., 244. 
Grenadier island, 193. 
Grindstone creek, 170. 
Grosse Ecorce, R. de la, 169. 
Gunnegunter, 172. 
Guscomquaram, 211. 
Guscomquorom, 211. 
Gusdago, 40. 
Gushawaga, 40. " 
Gustangoh, 32. 
Guyahora, 139. 
Gwaugweh, 65, 133. 
Gwehtaanetecarnundodeh, 82, 116. 
Gweugweh, 35. 
Gwiendauqua, 70, 88. 

Hachniage, 157. 

Hackensack, 187. 

Hackingh,- 263. 

TTackinkasacky, 187. 

Hackinsack, 263. 

Hackyackawck, 187. 

Hageboom, J. C., mentioned, 49. 

Haggais pond, 227. 

Hagguato, 19, 20. 

TTahdoneh, 65. 

Hahnyahyah, 157. 

Hahwendagerha, 265. 

Hakitak, 19, 20. 

Hale, Horatio, cited, 273, 14, 191, 

205, 206. 
Half Moon, 195, 199. 
Halsey, Francis W., cited, 273, 54, 

172, 173, 174, 175- 
Hamilton, 112, 265. 266. 
Hamilton county, 86-91, 269. 



Hammond, Mrs L. M., cited, 273, 111, 

Hamptonburg, 166. 

Ilananto, 144. 

1 lanauttoo, 144. 

I lancock, 52. 

Haneayah, 157. 

Tlannauyuye, 158. 

Hanneyauyen, 157. 

Ilannyouyie, 158. 

Hansen patent, 123. 

Hanyaye, 157. 

TTappauge, 212. 

TTappogs, 212. 

Happogue, 212. 

TTaqucquenunck, 263. . 

Harford, 51. 

Harris, George H., cited, 273, 106, 
116, 117, 118, 160. 

Harris, William R., cited, 273. 

Harris's bay, 241. 

Haseco, 245, 248. 

Hashamamuck, 217. 

Hashamamuck al. Neshugguncir, 212. 

TTasbamommock, 213. 

TTasbamomuck, 212. 

Hashamomuck beach, 213. 

Hasbamomuk, 210. 

ITasket creek, 32. 

Hatch's lake, 114. 

Hateentox, 68. 

Hatckehneetgaonda, 133. 

Haunyauga, Lake, 158. 

TTauquebauge, 213. 

Hautting, Isaac, cited, 273. 

Haverstraw bay, 187, 189. 

Hawhaghinah, 113. 

Hawhonao, 259. 

Hawley, Rev. Gideon, cited, 174, 175. 
Hazeltine, Gilbert W., cited, 273, 38. 
Heahhawhe, 170. 
Heamaweck, 187, 188. 
Heckewelder, J. G. E., cited, 273, 16, 
17, 20, 24, 28-30, 128, 129, 142, 170, 
175, 179, 189, 215, 221, 233, 235, 
247, 248, 255, 257, 261, 262, 264, 
Hemlock lake, 107, 108, 158, 159. 
Hempstead, 179, 180, 187. 

Henderson, 97. 

Henderson, Lake, 70. 

Hennepin, Louis, cited, 273, 109, 115, 

118, 154-55- 
Henodawada, 70. 
Ilenoga, 71. 

Herbert, H. W., cited, 66. 
Herkimer, 94. 
Herkimer county, 91-95. 
Hesoh, 32. 
Hespatingh, 187. 
TTestayuntwa, 138. 
Heweghtiquack, 246. 
Hewitt, J. N. B., cited, 273, 39. 
Heyontgathwathah, 65. 
Heyyaadoh, 268. 
Hiawatha, mentioned, 139, 145, 150, 

152, 171 ; white canoe, 97. 
Hiawatha Lodge, 77. 
Hickory Corners, 133. 
Hickory Grove, 245. 

Hicks, Benjamin D., cited, 273. 

Hinquariones, 199. 

Hirocois, 123. 

Hiroquois, 123. 

Hiskhue, 26. 

I [obocan, 263. 

1 Toboken, 263. 

I Idhoken-hacking, 263. 

Hochelaga, 265. 

ITockatock, -20, 22. 

I locum, 213. 

Hoffman, Charles F., cited, 274, 19, 
71, 72, 73, 74. 86-91, 190, 193, 194, 
237, 239; mentioned, 185. 

Hog Neck, 213. 

Hogansburg, 80. 

Hoggenock, 213. 

Hogonock, 213. 

Hohwahgeneh, 113. 

Hokohongus, 245. 

Holden, A. W., cited, 274, 69, 71, 137, 
194, 237, 240. 

Homer, 51. 

Homowack, 227, 233. 

Honandaganius, 259. 

Honeoye, 26, 116, 155, 157. 

Honeoye creek, 107. 

Honeoye Falls, 118. 



Honeoye lake, 159. 

Hone's Neck, 211. 

Honge, 245. 

Honnedaga, 92. 

Honnondeuh, mentioned, 60. 

Hoopaninak, 99. 

Hoopanmak, 99. 

Hoosick, 181, 183, 184, 185. 

Hoosick Falls, 183. 

Hoosick patent, 182, 183. 

Hoosick river, 181, 183, 185, 240. 

Hoossink, 76. 

Hopewell, 159. 

Horicon, 238. 

FTorikans, 238. 

Hornellsville, 206. 

Horse Neck, 177. 

Horton's pond, 176. 

Hosack, 181. 

Hostayuntwa, 138. 

Hough, Franklin B., cited, 274, 34, 

76, 78-80, 95, 97, 167, 172, 191, 193, 

194, 197, 202, 265. 
Housatonic, 54. 

Howard, Lord, mentioned, 260. 
Howe, Daniel, mentioned, 178. 
Howe, Henry, cited, 271, 24, in, 124. 
Howe's bay, 178, 180. 
Howes cave, 202. 
Howland island, 35. 
Hubbard, cited, 215. 
Hudson river, 19, 21, 23, 88, 125, 183, 

194, 233, 238, 244, 254. 
Huncksoock, 71. 
Huntington, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 

215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 222, 223, 

224, 226. 
Hunt's point, 252. 
Huppogues, 212. 
Huron, 242. 
Huron, Lake, 134, 264. 
Hurons, 264, 265. 
Hurricane Peak, 72. 
Hutchinson's creek, 243. 

Icanderoga, 123. 
Ierondoquet, 117. 
Ihpetonga, 99. 
Incapahco, 89. 

Inchanando, 93. 

Indian Fields, 22. 

Indian lake, 88. 

Indian Orchard, 154. 

Indian Pass, 70, 72. 

Indian Point, 190. 

Indian pond, 59. 

Indian problem, report of committee 

to investigate, 274. 
Indian river, 101, 192, 193. 
••Ingaren, 261. 
Iona island, 166, 256. 
Iosco, 20. 
Iosioha, 65. 
Irocoiensis, lacus, 46. 
Irocoisen, 191. 
Irocoisi, lacus, 46. 
Irocoisia, 45. 
Ifondegatt, 117. 
Irondequoit, 116, 117, 118. 
Irondequoit creek, 118. 
Irondequot, 117. 
Iroquois, 68; clans, villages, 258-59; 

French term for Mohawks, 123; 

linguistic work, 6; lower, 155; 

migrations, 158; meaning of name, 

191 ; upper, 155 ; upper, names, 204. 
Iroquois, mount, 71. 
Iroquois country, Indian name, 259. 
Iroquois river, 265. 
Irving, Washington, cited, 274, 129- 

30, 254. 
Irving, 268. 
Ischua, 26, 32. 
Ischuna, 26. 
Ishpatena, 128. 
Ishpatink, 263. 
Isle au Rapid Plat, 194. 
Islip, 210, 211, 213, 214, 216, 217, 218, 

220, 222, 224. 
Isola Bella, 69. 
Ithaca, 231. 
Itsutchera, 20. 

Jaapough, 187. 
Jacheabus, mentioned, 43. 
Jack Berrytown, 63. 
Jackomyntie's Fly, 55. 
Jackson, 239. 



Jadachque, 39. 

Jadaghque, 39. 

Jadaqua, 38. 

Jadaqueh, 38. 

Jagara, 134. 

Jagoogeh, 82. 

Jagoyogch, 26. 

Jahdahgwah, 39, 40. 

Jamaica, 177. 

Jamaico, 177. 

Jameco, 177. 

James, Edwin, cited, 274. 

Jamesport, 215. 

Jamesvillc, 143. 

Jamique, 177. 

Jandekagh, 187. 

Jansen, Rocloff, kill, 47, 48. 

Jay homestead, 244. 

Jeandarage, 123. 

Jedandago, 242. 

Jefferson, Thomas, mentioned, 220. 

Jefferson county, 95-97. 

Jeffrouw's hook, 234. 

Jegasanek, 32. 

Jehonetaloga, 75. 

Jejackgueneck, 138. 

Jemison, Mary, life of, cited, 31, 102, 
106, 258. 

Jemison, Mary, Reservation, 257. 

Jenessee, 106. 

Jenkins journal, cited, 155. 

Jenneatowake, 158. 

Jenncsadego, 206. 

Jericho, 178. 

Jerondokat, 117. 

Jerondoquitt, 117. 

Jersey City, 263. 

Jessup's Falls, 238. 

Jesuit Relations, cited, 276, 80, 97, 
115, 134, 147, 152, 160, 168, 171, 

Joaika, 82. 

Jock's lake, 92. 

Jogee Hill, 161. 

Jogucs, Isaac, cited, 68-69, 2 37) men- 
tioned, 122, 196, 238. 

Johnson, Elias, cited, 274, 133, 144. 

Johnson, Guy, map, 274, 26, 33, 42, 
138, 167. 

Johnson, Sir William, cited, 274, 11, 
38, 73, US, 139. 192; mentioned, 
52, 92, 137. 

Johnson's creek, 131, 167. 

Johnson's landing place, 136. 

Johnstown, 36, 81. 

J on a sky, 40. 

Joneadih, 32. 

Jones, cited, 98. 

Jones, Rev. N. W., cited, 236. 

Jones, Pomroy, cited, 274. 

Jones, Samuel, cited, 77. 

Jonishiyuh, 106. 

Jonodak, 132. 

Jonondeseh, 259. 

Joquokranaegare, 267. 

Jordan, J. W., cited, 50. 

Jordan, 144. 

Josiah's Neck, 223. 

Juchtanunda, 123. 

Juet, mentioned, 130. 

Jiikdowaahgeh, 62. 

Juniata river, 262. 

Juscumeatick, 181. ' 

Jutalaga, 124. 

Jutowesthah, 89. 

Kachikhatoo, 146. 
Kachkanick, 46. 
Kachkawayick, 46. 
Kachkawyick, 46. 
Kachnawaacharege, 144. 
Kachnawarage, 144. 
Kachtawagick, 46. 
Kackawawook, 161. 
Kadaragawas, 31. 
Kadarode, 119. 
Kadawisdag, 138. 
Kadiskona, 170. 
Kaeouagegein, 65. 
Kaggais, 89. 
Kaghhikwarake, 258. 
Ka^hiohage, 96. 
Kaghneantasis, 173. 
Kaghnewage, 122. 
Kagnegasas, 103. 
Kagnewagrage, 149, 170. 
Kahakasnik, 233. 
Kahanckasinck, 233. 



Kahankson creek, 233. 
Kahchaquahna, 240. 
Kahcheboncook, 238. 
Kahchequaneungta, 144. 
Kahekanunda, 124. 
Kahendohhon, 258. 
Kahengouetta, 96. 
Kahesarahera, 158. 
Kahhaneuka, 133. 
Kahiaghage, 170. 
Kahissacke, 43. 
Kahkwas, 64. 
Kahnasehwadeuyea, 173. 
Kahnaseu, 173. 
Kahnonnokwen, 264. 
Kahongoronton, 267. 
Kahseway, 46. 
Kahskunghsaka, 170. 
Kahuahgo, 96, 101. 
Kahuwagona, 96. 
Kahwhanahkee, 150, 172. 
Kahyahooneh, 144. 
Kahyahtaknet'ketahkeh, 144. 
Kahyungkwatahtoa, 145. 

Kaiehntah, 145. 
Kaionhouague, 169. 

Kaioongk, 145. 

Kaishtinic, 20. 

Kaiyahkoo, 145, 154. 

Kaiyahnkoo, 145. 

Kakaghgetawan, 161. 

Kakaijongh brook, 210, 213. 

Kakatawis, 233. 

Kakiat, 187. 

Kakiate patent, 187. 

Kakouagoga, 64. 

Kamehargo, 96. 

Kanaaiagon, 40. 

Kanacktaneng, 265. 

Kanadagare, 138. 

Kanadalaugua, 156. 

Kanadarauk creek, 124. 

Kanadasago, 158. 

Kanadesaga, 158. 

Kanadia, 204. 

Kanaghsas, 103. 

Kanaghsaws, 103. 

Kanaghseragy, no. 

Kanaghtarageara, 138. 

Kanagiro, 120. 
Kanakage, 35. 
Kanalesaga, 206. 
Kanandaque, 156. 
Kanandaweron, 38. 
Kananouangon, 40. 
Kanapauka kills, 178. 
Kanarsingh, 98. 
Kanasabka, 145. 
Kanasowaga, no. 
Kanaswastakeras, 191. 
Kanata, 93, 138. 
Kanatagiron, 170. 
Kanatagowa, 145. 
Kanataraken, 191. 
Kanataseke, 191. 
Kanatiochtage, 265. 
Kanaughta Auskerada, 124. 
Kanawage, 96, 190-91. 
Kanawahgoonwah, 145. 

Kanawaholla, 42. 

Kaneenda, 143, 146. 

Kanegodick, 138. 

Kanegsas, 103. 

Kanendakberie, 124, 176. 

Kanesadakeb, 206, 258. 

Kanestio, 207. 

Kanestio river, 207. 

Kanetota, in. 

Kaneysas, 103. 

Kanhaitaneekge, 65. 

Kanbaitauneekay, 65. 

Kanhanghton, 207. 

Kanhato, 144. 

Kania-Taronto-Gouat, 117. 

Kaniadarusseras, 71. 

Kaniatarontaquat, 116. 

Kaniegbsas, 103. 

Kaniskek, 21, 83. 

Kanjearagore, 201. 

Kannadasegea, 158. 

Kannakalo, 43. 

Kannestaly, 198. 

Kanoagoa, 40. 

Kanoaloka, 146. 

Kanona, 207. 

Kanondaqua, 156. 

Kanondoro, 71, 240. 

Kanono, 128. 



Kanoono, 259. 
Kanosta, ill. 
Kanouenesgo, 264. 
Kanowalohale, 42. 
Kanowanohate, 138. 
Kanowaya, 146. 
Kanquaragoone, 199. 
Kanughwaka, 145. 
Kanuskago, 102, 107. 
Kanvagen, 107. 
Kaohdot, 269. 
Kapsee, 128. 
Kaquewagrage, 144. 
Karaghyadirha, 25, 26. 
Karaken, 259. 
Karathyadira, 26. 
Karathyadirha, 107. 
Karhawenradough, 259. 
Karhctyonni, 258. 
Karighondonte, 201. 
Karighondontee, 202. 
Karistautee, 78. 
Karitonga, 173. 
Karonkwi, 191. 
Karstenge Bergh, 49. 
Kasanotiayogo, 40, 41. 
Kasawasahya, 107. 
Kasawassahya, 102. 
Kashakaka, 96. 
Kashanquash, 258. 
Kashong, 157, 158, 160, 258. 
Kashong creek, 158, 258. 
Kashunkta, 143. 
Kaskonchiagou, 116. 
Kaskongshadi, 71. 
Kasoag, 170. 
Kasoongkta, 143. 
Kasskosowahnah, 133. 
Kastoniuck, 246. 
Katawignack, 86. 
Katonah, 244, 245. 
Katsenekwar, 191. 
Katsidagwehniyoh, 265. 
Katskill, 86. 
Kauhagwarahka, 61, 65. 
Kauhanauka, 134. 
Kaunaumeek, 181. 
Kaunonada, 105. 
Kaunsehwatauyea, 173. 

Kauquatkay, 41. 
Kauyuga Settlement, 205. 
Kawanna Lodge, 78. 
Kaweniounioun, 96. 
Kawenkowanenne, 191. 
Kawnatawteruh, in, 112, 113. 
Kaxhaxki, 21. 
Kayaderoga, 195, 196. 
Kayaderosseras, 71, 237. 
Kayaderosseras creek, 124, 195. 
Kayaderosseras mountains, 69, 71. 
Kayaderosseras patent, 198. 
Kayandorossa, 238. 
Kayaweeser, 195. 
Kayawese creek, 195. 
Kayeghtalagealat, 231. 
Kayengederaghte, 107. 
Kaygen river, 207. 
Keadanyeekowa, 83. 
Keakatis creek, 245. 
Keanauhausent, 167. 
Kebekong, 79. 
Kebenong, 265. 
Kcchkawes creek, 245. 
Kechkawes kill, 247. 
Keemiscomock, 213, 225. 
Keeseywego kill, 181. 
Kchanagara creek. 201. 
Kebantick, 46. 
Kehentick, 181. 
Kebhuwhatahdea, 150, 172. 
Kehthanne, 52. 
Keinthe, 105, 107, 115, 118. 
Kekeshick, 246. 
Kekeskick, 246. 
Kelauquaw, 89. 
Kenaghtequat, 47. 
Kenaukarent, 167. 
Kendaia, 204, 205. 
Kendig's creek, 204. 
Kendoa, 204. 
Keneghses, 103. 
Kenhanagara, 124, 201. 
Keninyitto, 81. 

Kenjockety, John, mentioned, 65. 
Kenjockety creek, 64, 65. 
Kenneattoo, 81. 
Kennendahare, 124. 
Kcnnendauque, 156. 



Kcnnesdago, 158. 

Kennyetto, 81. 

Kenonskegon, 107. 

Kenoza lake, 228. 

Kensico, 246. 

Kent, 176. 

Kente, 265. 

Kentsiakawane, 78. 

Kentucky, 82, 192. 

Kentuehone, 146. 

Kenyouscotta, 138. 

Keontona, 41. 

Kequanderage, 146. 

Kerhonkson, 233. 

Kerhonkton, 233. 

Keshaechpuerem, 99. 

Keshaqua creek, 107. 

Kesieway creek, 46. 

Keskaechquerem, 213. 

Keskisko, 246. 

Keskistkonck, 246. 

Kestateuw, 98. 

Kestaubaiuck, 246. 

Kestaubauck creek, 246. 

Kestaubnuck, 246. 

Ketchaboneck, 213. 

Ketcham's Neck, 216. 

Ketcbaponock, 213. 

Ketcbepun'ak, 213. 

Ketchum, William, cited, 274, 60-61, 

Ketewomoke, 213. 
Ketiyengoowah, 83. 
Ketsepray, 233. 
Kettakoneadchu, 49. 
Kettle-bottom, mount, 239. 
Keuka, 207. 
Keuka, lake, 207, 258. 
Keweghtegnack, 246. 
Kewightahagh creek, 248. 
Keyonanouague, 170. 
Keysserryck, 233. 
Kiahuentaha, 145. 
Kiamesha, 228. 
Kiantone, 38, 41. 
Kichpa, 48. 
Kicbtawangh, 246. 
Kichua, 48. 
Kickpa, 47. 

Kicktawank, 246. 

Kickua, 47. 

Kiecbioiahte, 146. 

Kieft, Gov., mentioned, 180. 

Kienuka, 133. 

Kiessiewey's kill, 46, 181. 

Kightawonck, 246. 

Kightowankj 246. 

Kihuga creek and lake, 35. 

Kill Buck, 32. 

Killalemy, 176. 

Killawog, 28. 

Killoquaw, 89. 

Kinaquariones, 198, 199. 

Kingiaquatonec, 240. 

Kings county, 98-100. 

Kingsbridge, 130. 

Kingsbury, 240. 

Kingston, 169, 232. 

Kinshon, 77. 

Kiobero, 36. 

Kioshk, 128. 

Kirkland, Rev. Samuel, cited, 34, 36, 

82, 83, 104, 121. 
Kishewana, lake, 176. 
Kiskatameck, 84. 
Kiskatom, 84. 
Kiskatomenakook, 84. 
Kisketon, 84. 
Kisko, 246. 
Kitchawan, 246, 250. 
Kitcbawanc, 246. 
Kitcbin, T., map, 34, 104, 105, 109, 

Kithawan, 246. 
Kittatenny, 246. 
Kiwasa lake, 78, 269. 
Kiwigtigu Elbow, 246. 
Kiwigtinock, 246. 
Klock, George, patent, 92, 94. 
Kloltin, 52. 
Knacto, 207. 
Knotrus river, 246. 
Koamong purchase, 246. 
Kobus, 43. 
Kockhachingh, 84. 
Kohenguetta, 96. 
Koboseraghe, 107, 158. 
Koiokwen, 34. 



Kokomo, 191. 
Kolahnekah, 36. 
Kolaneka, 81. 
Kollikoen river, 227. 
Komme Gouw, 99. 
Kondar, 204. 
Koncntcheneke, 83, 267. 
Konkhonganok, 213. 
Konneonga, 228. 
Konondaigua, 135. 
Konosioni, 259. 
Konyouyhyough, 155. 
Kookhouse, '52. 
Kookpake, 46. 
Koshanuadeago, 41. 
Kotchakatoo, 146. 
Kouari, 93. 

Koughquaugu Creek, 64 
Koxhackung, 21, 84. 
K'tahkanahshau, 55. 
K'takanahshau, 57. 
K'takanatshau, 49. 
Kuhnataha, 170. 
Kumochenack, 187. 
Kunatah, 146. 
Kundaqua, 146. 
Kunyouskata, 138. 
Kurloonah, 71, 87. 
Kushaqua lake, 78. 
Kuskehsawkich, 170. 
Kusteha, 146. 
Kuxakee, 83. 
Kuyahoora, 92. 
Kuyahora, 138. 
Kyserike, 233. 

Laaphawachking, 128, 246. 

Lackawack, 228, 233. 

Lafayette, 148, 152. 

Lahontan, A. L. de D., cited, 274, 

60, 76, 104, 105, 109, 118, 156. 
Lake of the Clustered Stars, jj. 
Lake of the Silver Sky, 80. 
Lake of the Two Mountains, 265. 
Lamherville, de, mentioned, 117,142. 
La Metairie, cited, 25. 
La Mothe, mentioned, 118. 
Lancaster, 62. 

Language, authorities on, 12-18. 
Lanman, Charles, cited, 274, 190. 

Lansinghurg, 183, 184, 185. 

Lapinikan, 128. 

La Potherie, De, cited, 265. 

La Roche, de, mentioned, 136. 

La Salle, Rene Robert Cavelier do, 

cited, 274, 51, 115, 265. 
Lawson, cited, 60. 
Lebanon creek, 50. 
Leeds, 85. 
Leicester, 105, 109. 
Le Mercier, mentioned, 144, 140 
Le Moyne, Father, mentioned, 76, 

Lenape, 29. 
Lenapewihittuck, 52. 
Lenox, 114. 
Leroy, 83. 
Lewis county, 101. 
Lewis creek, 200. 
Lewisboro, 243, 244, 248, 249, 250, 

Lewisboro purchase, 255, 256. 
Lewisham, 178. 
Lewiston Heights, 132. 
Lima, 105, 107, 109, 115. 
Lime Lake, 33. 
Limestone creek, 142, 143. 
Lindermere, 89. 
Little Beard's town, 103, 104. 
Little Cattaraugus, 38. 
Little Falls, 91, 94, 237. 
Little lakes, 95. 
Little Minessing creek, 162. 
Little Neck, 179. 
Little Neck bay, 215. 
Little Nine Partners' tract, 57, 58, 

Little Seneca river, 107, 115. 
Little Sodus bay, 34, 36, 37. 
Little Sodus creek, 36. 
Little Tonawanda creek, 83. 
Little Tupper lake, 269. 
Little Valley creek, 32. 
Liverpool, 143, 153. 
Liverpool creek, 154. 
Livingston county, 101-10. 
Livingston manor, 54, 57. 
Lloyd's Neck, 177. 
Local names, composition, 9-12. 
I Lockerman's tract, 85, 232. 



Lockport, 132, 136. 

Locust Valley, 177. 

Lodge's map, 102. 155, 156, 158. 

Long House creek, 166. 

Long Island, 98, 99, 100, 177-80, 

209-27, 253. 
Long island, Albany county, 22. 
Long Island, Saratoga county, 196. 
Long Knives, 260. 
Long lake, 89, 114. 
Long Point, 64. 
Long pond, 160. 
Long Sault, 191. 
Long Sault island, lower, 191. 
Long Sault island, upper, 194. 
Long-narrow lake, 155. 
Longfellow, quoted, 93. 
Lookout hill, 24. 

Loskicl, G. H., cited, 274, 24, 34. 
Lossing, Bensen F., cited, 274, 68, 69, 

70, 71. 
Lothrop, Samuel K., cited, 274, 140. 
Loups, 21, 176. 
Lovendge patent, 85, 86. 
Lower Ebenezer, 66. 
Lukens, Jesse, cited, 274, 262. 
Lumberland, 227, 228. 
Lusum, 178. 
Luzerne, 237. 
Lycoming, 170. 
Lydius, John H., cited, 73. 

Macauley, James, cited, 274, 190, 

192, 198, 199. 
Machabeneer, Shawengonck, 234. 
Machachkeek, 84. 
Machackamock, 234. 
Machackoesk, 47. 
Machakamick, 234. 
Machawameck, 21. 
Machawanick, 84. 
Machias, 32. 

Mackay, Capt. Thomas, cited, 147. 
Macktowanuck, 230. 
Macokassino, 247. 
Macooknack point, 247. 
Macookpack, 176. 
Macookpack pond, 247. 
Macuthris, 99. 
Macutteris, 99. 

Mad creek, 142. 

Madawaska, 78. 

Madison county, 110-15. 

Madison lake, 114. 

Madnan's Neck, 178. 

Maennepis creek, 247. 

Maetsingsing, 254. 

Maevenawasigh, 55. 

Magaat Ramis, 234. 

Magatscoot, 234. 

Maggaghkamieck, 228. 

Maggaghkamiek, 161. 

Maggonck, 234. 

Maggrnapogh, 234. 

Maghakeneck, 161. 

Maghawaemus, 161. 

Magkaneweick creek, 240. 

Magowasinck Indians, 234. 

Magowasinginck, 234. 

Magquamkasick, 84. 

Magriganies lake, 247. 

Magrigaries, 247. 

Magunck, 234. 

Mahackamack, 228. 

Mahackemeck, 161. 

Mahaickamack, 187. 

Mahakeneghtuc, 21. 

Maharnes river, 245, 247. 

Mahaskakook, 47. 

Mahequa, 187. 

Maheuw, 234. 

Mahican, 21. 

Mahicans, 21; territory, 18, 181, 194; 

name, 183. 
Mahickander's island, 22. 
Mahodac, 176. 
Mahopac, 176. 
Mahopac, lake, 176. 
Makakassin, 247. 
Makeopaca, 99. 
Makhakeneck, 161. 

Mailman, Rev. Jacob, cited, 275, 214. 
Mallolausly, 162. 
Malone, 80. 
Mamakating, 228. 
Mamanasquag, 248. 
Mamarack river, 247. 
Mamaroneck, 244, 245, 246, 247, 252, 

Mame Cotink, 228. 



Mamcakating, 228. 

Mamgapes creek, 248. 

Maminketsuck, 248. 

Mammacotta, 228. 

Manahachtanicuk, 129. 

Manahachtanienk, 129. 

Manahanning, 99. 

Manahatouh, 129. 

Manahattani, 129. 

Manahattanink, 129. 

Mananosick, 47. 

Manantick, 213. 

Manataanung, 129. 

Manatees, 129. 

Manatey, 129. 

Manatthans, 129. 

Mancapawiwick, 55. 

Manchonack, 213. 

Manchonots, 214. 

Manchwehenock, 84. 

Manckatawangum, 230. 

Manetto, 178. 

Mangawping, 228. 

Mangopson, 248. 

Manhanset, 214. 

Manhansick, 214. 

Manhansuck river, 213. 

Manhasset, 178, 180, 214. 

Manhasset Indians, 214. 

Manhate, Island, 131. 

Manhattan island, 128, 129, 131. 

Manhattans, 186; on Staten Island, 

Manhausak, 214. 
Manitou beach, 167. 
Mankackkewachky, 263. 
Manlius, 142. 
Manowtassquott, 214. 
Mansakawaghkin island, 248. 
Mansakenning, 55. 
Mansakin, 55. 
Manshtak creek, 214. 
Mantash, 214. 
Mantoobaugs, 214. 
Manunketesuck, 248. 
Manursing, 248. 
Manursing island, 248. 
Maquaas Hook, 85. 
Maquaconkaeck, 181. 
Maquainkadely creek, 181. 

Maquas, 93, 155. 

Maquas kill, 124. 

Maquois, 123. 

Marathon, 51. 

Marbletown, 234. 

Marcoux, F. X., cited, 80. 

Marcy, Mount, 74. 

Mareckawick, 99. 

Mareckkawick, 99. 

Maregond, 176. 

Maretenge, 162. 

Marin, mentioned, 40. 

Marneck, 247. 

Maroonskaack, 181. 

Marossepinck, 178. 

Marsapeague Indians, 178. 

Marsepain, 178. 

Marseping Indians, 178. 

Marshall, Orsamus H., cited, 275, 
16, 59, 61-66, 104-9, "5. ll 7, 118, 
132, 133, 135, 136, 155-58, 160. 

Martin Gerritsen's bay, 178. 

Martinnehouck, 178. 

Marychkenwikingh, 99. 

Maryland, 267. 

Mashmanock, 214. 

Mashomack point, 214. 

Maskaeck, 162, 234. 

Maskekts lands, 234. 

Maskinongez, 66. 

Maskutchoung, 179. 

Masonicus, 187. 

Maspegue Gut, 214. 

Maspet, 179. 

Maspeth, 179. 

Maspeth kill, 99. 

Massachabeneers, 234. 

Massachusetts Historical Society 
Collection, 21. 

Massapequa, 179, 214. 

Massawepie lake, 191. 

Massawomecks, 30. 

Massepa river, 179. 

Mastaqua, 78. 

Masten, Arthur H., cited, 275, 20. 

Mastic, 215. 

Mastic Neck, 216, 219, 222, 225. 

Mastic tract, 211, 217. 

Matanucke, 186. 

Matapan, 55. 



Matawucks, 186. 

Mathakenaack, 195. 

Matinicock point, 178. 

Matinnecocks, 217. 

Matissink island, 234. 

Matowa, 215. 

Matowacks, 179, 215. 

Matsepe, 179. 

Mattanauke, 178. 

Mattanwake, 179, 215.' 

Mattashuck hills, 47. 

Mattasinck kill, 188. 

Mattassink island, 234. 

Matteawan, 55, 162. 

Matteawan mountains, 55, 187. 

Mattecohunks, 234. 

Mattegticos, 249. 

Mattemoy, 215, 216. 

Mattinnekonck, 178. 

Mattituck, 215. 

Mattuck, 215. 

Maugwa-wogs, 124. 

Mawanaguasick, 47. 

Mawanapquassek, 47. 

Mawanaquasick, 47, 48. 

Maway river, 188. 

Mawenawasigh, 55. 

Mawichnack, 47. 

Mawiegnunk, 47. 

Mawignack, 85. 

klaxon hill, 197. 

Maxwell, Thomas, cited, 275, 42, 203, 

206, 207. 
Mayfield, 81. 
M*chewamisipu, 29, 257. 
Mchwewarmink, 29. 
M'chwewormink, 257. 
Meahagh, 247, 248. 
Meanagh, 249. 
Meanagh creek, 248. 
Meanous river, 247. 
Meantaquit, 215. 
Meccackassin, 247. 
Mechanschiton, 267. 
Mechkentowoon, 188. 
Mecox, 215. 
Medina, 167. 

Megapolensis, cited, 119, 126. 
Meghkeckkassin, 247. 
Meghkeekassin, 247, 254. 

Mehanas, 247. 
Melianos, 247. 
Mehkakhsin, 247. 
Mehoppen, 261. 
Mehtanawack, 215. 
Meitowax, 179. 
Mekago, 21. 
Melville, 224. 
Memanusack river, 215. 
Memorasinck, 162. 
Menatey, 129. 
Menayack, 162. 
Menhansack, 214. 
Menohhannet, 129. 
Mentipathe, 248. 
Meochkonck, 234 
Mer Douce, 134. 
Merclary pond, 162. 
Merechkawink, 99. 
Mereychawick, 99. 
Meric, 179. 

Mericoke Indians, 179. 
Merigies Neck, 216. 
Merikoke, 179. 
Meritowacks, 99. 
Meroges, 216. 
Merosuck, 210, 215. 
Merrack Neck, 179. 
Merreck, 215. 
Merriack Indians, 179. 
Merrick, 179. 
Merryes, 216, 225. 
Meshodac peak, 182. 
Mespaechtes, 99. 
Messena Springs, 191. 
Metambesem, 54, 55. 
Metauk, 71, 87. 
Metauques, 228. 
Metongues pond, 228. 
Mettacahonts creek, 234. 
Mettekehonks, 234. 
Mettowee, 240. 
Mexico, 170. 
Miami creek, 89. 
Mianrogue, 215. 
Miantacut, 215. 
Michigan creek, 207. 
Miconacook, 238. 
Middle Ebenezer, 62. 
Middleburg, 180, 202. 



Middlefield, 173, 174. 

Middleport, 136. 

Middletown, 53. 

Migun, 260. 

MihtukmechakLck, 68. 

Mill creek, 23. 

Mill River, 253, 255. 

Minas Fall creek, 188. 

Minasseroke, 215. 

Minatey, 129. 

Minden, 125. 

Minesceongo, 188. 

Mingaghque, 263. 

Mingwing river, 228. 

Minisconga creek, 188. 

Minisink, 56, 161, 162, 164, 166, 234. 

Minisink hills, 160. 

Minisink patent, 162. 

•Minisink region, 161, 162. 

Minisink river, 166. 

Minisinks, 234, 235. 

Minissingh, 55. 

Minnahanonck, 130. 

Minnahenock, 248. 

Minnapaugs, 215. 

Minneais, 130. 

Minnehaha, 93. 

Minnesunk lake, 215. 

Minnewaska, 234. 

Minnewies, 248. 

Minnewits island, 130, 248. 

Minnischtanock, 47. 

Minniscongo, 188. 

Minnisink, 162. 

Minnissichtanock, 47. 

Minsies, 162, 188. 

Minuit, Peter, mentioned, 248. 

Minusing, 248. 

Miomog, 215. 

Miossehassaky, 245, 248. 

Miquon, 260. 

Mirachtauhacky, 216. 

Mishadchu, 163. 

Misnisschtanock, 47. 

Mispat, 179. 

Mispatuck brook, 216. 

Missisagas, 137. 

Missisauga, 265. 

Mississippi river, 267. 

Mistucky, 162. 

Mitchill, Dr Samuel, cited, 23, 121, 

194, 195- 
Mitchel, Samuel, cited, 19. 
Mitchell, map, 144, 151. 
Moaquanes, 248. 
Mochgonnekonck, 216. 
Mockquams, 248. 
Moenemines castle, 21. 
Moeung, 100. 
Moggonek, 234. 
Moggoneck, 234. 
Mohagan pond, 89. 
Mohansic lake, 248. 
Mohansuck, 213. 
Moharsic lake, 248. 
Mohawk, 123, 124. 
Mohawk branch, 53. 
Mohawk Hill, 101. 
Mohawk river, 92, 93, 94, 95, 121, 125, 

169, 187, 195, 196. 
Mohawks, 68; castles, 125; linguistic 

work, 6; name, 119, 121, 124, 126, 

135; territory, 172; villages, 119. 
Mohegan, 22. 
Mohegan hill, 201. 
Mohegan, lake, 176, 248. 
Mohegan river, 21. 
Mohegan-ittuck, 21. 
Mohegans, depredations, 86. 
Mohegonter, 201. 
Mohensick, lake, 176. 
Mohonk lake, 234. 
Mohshequssuk, 235. 
Moira, 80. 
Mombaccus, 234. 
Mombach, 234. 
Mombackus, 234. 
Mombashapond, 163. 
Monakewego, 249. 
Monatons, 186. 
Monattan hook, 22. 
Monayunk creek, 235. 
Moncorum, 216. 
Mongaup, 163, 228. 
Mongaup valley, 53. 
Mongawping river, 163. 
Mongotucksee, mentioned, 210. 
Monhagan, 163. 
Moniang, 265. 
Monnepaught, 216. 



Monocknong, 186. 

Monroe, 165. 

Monroe county, 1 15-18. 

Monsey, 188. 

Montacut, 215, 216. 

Montauk, 216. 

Montauk point, 223. 

Montauket, 216. 

Montezuma, 35, 36, 37. 

Montezuma marshes, 36, 242. 

Montgomery county, 119-28. 

Montour Falls, 203. 

Montreal, 79, 265, 266. 

Moose creek, 81. 

Moose lake, 93. 

Moose river, 101. 

Moospottenwacho, 238. 

Mopus, 249. 

Moquams creek, 243. 

Moravian journals, 44. 

Morgan, Lewis H., cited, 275, 8, 11, 
16, 19, 23, 25-29, 31-38, 40, 43, 44- 
50, 54, 59, 61-67, 72, 75-77, 80-83, 
89, 92-94, 96-98, 100-6, 108-12, 114- 
16, 118, 120, 121, 124-28, 131-42, 
144, 146, 148-50, 152, 154, 155, 157- 
59, 167-71, 173, 174, 177, 189, 190, 
192, 196, 199, 201-3, 205-8, 229-31, 
241, 242, 257, 259. 

Moriches, 216. 

Morneck, 247. 

Moroke, 179. 

Mosholu, 249. 

Moskuta hill, 249. 

Mottomog, 216. 

Moulton, Joseph W., cited, 275, 278, 
46, 55, 76, 135, 164- 

Mount Achsining, 41. 

Mount Emmons, 90. 

Mount Kisko, 246. 

Mount Mclntyre, 71. 

Mount Marcy, 269. 

Mount Morris, 108, 109. 

Mount Toppin, 50. 

Mount Trembleau point, J2. 

Mountain of the White Star, 76. 

Moworronoke, 247. 

Muchhattoes hill, 163. 

Mud creek, 154, 207, 241. 

Mughtiticoos, 255. 

Muhheakunnuk, 21-22. 
Mukwakwogamak, 269. 
Munhaussick, 214. 
Munnatawkit, 216. 
Munnohhanit, 129. 
Munshongomuc, 214. 
Murderer's creek, 62, 66. 
Murray, 167. 

Muscalonge, lake and bay, 96. 
Muscoot river, 249. 
Muscoota, 130, 179, 249. 
Muscota, 130. 
Mushauwomuk, 266. 
Muskatuc, 216. 
Muskrat creek, 36. 
Mutighticoos, 249. 
Myanas, 247, 249. 
Mynachkee, 56, 59. 
Mynachkee kill, 55. 

Naasserok, 235. 

Nachaquatuck, 216. 

Nachassickquaack, 182. 

Nachawawachkano creek, 47. 

Nachtenack, 195. 

Nadeaquickquack, 182. 

Naganoose, 107. 

Naghtongk, 130. 

Naguntatogue Neck, 216. 

Naguntatoug Neck, 216. 

Nahdaeh, 107, 108, 158. 

Naieck, 100. 

Najack, 100. 

Nakaovaewich, 47. 

Xakaowasick, 47. 

Nakawiawick, 47. 

Names, difficulties in determining, 

7-8; method of bestowing, 8; 

many places given same name, 8; 

distinction between Algonquin and 

Iroquois, 9 ; local, composition, 

Namke, 216. 
Nanahpanahakin, 48. 
Nanama, 249. 
Nanapenahe~kan, 48. 
Nanashnuck, 188. 
Xancaponick, 56. 
Nanichiestawack, 249. 
Naniopaconioc, 56. 

3 o8 


Nanoseck, 235. 
Nantasasis, J46. 
Nanticoke, 28. 
Nanticoke creek, 28, 230. 
Nanticokes, 28, 29. 
Nanuet, 188. 
Naosh, 186, 263. 
Napanoch, 235. 
Napanock, 235. 
Napeage, 217. 
Napeague, 217. 
Napeestock, .85. 
Naples, 158, 258. 
Nappane, 265. 
Nappeckamack, 249. 
Narahawmis, 249. 
Narhiggan, 217. 
Narowatkongh, 263. 
Narranshaw creek, 188. 
Narrasunck lands, 188. 
Narrioch, 100. 
Narrow gut, 155. 
Nasaquack, 218. 
Nascon lake, 34, 36. 
Nashaquatac, 216. 
Nashayonsuck, 213, 217. 
Nassakeag, 217. 
Nassau, 182, 183, 185. 
Nassau county, 177-80. 
Nassayonsuck, 217. 
Natadunk, 147. 
Nauashin village, 249. 
Naurashank creek, 188. 
Navarino, 151. 
Naveskeek, 22. 
Navish, 249. 
Navy island, 133. 
Nawaage, 122. 
Nayack, 100. 
Nayeck, 100. 

Neaga Waagwenneyu, 118. 
Neahga, 134. 
Neapeague, 217. 
Neatawantha, 170. 
Nechtank, 130. 
Necommack, 217. 
Negaene creek, 231. 
Negagonse, 182. 
Negateca fontaine, 158. 
Nehackamack, 53. 

Nehasane lake, 89. 

Nehasene, 101. 

Nehawretahgo, 113. 

Nckankook, 48. 

Nentego, 28. 

Neodak, 89. 

Neodakheat, 231. 

Neodaondaquat, 116. 

Neoskaleeta, 89. 

Neothrora, 62. 

Nepera creek, 249. 

Neperhan creek, 249. 

Nesaquage Accompesett, 218. 

Nesaquake, 217, 225. 

Nesaquake lands, 217. 

Nesaraske, 217. 

Nescotonck, 163. 

Neshugguncir, 217. 

Nesopack pond, 250. 

Nessingh, 87, 89. 

Nestigione patent, 196. 

Neuten Hook, 21. 

Neutrals, $4; towns, 134; names, 

Ncversink, 100, 188, 228. 
Neversink river, 161, 163, 167, 187, 

New Castle, 244, 253. 
New Hackensack, 55. 
New Hampshire grants, map of, 

275. 95- 

New Hartford, 137. 

New Haven creek, 170. 

New Hempstead, 187. 

New Jersey, 262-64. 

New Paltz, 234, 236. 

New Rochelle, 248, 254. 

New York, 128, 129, 247. 

New York Colonial Laws, 23. 

New York county, 128-31. 

Newageghkoo, 113. 

Newburgh, 164. 

Newcomb, 68. 

Newesingh Indians, 263. 

Neweskeke, 22. 

Newcssingh, 188. 

Newtown, 64, 65, 179, 180. 

Newtown creek, 43. 

Niagara, 131, 134, 197; Indian pro- 
nunciation, 135. 



Niagara county, 131-37. 

Niagara Falls, 132, 133, 266. 

Niagara river, 61, 133. 

Niamaug, 217. 

Niamock, 217. 

Niamuclc, 217. 

Niaouenre bay, 96. 

Niaoure bay, 96. 

Niawerne, 96. 

Nichankook, 48. 

Nichol, cited, 217. 

Nickan Hooke, 48. 

Nidenindequeat, 116. 

Nidyionyahaah, 66. 

Nieuwehings, 100. 

Nieuwesings, 100. 

Nigawenahaah, 66, 135. 

Nigentsiagi, 192. 

Nigentsiagoa, 78, 192. 

Nigitawogamak, 269. 

Nihacans, 217. 

Nihanawate, 78. 

Niharuntaquoa, 139. 

Nihawanate, 192. 

Niionenhiasekowane, 192. 

Nikabionhakowa, 97. 

Nikentsiake, 192. 

Nimham, Mount, 176, 250. 

Ninemile creek, 141, 145, 153. 

Niocko, 100. 

Nipinichsen, 250. 

Nipmoosh, 182. 

Nipperha, 249. 

Nippisauke, 85. 

Nippowance, 253. 

Niscatha, 22. 

Niscontha, '22. 

Nisinckqueghhacky, 217. 

Niskayuna, 173, 195, 196, 199. 

Nissequaque river, 217. 

Nissequogue, 217. 

Nistigioone, 199. 

Nivernois, Due de, mentioned, 97. 

Nivernois bay, 96. 

Noapain, 250. 

Nocbpeem, 250. 

Nochpeems, 246, 251. 

Nocbwaio creek, 231. 

Nodoneyo, 72, 87. 

Noehnta, 107, 159. 

Nominick hills, 218. 

Noname's hill, 250. 

Nondas, 108. 

Nonowantuck, 218. 

Nonville, de, mentioned, 34, 115; 

cited, 105, 117, 157, 198. 
Noonyeahkie, 76. 
Norfolk, 191. 
Norman's kill, 20, 23. 
Norridgewock, 93. 
Norris, Major, cited, 231. 
North America, Indian name, 259. 
North Castle, 243, 246. 
North Collins, 268. 
North Hempstead, 178, 180. 
North Salem, 249, 251. 
North Sea, 219. 
North Sterling creek, 34. 
Northeast, 54, 59. 
Northwest bay, 237. 
Norwich, 44. 
Nose, the, 124, 176. 
Notantakto creek, 231. 
Nowadaga creek, 91, 93. , 
Nowagona, 199. 
Nowanagquasick, 48. 
Noyack bay, 218. 
Nuhpa, 48. 
Nunda, 108. 
Nundadasis, 139. 
Nundao, 108. 
Nundawao, 158, 257. 
Nundey, 108. 
Nundow, 108. 
Nuquiage, 204. 
Nushiona, 90. 
Nut island, 130. 
Nutten Hook, 84. 
Nyack, 188. 
Nyahgaah, 135. 
Nyahgarah, 135. 

Oageh, 83. 

Oak Neck, 218. 

Oak Orchard creek, 60, 167. 

Oakfield, 83. 

Oakinagaro, 134. 

Oatka, 118. 

Oatka creek, 83, 118, 257. 

Oattis creek, 173. 



Oblong creek, 58. 

O'Callaghan, E. B., cited, 275, 8, 22, 

58, 69, 84, 117, 128, 135, 153, 169, 

185, 232, 237, 250, 256. 
Occabauke, 218. 
( )ccanum, 28. 
( )ccapogue, 209, 218. 
Occombomock, 218. 
Occopogue, 210. 
Ochenang, 44. 
Ocbiarenty, 72. 
Ochjagara falls, 134. 
Ocbniondage, 125. 
Oclnieguen, 171. 

Ochoueguen, Riviere d', 36, 171. 
Ocbpeen, 250. 
Ochquichtok, 85. 
Ochriscany patent, 140. 
Ochriskeny creek, 140. 
Ochschugore, 152. 
Ochsechrage, 196. 
Ochseratonque, 196, 197. 
Ocitoc, 130. 
Ocquabauk, 218. 
Ocquango, 28. 
Ocquionis, 173. 
Odasquadossa, 32. 
Odasquawateh, 32. 
Odishkuaguma, 265. 
Odjibwa, 190. 
Odosagi, 2> 2 - 
Oeiatonneh^ngue, 171. 
Oeyendehit, 204. 
Ogabgwaahgeh, 66. 
Ogdensburg, 192. 
Ogeawatekae, 135. 
Ogharonde, 45. 
Oghgotacton, 163. 
Oghkwesea, 76. 
Oghnaweron, 259. 
Oghrackie, 125. 
Oghraro, 72. 
Oghregheroonge, 93. 
Oghrekyonny, 259. 
Oghroewakouh, 265. 
Oghronwakon, 265. 
Oghskawaseronhon, 258. 
Ogowanda, 31. 
Ogoyaga, 258. 
Ogsadago, 125. 

Ohadi, 108. 
Ohagi, 108. 
Oheeyo, 30, 32. - 

Ohegechrage, 108. 

Ohguesse, 76. 

Obhadaih, 108. 

Ohio, 24, 25, 32, 89, 93- 

Ohiokea, 114. 

Ohisha, 140. 

Ohisheh, 140. 

Ohiska, 140. 

Ohjeestwayana, 269. 

Ohnatatoonk, 147. 

Olinentaha, 143, 147. 

Ohnowalagantle, 199. 

Oliquage, 125. 

Ohronwagonh, 265. 

Ohsahaunytah-Seughkah, 147. 

Ohudcara, 118, 155. 

Oiekarontne, 101. 

Oiekaroutne, 192. 

Oil creek, 2>2>j I4 2 - 

Oil spring, 26. 

Oiogoen, 36. 

Oiogouen, 36. 

Oiogue, 125, 196, 238. 

Ojeenrudde, 72, 197. 

Ojequack, 101, 192. 

Ojibwa, 190. 

Ojikhadagega, 100. 

Okanagan river, 41. 

Okenock, 218. 

Okkanum, 28. 

Old Field point, 2Ti. 

Olehisk, 140. 

Olehiska, 140. 

Olhiske, 140. 

Olighinsipou, 25. 

Olive, 236. 

Onaghe, 157, 159. 

Onahe, 159. 

Onangwack creek, 235. 

Onannogiiska, 28, 50. 

Onas, 260. 

Onasgarixsus, 50. 

Onanweyoka, 267. 

Onawedake, 125. 

Onawyta, 114. 

Onchiota, 78. 

Oncongena, 201. 



Ondachoe, 204. 

Ondawa, 240. 

Ondcriguegon, 240. 

Ondewa, 72. 

Ondiara, 135. 

Oneacars, 135. 

Oneadalote, 72. 

Oneaga, 135. 

Oneagale, 135. 

Oneagara, 135. 

Oneaka, 135. 

Oneentadashe, 201. 

Onegarechny, 50. 

Onehchigeh, 118. 

Onehda, 107, 108, 159. 

Oneida, 112, 113, 137, 139. 

Oneida Castle, 112, 137, 138, 146. 

Oneida county, 137-42. 

Oneida creek, 114, 141. 

Oneida lake, 113, 114, 115, 141, 142, 

144, 146, 147. 150, 151, 152, 153. 

171, 172. 
Oneida river, 147, 148, 149, 150, 171, 

Oneida valley, 114. 
Oneidas, 138; council name, H3, 

139; name, 135; territory, 95, no, 

168, 172; villages, 137, 142. 
Oneigra, 134. 
Onciyout, 44. 
Oneiyuta, 139. 
Onekagoncka, 125. 
Onekio, 93. 
Onenyote, 258. 
Oneonta, 173. 
Oneotade, 108. 
Oneugioure, 125. 
Oneyagine, 201. 
Oneyda, lake, 149. 
Oneyda river, 140. 
Ongkoue, 179. 
Onguiaahra, River d', 134. 
Ongwehonwe, 191. 
Oniadarondaquat, 117. 
Oniagara, Falls of, 132, 134. 
Oniagorah, 134. 
Onida-hogo, 147. 
Onida-hogu, 147. 
Oniochrhonons, 139. 
Onioen, 36. 

Oniskethau creek, 22. 

Onistagrawa, 201. 

Onitstahragarawe, 201. 

Onjagera, 134. 

Onkeway, 179. 

Onkweiyede, 258. 

Onnachee, 159. 

Onnawadage, 91. 

Onneiout, 139. 

Onnisske, 72. 

Onnitstegraw, 201. 

Onnonkenritaoui, 104. 

Onnonta, 147. 

Onnontae, 147. 

Onnontaeronnons, 147. 

Onnontaghe, 147. 

Onnontagheronnons, 147. 

Onnontaguc', river, 169, 171. 

Onnontare, 36. 

Onoalagonena, 199. 

Onochjeruge, 28. 

Onochsae, 231, 261. 

Onock. 218. 

Onogariske creek, 50, 51. 

Onogerreah, 125. 

Onoghsadago, 32, 260. 

Onohagliquage, 28. 

Onohaglnvaga, 28. 

Onokaris, 50. 

Ononaughquaga, 28. 

Onondaga, 35, 113, 142, 147. 

Onondaga county, 142-54, 269-70. 

Onondaga creek, 145, 146, 148, 15T, 

Onondaga Falls, 171. 
Onondaga Hill, 144. 
Onondaga lake, 143, 146, 147, 148, 

154, 269. 
Onondaga river, 30, 51, 149, 171. 
Onondaga Valley, 152. 
Onondaga West Hill, 144, 151. 
Onondagas, name, 135 ; villages, 29, 

143 ; council name, 149 ; territory, 

95, 168. 
Onondage lake, 146. 
Onondahgegahgeh, 66. 
Onondaoh, 108. 
Onondarka, 26. 
Onondio, 265. 
Ononjote, 114, 139. 



Onontac, 147. 

Onontaeronons, 147. 

Onontague, 147. 

Onontiogas, 230. 

Onontioke, 265. 

Onontohen, 97. 

Ononwayea, 136. 

Onoquaga, 28. 

Onoronorum, 72. 

Onoto, 27, 28. 

Onowadagegh, 53. 

Onowanogawense, 51. 

Onox, 250. 

Onoyarenton, 173. 

Onoyuts, 139. 

Onqua, 179. 

Ontario, 135, 136, 174, 242. 

Ontario beach, 167. 

Ontario county, 154-60. 

Ontario, Lake, 118, 134, 135, 

156, 159, 169. 
Ontarogo, 66. 
Onteora Park, 85. 
Ontiahantague, 171. 
Ontikehomawck, 182. 
Ontiora, 85. 
Onundaga, 148. 
Onunogese, 148. 
Onyakarra, 135. 
O'nyiudaondagwat, 117. 
Ooststahakahhentah, 270. 
Oosunk, 218. 
Ootawanne, 91. 
Ootneyahhah, 70. 
Opalescent river, 70, 74. 
Opcatkontycke river, 218. 
Opishtikoiats, 265. 
Opistikoiats, 79. 
Oquaga, 28, 125. 
Oquago Lake, 28. 
Oquenock, 218. 
Oquonock, 218. 
Oraconenton, 192. 
Oracotenton, 192. 
Orakkie, 199. 
Orange county, 160-67. 
Orangetown, 188, 189. 
Orawack, 218. 

Oregon, 41, 81, 176, 238, 250. 
Orewake brook, 218. 


Orient, 220. 
Orienta, 256. 
Orisca, 114, 140. 
Oriscany creek, 140. 
Oriska, 114. 
Oriskany, 91, 114, 140. 
Oriskany creek, 138. 
Oriskeni patent, 140. 
Orleans county, 167-68. 
Oronnyhwurriegughre, 198. 
Orowuc, 218. 
Orrake, 199. 
Osahrahka, 196. 
Osakentake, 192. 
Osarhehan, 78. 
Osawack brook, 218. 
Oscahu, 261. 
Oscawana, 250. 
Osceola, 101, 177. 
Osco, 36. 

Oseetah lake, 78, 269. 
Osehasekeh, 140. 
Osenodus, 241. 
Oseragi, 196. 
Oserigooch, 148. 
Oseteadaque, 140. 
Osgochgo, 261. 
Oshamamucks, 218. 
Oshwakee, 171. 
Oskawana, 176. 
Osoawentha, 32. 
Osoayeh, 32. 
Osoontgeh, 83. 
Osquage, 125. 
Osquago, 93. 
Osquago creek, 125. 
Ossaragas, 196. 
Ossarague, 196. 
Osserrion, 125. 
Osseruenon, 125. 
Ossining, 250. 
Ostagrago, 125. 
Ostega, 174. 
Ostenha, 174. 
Ostenragowarionni, 140. 
Ostenwanne, 72. 
Ostickney, 148. 
Ostisco, 148. 
Ostonwachin, 261. 
Oswagatch, 101, 192. 



Oswaya creek, 26, 32. 
Osweege, Lake, 132. 
Osweego, 66. 
Osweego, Lake, 67, 171. 
Oswegatchie, 89, ior, 125, 192, 193, 

Oswegatchie river, 97. 
Oswego, 34, 56, 66, 171, 172, 174. 
Oswego county, 168-72. 
Oswego creek and hills, 51. 
Oswego Falls, 115, 144, 168, 169, 170. 
Oswego river, 36, 148, 150, 169, 171. 
Otago, 173. 
Otanasaga, 158. 
Otayachgo, 28. 
Otegegajake, 148. 
Otego, 173, 174. 
Otequehsahheeh, 148. 
Otesaga, 174. 
Oteseonteo, 54. 
Otiatannehengue, 171. 
Otihanague, 97. 
Otihatangue, 171. 
Otinaowatwa, 265. 
Otisco lake, 145, 148, 153. 
Otlincauke, 29. 
Otneyarh, 87. 
Otneyarheh, 70, 72. 
Otochshiaco, 159. 
Otondiata, 192, 193. 
Otoniata, 193. 
Otsandooske, 32. 
Otsdawa creek, 174. 
Otsega, 174. 
Otsego, 174. 
Otsego county, 172-75. 
Otsego creek, 174. 
Otselic, 44. 

Otselic river, 29, 44, 51, 114. 
Otseningo, 27, 28. 
Otsequotte, 140. 
Otsgaragee, 202. 
Otsgo creek, 174. 
Otsikwake, 193. 
Otsineange, 29. 
Otsiningo, 28, 50. 
Otskah lake, 148. 
Otskondaraogoo, 196. 
Otskwirakeron, 259. 
Otsquago, 93. 

Otsquago creeks, 125. 
Otsquene, 125. 
Otstonwackin, 261. 
Otstungo, 125. 
Ottawa, 266. 
Ottawa city, 265. 
Otter creek, 101. 
Otter lake, 36. 
Ouaquaga, 29. 
Ouaroronon, 136. 
Ouauweyoka, 267. 
Ouctanunda creek, 123. 
Ouheywichkingh, 218. 
Ouioenrhonons, 36. 
Oukorlah, 78. 
Ouleout, 53. 
Ouluska, 88. 
Ouluska pass, 79. 
Ounenaba, 105, 108. 
Ounontisaston, 136. 
Ounowarlah, 7$, 87. 
Outennessoneta, 97. 
Ovirka, 114. 
Owaeresouere, 202. 
Owahgehagah, 113. 
Owahgenah, 112, 114. 
Owaiska, 257. 
Owaiski, 26. 
Owarioneck, 53, 174. 
Owasco inlet, 35, 231. 
Owasco lake, 34, 36. 
Owasne, 193. 
Owassitannuck, 56. 
Owego, 115, 229, 230. 
Owego creek, 229. 
Owendiere, 199. 
Owerihowet, 174. 
Owheesta, 51. 
Owixa creek, 210, 219. 
Owlihout, 53. 
Oxbow bend, 97. 
Oxdenkeh, 259. 
Oxford, 44. 
Oxtdontee, 202. 
Oyataak, 48. 
Oyatuck, 48. 
Oyayehan, 149. 
Oyongwongyeh, 136. 
Oyonwayea, 136. 



Oyster Bay, 177, 178, 179, 180, 212, 

Oyster ponds, 220. 

Paanpaack, 182. 

Pacanasink lands, 235. 

Paehamitt, 250. 

Pachany Indians, 56. 

Pachonahellick, 22. 

Pachquayack, 85. 

Pachquiack, 85. 

Pacihsahcunk, 26, 207. 

Packaseeck, 235. 

Pagganck, 130. 

Paghsekacunk, 261. 

Paliatoc, 219. 

Pahehetock, 219. 

Pahhahoke, 182. 

Painted Post, 208. 

Pakadasank, 163. 

Pakakeing creek, 177. 

Pakasank, 163. 

Pakataghkan, 53. 

Pakatakan, 53. 

Palatine, 124, 125. 

Palisades, 264. 

Palmer, Peter S., cited, 275, 7^, 240, 

Palmyra, 241. 
Paltz creek, 161. 
Paltz Point, 234. 
Panawakee, 261. 
Pandowickrain, 56. 
Paneschcnakassick, 48. 
Panhoosick, 182. 
Pantuck, 219. 
Papagonk Indians, 235. 
Papakaing, 55. 
Papakeing kill, 56. 
Papakenea, 182. 
Papakunk, 53. 
Papaquanetuck, 45, 73. 
Papatunk, 53. 
Papirinimen, 250. 
Papolpogamak, 269. 
Papotunk branch, 53. 
Papparinemo, 250. 
Papsiekenekas, 182. 
Papskanee, 182. 
Paquannack river, 163. 

Paquintuck, 251. 

Paradox lake, 76. 

Paris, 265. 

Paris, Ontario, 266. 

Paris Hill, 138. 

Parker, Arthur C, cited, 275, 31, 32 

64, 83. 
Parker, Robert, cited, 275: 
Pasak brook, 163. 
Pasamacoosick, 85. 
Paskangasikma, 269. 
Pascack creek, 188. 
Pascack river, 53, 163. 
Pascakook, 85. 
Pascuuks creek, 217, 219. 
Paseckachcunk, 26. 
Paseckachkunk, 207. 
Pashimamsk, 219. 
Pasigachkunk, 26, 208. 
Paskangasikma, 269. 
Paskoecq, 85. 
Paskongammuc, 193. 
Paskongammuck, 79. 
Paskungemeh, 193. 
Pasquasheck, 251. 
Pasquashic, 251. 
Passaic, 263. 
Passaic falls, 264. 
Passapenock, 22. 
Passekawkung, 26, 208. 
Passigachgungli, 208. 
Passikatchkunk, 208. 
Passiriuachkunk, 26. 
Pastakook, 85. 
Patautunk creek, 235. 
Patchogue, 219. 
Patchummuck, 219. 
Pategwogamak, 269. 
Pategwogamasik, 269. 
Paterquos, 219. 
Patomus ridge, 251. 
Pattawassa lake, 182. - 
Patterson, 176, 263. 
Pattersquash, 219. 
Patthunck, 251. 
Pattkook, 48. 
Paucakatun, 219. 
Paucuckatnx, 219. 
Paucump, cited, 218. 
Paugctuck, 211, 219, 220. 



Paughcaughnaughsink, 163. 

Paulus Hook, 263. 

Paumanack, 219. 

Paunskapham, 251. 

Pauquaconsit, 219. 

Pauquaconsuck, 219. 

Pauquacumsuck, 219. 

Pawachta tract, 235, 236. 

Pawlet river, 240. 

Payaquotusk, 219. 

Peachtown, 34. 

Peaconnet, 220. 

Peadadasank creek, 163. 

Peakins Neck, 219. 

Pearson, Jonathan, cited, 275, 21, 122, 

198, 199. 
Peasqua creek, 187, 188. 
Peauke, 219. 
Pecepunk meadows, 220. 
Pechquinakonck, 251. 
Peconasink, 163. 
Peconic bay, 223. 
Peconic river, 216, 219. 
Peekskill, 253. 
Peekskill, creek at, 247. 
Peemehannink, 26. 
Peenpack, 163. 
Peeteeweemowquesepo, 97. 
Peezeko lake, 90. 
Pehaconnuck, 220. 
Peheconnacke, 220. 
Pehquennakonck, lake, 251. 
Pekadasank, 163. 
Pekkemeck, 100. 
Pekonasink creek, 163. 
Pelham, 244, 247, 248, 253, 255. 
Pelletreau, William S., cited, 275, 212. 
Pembroke, 83. 
Pemidhanuck, 26. 
Pempotawuthut, 22. 
Pempotowwuthut-Muhhecaneuw, 22. 
Pemrepogh, 263. 
Penabick, 130. 
Penataquit, 220. 
Pendanick Reen, 56. 
Penet's patent, 95. 
Penhansen's land, 164. 
Peningoe, 252. 
Peningoe tract, 252. 
Pennsylvania. 260-62. 

Pcoquanackqua, 85. 

Peoria, 23, 257. 

Pepachton river, 53. 

Pepacton, 53. 

Pepemighting, 251. 

Peperiniman, 250. 

Peppenegkek creek, 251. 

Peppensghek, 251. 

Pequaockeon, 219. 

Pequash, 220. 

Pequot Mills, 251. 

Pereghanduck, 251. 

Perigo hill, 182. 

Perrysburg, 268. 

Peru, 45. 

Peruck, 188. 

Peseka, 87. 

Pesquanachqua, 85. 

Petanock, 182. 

Petaonbough, ~^, 240. 

Petawabouque, y^, 240. 

Petite Famine, la, 170. 

Petow-pargow, 73, 240. 

Petowahco, 7^> 2 4°- 

Petuquapaen, 244, 251. 

Petuquapoen, 182. 

Pharaoh, Mt, 72. 

Pharaoh lake, 72. 

Philadelphia, 260, 261. 

Philipse, mentioned, 253. 

Philipseborough, 254. 

Phoenix, 170. 

Piaconnock river, 209, 210, 220. 

Picipsi, 56. 

Pickering, Col. Timothy, cited, 275, 

Pickwacket lake, 90. 
Pietawickquasick, 56. 
Pietawisquassic, 56. 
Pilling, James C, cited, 275, 6. 
Pine Plains, 54, 57. 
Pine swamp, 58. 
Pipe's Neck creek, 213. 
Piscawen creek, 183. 
Piseco lake, 90. 
Pissapunke meadows, 220. 
Pissaumatoonk, 85. 
Pistakook, 85. 
Pitkiskaker, 164. 
Pittowbagonk, ~J2>, 2 4°- 



Pittstown, 182, 185. 

Pituquapaug, 244. 

Piwaket lake, 90. 

Planchc, R. de la, 172. 

Plattekill, 235. 

Plattsburg, 45, 80. 

Pleasant pond, 228. 

Plum creek, 91. 

Plum point, 161. 

Pocampacak, 183. 

Pocanteco, 256. 

Pocanteco creek, 251. 

Pocatocton, 188. 

Pochough Indians, 219. 

Pochuck creek, 164, 235. 

Pockcotessewake, 252. 

Pockeotessen creek, 252. 

Pockerhoe, 252. 

Pockestersen, 252. 

Podunk, 220. 

Podunk brook, 240. 

Poepskenekoes, 182. 

Poggatacut, 220. 

Poghkeepke, 56. 

Poghquag, 56. 

Pogkeepke, 56. 

Pohkepaug, 56. 

Pohkituckut, 252. 

Pohoqualin, 162. 

Pohotasack creek, 252. 

Point aux Iroquois, 191. 

Point Squenonton, 45. 

Pokeepsinck, 56. 

Poke-o-moonshine mountain, y$. 

Pokipsie, 56. 

Pokuizasne, 269. 

Pokuizasnenepes, 269. 

Polipel, 164. 

Pollepel, 164. 

Pollopel's island, 164. 

Pompanuck, 240. 

Pompeton falls, 164. 

Pompey, 142, 148. 

Pompey hill, 143. 

Pompon ick creek, 48. 

Pompton, 263. 

Ponchuck mountain, 164. 

Ponckhockie, 235. 

Poney Hollow, 232. 

Poningoe, 252. 

Ponokose hill, 183. 

Ponquogue, 220. 

Pontiac village, 66. 

Ponus, 252. 

Pooghkepesingh, 55, 56. 

Pooploop's kill, 164. 

Poosepatuck, 220. 

Poospatuck Indians, 215. 

Popachton branch, 53. 

Popacton, 53. 

Poplopen's pond, 164. 

Popsheny, 182. 

Popsick pond, 56. 

Poquag, 56. 

Poquampacak, 183. 

Poquatuck, 220. 

Poquott, 220. 

Port Jefferson, 224. 

Port Jervis, 161. 

Port Ontario, 172. 

Portageville, 104. 

Portland, 38. 

Pos*> Charles Frederick, cited, 24-25. 

Potake, 189. 

Potamiskassick, 85. 

Pothat, 189. 

Potick, 85. 

Potier, cited, 32. 

Potiticus, 252. 

Potomac river, 172, 267. 

I'' itpocka, 263. 

Potquassick, 183. 

Potsdam, 194. 

Pottkoke, 48. 

Potuck, 220. 

Potuck creek, 164. 

Potunk island, 220. 

Pouchot, M., cited, 276, 97, 106, 107, 

132, 170; map of, 31, 40, 43, 54, 62, 

65, 97, 104, 107, 108, 174, 204, 207, 

230, 241. 
Poughgaick, 56. 
Poughkeepsie, 56. 
Poughkeepsie creek, 56. 
Poundridge, 255. 
Powell, George R., cited, 276. 
Powell, J. W., cited, 276, 68, 76, 207. 
Pownall, Thomas, cited, 276, 69-70, 

73, 75, 88, 103, 118, 239, 240. 
Poxabogue, 220. 



Poyhas, 221. 

Preble, 50. 

Presentation, la, mission of, 192. 

Presque Isle, 64. 

Proctor, Col. Thomas, cited, 276, 25, 

26, 108. 
Prospect hill, 126. 
Prylaeus, cited, 29. 
Psanticoke, 183. 
Ptukhican, 183. 
Puckquashi Neck, 220, 221. 
Puegkandico creek, 251. 
Pulaski, 169. 

Pumpkin Hook creek, 240. 
Pussapanum, 252. 
Pussatanum, 252. 
Putnam county, 176-77. 
Putnam Valley, 176. 

Quachanock, 86. 
Quackansick, 183. 
Quagquaont, 221. 
Quahaug, 252. 
Quahemiscos, 196. 
Qua jack, 86. 
Quanelos, 57. 
Quaningquious, 57. 
Quaningquois, 57. 
Quannotowouck, 221. 
Quant uc bay, 221. 
Quaotuac, 179. 
Quaquanantuck, 221. 
Quaquantucke meadow, 221. 
Quaquenantack, 221. 
Quaquendena, 149, 169. 
Quaquendenalough, 142. 
Quaroppas, 252. 
Quash Neck, 221. 
Quasha Neck, 220, 221. 
Quaspeck, 189. 
Quassaic creek, 235. 
Quassaick, 164. 
Quassaick creek, 164. 
Quassick patent, 164. 
Quatavvichnaack, 86. 
Quean ettquaga, 203. 
Quebec, 79, 265, 266. 
Quebec pond, 79. 
Quebeio, 79. 
Queechy, 48. 

Queens county, 177-80. 
Quelibec, 79. 
Quenischachachki, 29. 
Quenischachgekhanne, 29. 
Quequenakee, 261. 
Quequick, 183. 
Querapoquett, 57. 
Quicksea, 103, 108. 
Quiehook, 149, 170. 
Quinnahung, 252. 
Quinte, 265. 
Quinte, Bay of, 107. 
Quiogue, 221. 
Quiqueck falls, 183. 
Quissichkook, 48. 
Quitquekeenock, 86. 
Qunnuhque, 57. 
Quogue, 221. 
Quohock, 149. 
Qussucqunsuck, 221. 

Racket lake, 89. 
Raconcomey plains, 221. 
Racowa beach, 179. 
Ragawasinck, 235. 
Ragged lake, 89. 
Raghshongh creek, 51. 
Rahonaness, 252. 
Ramachkenanck, 189. 
Ramapo, 164, 188, 189. 
Ramapo river, 187. 
Ramapough, 189. 
Ramspook, 189, 263. 
Ranachque, 252. 
Ranatshaganha, 183. 
Rand, cited, 222. 
Rapahamuck, 221, 249. 
Rapalje, George, mentioned, 100. 
Raphoos, 235. 
Raquette lake, 89, 194. 
Raquette river, 78, 80, 192, 193. 
Raraghenhe, 149. 
Raraque, 253. 
Raritan, 263. 

Raritan Great Meadows, 263. 
Rasende brook, 189. 
Raseokan, 222. 
Rasepeague, 221. 
Rassaweak orac, 221. 
Rassawig, 221. 



Rassedot, 93. 
Ratiocon, 222. 
Rattaconeck, 222. 
Rattaconeck lands, 222. 
Rattlesnake island, 63. 
Rawle, William, cited, 16. 
Raxetoth, 93. 
Raymondville, 194. 
Rechkawyck, 179. 
Rechkawick, 100. 
Rechtauck, 130. 
Rechwuwhatky, 179. 
Reckonhacky, 179. 
Reckowacky, 179. 
Red Bridge, 63. 
Red Hook, 58, 99. 

Red Jacket, mentioned, 203; reinter- 
ment of, 276; village, 67. 
Reed creek, 224. 
Regiochne, 73. 
Regiochne point, 89. 
Regioghne, 73. 
Rehanadisse, 126. 
Reichel, cited, 262. 
Reid, W. Max, cited, 276, 119, 123- 
Rennegaconck, 100. 
Rensselaer county, 181-85. 
Rcskkewack, 100. 
Reuna, 87, 190. 
Rewechgawanancks, 189. 
Rewechnongh, 189. 
Rewechnonghs, 189. 
Rhinebeck, 57. 
Richelieu river, 265. 
Richmond county, 186. 
Richmond Hill, 128. 
Rimac, 107. 
Rinnegackonck, 100. 
Rioncomhe, 222. 
Rippowams, 253. 

Riverhead, 209, 210, 215, 218, 222. 
Roanoke, 83. 
Roanoke point, 222. 
Roanoke river, 267. 
Robert's island, 209. 
Robin's island, 209. 
Rochester, 115, 116, 118, 233, 234, 235 
Rockaway, 179. 
Rockaway Indians, 179. 

Rockland, 229. 
Rockland county, 186-89. 
Rodsio, Lake, 73. 
Rodsio-Canyatare, 73. 

Rogeo, 73-74- 

Rogers' Slide, 237. 

Roghquanondago, 74, 238. 

Rome, 141. 

Romer, Col., cited, 146; map, 144, 146, 
149; mentioned, 158, 159. 

Romulus, 204, 205. 

Ronconcoa, 222. 

Ronconcoma, lake, 210, 213, 225. 

Roncnnquaway, 222. 

Rondahacks, 125. 

Rondout creek, 228, 232, 234. 

Rondout kill, 235. 

Rondoxe, 93. 

Ronkonkoma, 221, 222. 

Ronkonkumake, 222. 

Ross, Maj. John, cited, 112. 

Ross, Peter, cited, 276, 212. 

Rottsiichni, 74. 

Round lake, 197. 

Round pond, 269. 

Round Top, 86. 

Royalton Center, 135. 

Rugua swamp, 222. 

Runbolt's Run, 164, 166. 

Rundigut, 117. 

Rungcatamy lands, 222. 

Runonvea, 43. 

Runscatamy lands, 222. 

Runtacot, 167. 

Rutger's Place, 164. 

Rutkys. 164. 

Ruttenber, Edward M., cited, 276, 16, 
20-24, 47-49, 54-56, 58, 59- 83, 84, 
86, 99, 128, 130, 131, 160-66, 176, 
178, 181, 183-89, 196, 198, 199, 210, 
212, 216, 217, 218, 222, 228, 232, 234, 
235, 243, 245-53, 263, 264. 

Rye, 243, 245, 248, 252. 

Rye Neck, 243. 

Rye Woods, 245. 

Saaskahampka, 48. 

Sabattis, mentioned, 45, 71, 73, 79, 80. 

192, 193, 195, 237, 240, 268, 269. 
Sabattis mountain, 90. 



Sabele, cited, 72,, 74, 88, 237, 238, 239, 

240, 241. 
Sabonas, 222. 
Sachem creek, 253. 
Sachendaga, 23, 81. 
Sachkera, 253. 
Sachus, 253. 
Sackahampa, 48. 
Sackama Wicker, 253. 
Sackaponock, 222. 
Sackett tract, 57. 
Sackett"s lake, 59. 
Sacketts Harbor, 96. 
Sackhoes, 253. 
Sackwahung river, 253. 
Sacondaga, 81, 90, 196. 
Sacondaga lake, 81. 
Sacondaga river, 88. 
Sacrahung river, 253. 
Sacunyte Napucke, 253. 
Sacut, 179. 
Sadachqueda, 141. 
Sadaghqueda, 141. 
Sadaquada, 141. 
Sadaquoit creek, 141. 
Sag Harbor, 222. 
Sagabonack, 222. 
Sagamore, 238. 
Sagamore lake, 177. 
Sagaponack, 222. 
Sagawannah, 202. 
Sager's kill, 232, 233. 
Sagg, 222. 
Saghtokoos, 222. 
Sagoghsaanagechtheyky, 149. 
Sagohara, 92. 
Sagtakos, 222. 
Sahankaimsoick, 184. 
Saheh, 149. 
Sahiquage, 66, 67. 
Sahkaqua, 48. 
Sahquate, 141. 
St Anthony, 74. 
St Catharine, 264. 
St Francis, Lake, 77, 190, 206. 
St James, 223. 
St Johnsville, 119. 
St Lawrence county, 180-94. 
St Lawrence river, 96, 190. 
Saint Louys, lake of, 134. 

St Michel, 156. 

St Regis, 76, 77, 189. 

St Regis lake, 269. 

St Regis reservation, 269. 

St Rene, 36. 

S. Sacrement, lake of, 69. 

Sainturich mill, 184. 

Sakackqua, 48. 

Sakahqua, 48. 

Sakaqua, 57. 

Sakorontakehtas, 79. 

Sakunk Napiock, 253. 

Salasanac, 45. 

Salina, 146, 152. 

Salmon creek, 115, 169, 231. 

Salmon river, 77, 78, 95, 168, 169, 170, 

171, 192. 
Sampaumes Neck, 222. 
Sampawams, 222. 
San Coick, 183, 184, 185. 
Sanago, 23. 
Sanatatea, 19, 23. 
Sand Lake, 182. 
Sandanona, 74, 88. 
Sanders, Robert, cited, 160, 163; 

mentioned, 161. 
Sandusky, 32. 

Sandy creek, 95, 97, 118, 167, 168, 172. 
Sandy Hook, 186, 263. 
Sandy Plains, 84, 86. 
Sandy town, 67. 
Sangerfield, 141. 
Sanhagag, 23. 
Sankanissick, 183. 
Sankhenak, 48. 
Sankhicans, 263. 
Sankhoick, 181, 183. 
Sankikani, 129. 
Sannahagog, 184. 
Sanneganstlet, 44. 
Sannio, 36. « 

Sanson, map, 125. 
Santapauge, 222. 
Santapog, 222. 
Santepogue Neck, 222. 
Sapanakock, 86. 
Saperwack, 253. 
Sapohanican, 131. 
Sapohannickan, 131. 
Sapokanickan, 100, 131. 



Sapokanikan, 131. 

Saponanican, 129. 

Saponeys, 232. 

Saporackam, 100. 

Sappokanican, 131. 

Sappokanike, 131. 

Saproughah, 253. 

Saraghoga, 196. 

Saraghtoga, 197. 

Saraghtoge, 197. 

Saraghtogo, 197. 

Saragtoga, 89. 

Saragtoge, 197. 

Saranac, 45, 268. 

Saranac, Upper, 80. 

Saranac lakes, 79, 80, 193; lower, 77, 
78; middle, 79. 

Saranac river, 45. 

Sarastau, 197. 

Saratoga, 71, 194, 195, 196. 

Saratoga county, 194-98. 

Saratoga lake, 195. 

Saratoga patent, 196, 198. 

Saratoga Springs, 195. 

Sarrack, 189. 

Sasquehannocks, 30. 

Sasquesahannocks, 30. 

Sassachem creek, 253. 

Sassian's cornfields, 100. 

Sateiyienon, 54. 

Sateiyienon, lake, 174. 

Saugatuck river, 223. 

Saugerties, 85. 

Saugust Neck, 223. 

Sauquart, 141. 

Sauquoit, 138. 

Sauquoit creek, 141. 
Sauthier, map, 276, 29, 45, 48, 53, 54, 
57, 77, 81, 92, 95, 96, no, 119, 127, 
138, 140, 141, 142, 149, 164, 169, 172, 
174, 1/5, 176, 182, 183, 185, 189, 195, 
227, 228, 246, 247, 266. 
Sautipauge, 222. 
Sauyon, 205. 
Sawanock, 270. 
Sawmill creek, 55, 249. 
Sawyer's kill, 236. 
Scaghticoke, 182. 
Scaghticoke Indians, 240. 
Scahandowana, 261. 

Scajaquady, 65. 

Scanandanani, 173. 

Scaniaderiada, 89. 

Scaniadoris, 114. 

Scaniatores, Lac, 150. 

Scanitice, 155. 

Scarsdale, 252. 

Scaughwunk, 184. 

Scauwaga, 205. 

Scauyz, 205. 

Scawas, 205. 

Scawyace, 205. 

Schaghnacktaada, 199-200. 

Schaghticoke, 184. 

Schanatissa, 125. 

Schanhectade, 198. 

Schanwemisch, 164. 

Scharf, Thomas, cited, 276, 243, 244, 
247, 251, 256. 

Schatacoin, 40. 

Schauhtecogue, 184. 

Schenavies, 175. 

Schenectady, 23, 198, 199, 200. 

Schenectady county, 198-200. 

Schenevus, 175. 

Schepinaikonck, 235. 

Schepmoes kill, 131. 

Schiechpi, 264. 

Schio, 29, 44, 51. 

Schodack, 181, 184. 

Schoharie, 202. 

Schoharie county, 201-2. 

Schoharie creek, 70, 124, 125, 126, 200, 
201, 202. 

Schoneistade, 200. 

Schonowe, 200. 

Schoolcraft, Henry R., cited, 276, 16, 
10-23, 39, 42, 45, 48, 55, 56, 61, 69, 
75, 76, 78, 79, 84, 85, 94, 99, 108, 
122, 128-31, 152, 155, 159, 162, 163, 
165, 166, 173, 174, 181, 184, 186, 188, 
196, 198, 213, 225, 228, 236, 243-45, 
254, 259, 262, 263. 

Schotack, 184. 

Schout's bay, 178, 180. 

Schoyerre, 205. 

Schroon, 239. 

Schroon lake, 69, 74, 238, 239. 

Schroon mountain, 74, 239. 

Schroon river, 237, 239. 



Schunemunk, 165. 
Schunemunk mountains, 165. 
Schuyler, Capt. John, cited, 276, 45, 

71, 72, 240. 
Schuyler, 93. 
Schuyler county, 203. 
Schuyler's lake, 172, 173. 
Schuyler's Vly, 58. 
Schuylerville, 196. 
Schwonnack, 131, 263. 
Scomotion, 45. 
Scompamuck, 48. 
Scompomick, 48. 

Scott, Rev. Charles, cited, 276, 165. 
Scottsville, 118 
Scowarocka, 197. 
Scoyguquoides, 65. 
Screcunkas, 224. 
Scretches river, 223. 
Scriba creek, 170. 
Scunnemank hills, 189. 
Scuraway Neck, 223. 
Seacotauk, 223. 
Seacutang, 179. 
Seascawany Neck, 223. 
Seatalcot, 223. 
Seatawcott, 223. 
Seatuck, 223. 

Seaver, James E., cited, 276, no, 258. 
Sebonac, 223. 
Secatogue Indians, 223. 
Secaughkung, 208. 
Secoutagh, 223. 
Seeungut, 66. 
Segongenon, 239. 
Sehavus, 175. 
Sektanic, 23. 
Semesseeck, 184. 
Semesseerse, 182, 184. 
Senasqua meadow, 249. 
Senasqua Neck, 253. 
Senatsycrossy, 126. 
Seneca, 158, 159, 203, 204-5. 
Seneca county, 203-5. 
Seneca creek, 65. 
Seneca Falls, 205. 
Seneca Hill, 172. 
Seneca lake, 158, 159, 258. 
Seneca river, 36, 37, 148, 149, 242. 

Senecas, 155, 158, 204-5; Da v of, 116; 

linguistic work, 6; name, 156, 160; 

villages, 60, 101. 
Seneke lake, 159. 
Seneks, 223. 
Senexe, 261. 
Seneyaughquan, 165. 
Senhahlone, 45, 80, 268. 
Senkapogh creek, 165. 
Senongewok, 239. 
Sensinick, 253. 
Seodose, 241, 242. 
Sepackena, 253. 
Sepasco lake, 57. 
Sepascot Indians, 57. 
Sepeachim creek, 253. 
Sepeskenot, 57. 
Sepparak, 253. 
Sepperack creek, 255. 
Sequetanck Indians, 179. 
Serindac, 45. 
Seshequin, 230. 
Setauket, 223. 
Setuck, 223. 
Seughka, 150. 
Seuka, 150, 172. 
Seungut, 62. 
Seven Mile island, 17,. 
Sewakanamie, 235. 
Sewanhacky, 100. 
Seward, 201. 
Seweyrue, 253. 
Sgachnechtatichrohne, 259. 
Sgadynhgwadih, 65. 
Sgahisgaaah, 109. 
Saganatees, 112, 114. 
Sganiataiees, 36, 150. 
Sganiateratiehrohne, 28. 
Sganyiudais, 155. 
Sgohsaisthah, 118. 
Sgosaisthoh, 118. 
Shackarackoungha, 126. 
Shackook, 183. 
Shaganahgahgeh, 66. 
Shagwango, 223. 
Shagwong point, 223. 
Shaiyus, 205. 
Shakameco, 57. 
Shamokin, 262. 
Shamunk, 42. 



Shanahasgwaikon creek, 26. 

Shanandhoi, 197. 

Shanandhot, 195, 197. 

Shandaken, 235. 

Shanscomacocke, 100. 

Shappequa, 253. 

Shappequa hills, 254. 

S'harlatoga, 196. 

Shaseounse, 205. 

Shatemuc, 244, 254. 

Shawango Neck, 223. 

Shawangum, 165. 

Shawangunk, 161, 165, 166, 229. 

Shawangunk mountains, 165, 167, 

227. ' 
Shawankonck, 162. 
Shawmut, 266. 
Shawnatawty, 23. 
Shawnee, 136. 
Shea, John G., cited, 276. 
Sheaggen, 43, 230. 
Sheepschack, 184. 
Shegwiendawkwe, 70, 74. 
Sheik's island, 193. 
Shekomeko, 46, 57. 
Shekomeko creek, 54. 
Sheldrake Point, 204. 
Shelter Island, 209, 213, 214, 219. 
Shenandoah, 57, 195. 
Shenango, 260. 
Shenanwaga, 160, 258. 
Shenawaga, 160. 
Shendara, 205. 
Sheniva creek, 175. 
Shenivas, 175. 
Shenondehowa, 195, 197. 
Shenshechonck, 236. 
Sheoquago, 203. 
Shequaga, 203. 
Sherawog, 223. 
Sherburne, 44. 
Sheshesquin, 262. 
Sheyickbi, 264. 
Shikellimy, 262. 
Shimango, 42. 
Shinacau bay, 223. 
Shingabawossins, 254. 
Shinhopplc, 53. 
Shinnecock, 223. 
Shinnecock hills, 209, 223. 

Shippam, 254. 
Shokaken, 53, 236. 
Shokakin, 52. 
Shokan, 236. 
Shongo, 26. 

Shonnard, Frederic, cited, 276. 
Shonojowaahgeh, 108. 
Shononkeritaoui, 104. 
Shorackappock, 254. 
Shorackkapock kill, 254. 
Shorakapkock, 254. 
Shughquago, 203. 
Shute, cited, 156. 
Siases Neck, 223. 
Sickenanes, 204. 
Sicketeuhacky, 179. 
Sicketeuwhacky, 179. 
Sickham, 254. 
Sidaghqueda, 141. 
Siekrewhacky, 223. 
Sieskasin, 86. 
Sietiostenrahre, 126. 
Sigghes, 247, 254. 
Siketeuhacky, 223. 
Silver Creek, 40. 
Silver lake, 54, 56, 257. 
Simewog hills, 177. 
Simms, Jeptha R., cited, 276-77, 30, 
81, 119, 122, 123, 125, 197, 201, 202. 
Sin Sink, 42. 
Sinai, Mount, 218. 
Sinako, 205. 
Sinckhaick, 183. 
Sineca lake, 204. 
Sing Sing, 250, 253. 
Sinhalonenncpus, 80. 
Sinkapogh creek, 165. 
Sinksink, 246, 250. 
Sinnamon, 254. 
Sinneke, 204. 
Sinnondowaene, 108, 160. 
Sinsipink lake, 166. 
Sintinck, 254. 
Sintsinck, 178, 180, 254. 
Sintyck, 183. 
Sioascock, 254. 
Siocits, 180. 
Sisquchanne, 29, 175. 
Sistogoact, 27. 
Siwanoys, 254. 



Sixmile creek, 231. 
Sjaunt, 109. 

Skaachkook Indians, 184. 
Skaankook, 49. 
Skaanpook, 49. 
Skacktege, 184. 
Skaghnetade, 23. 
Skahasegao, 109. 
Skahnndowa, 54. 
Skanadario, 155. 
Skanandoa creek, 141. 
Skanawis, 141. 
Skaneadalis, 150. 
Skaneadice, 150, 155. 
Skaneateles, 150, 151, 155. 
Skaneateles creek, 144. 
Skaneateles lake, 51. 
Skaneatice, 155. 
Skaneatice lake, 155. 
Skaneaties, 150. 
Skaneghtada, 23. 
Skanehtade, 23. 
Skanentgraksenge, 266. 
Skaneodalis, 150. 
Skaneodice, 150. 
Skanetahrowahna, 74. 
Skanetoghrowa, 241. 
Skannatati, 23. 
Skannayntenate, 205. 
Skanodario, 136. 
Skanusunk, 141. 
Skanyadaratiha, 266. 
Skaunataty river, 183. 
Skaurora, 136. 
Skawaghestenras, 29, 54. 
Skawaisla, 114. 
Skeemonk, 42. 
Skehneahties, 150. 
Skehneaties, 151. 
Skendyoughgwatti, 65. 
Skenectadea, 23. 
Skensowane, 94. 
Skmowahco, 239. 
Sknoonapus, 74, 239. 
Skoharle, 126, 202. 
Skoiyase, 205. 
Skonanoky, 166. 
Skonemoghky, 165. 
Skonowahco, 74. 
Skonyateles, 150. 

Skookquams, 224. 

Skoonnenoghky, 189. 

Skosaisto, 118. 

Skowhiangto, 29. 

Skunandowa, 141. 

Skwedowa, 43. 

Sluyt Hoeck, 84. 

Smack's island, 23. 

Smith, H. P., cited, 277, 70, 75. 

Smith, P. II., cited, 277. 

Smith, Capt. John, 30, 224. 

Smithtoun, 210, 212, 217, 219, 221, 

223, 225, 226. 
Smoke's creek, 62. 
Snakapins, 254. 
Snake hill, 163, 263. 
Snakehole creek, 165. 
Sneackx island, 2j. 
S'nhalonek, 268. 
Socakatuck, 255. 
Sodeahlowanake, 44. 
Sodoms, 242. 
Sodons, 242. 
Sodus, 36, 241, 242. 
Sodus bay, 241, 242. 
Sodus bay creek, 242. 
Soegasti, 192. 
Soenthatin, 23. 
Soghniejadie, 175. 
Sohahhee, 151. 
Sohanidisse, 126. 
Sohkenumnippe, 239. 
Somers, 243, 249. 
Somerset, 133. 
Sompawams swamp, 222. 
Sonnechio, 106. 
Sonnonthonorons, 160. 
Sonnontouan, 109, 118, 160. 
Sonnontouans, 160. 
Sonnquoquas, 224. 
Sonojowauga, 108. 
Sonontoen, 160. 
Sonyea, 109. 
Sopers, 180, 233. 
Sopus, 233. 
South bay, 217. 
South Cairo, 85, 86. 
South Chuctenunda creek, 127, 198. 
South Haven, 226. 
South mountains, 162. 



South Onondaga, 153. 

Southampton, 209, 210, 211, 212, 215, 
218, 220, 221, 224, 225, 226. 

Southeast, 176, 177. 

Southold, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 
217, 219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 225, 

Southold bay, 224. 

Souvhwick, Solomon, cited, 229. 

Sowassett, 224. 

Sowego, 172. 

Spafford, Horatio G., cited, 277, 19, 
20, 22, 24, 30, 31, 38, 42, 48-49, 53, 
55, 56, 69, 74, 75. 81, 84, 90, 106, 
108, 112, 113, 116, 117, 120, 122, 
124, 141, 147, 148, 150, 155. 163, 
165, 167, 184, 185, 187, 195, 196, 
198, 199, 202, 205, 217, 222, 223, 
225, 228, 230, 234, 235. 240. 

Spangenberg, A. G., cited, 277, 50, 
148, 201, 230, 261. 

Spanish hill, 230. 

Spectacle lakes, 80. 

Speonk, 224. 

Spooner, W., cited, 276. 

Spragg's land, 58. 

Sprain river, 243. 

Sprakers, 125, 127. 

Spring hill, 202. 

Spuyten Duyvil creek, 250. 

Squagonna, 242. 

Squakie Hill, 104, 105, 109. 

Squatn Pit purchase, 224. 

Squam purchase, 224. 

Squampaaniac, 49. 

Squampanoc, 49. 

Squash pond, 94. 

Squaw island, 62. 

Squaw lake, 94. 

Squawsucks, 224. 

Squayenna, 36. 

Squeaugheta, 32, 33. 

Squeononton, 45. 

Squier, cited, 96; mentioned, 205. 

Squinanton, 45. 

Srccunkas, 224. 

Staata, 151. 

Staats, mentioned, 166. 

Stafford, 82, 83. 

Stamford, 253. 

Staten Island, 09, 186, 243. 

Stehahah, 151. 

Steuben county, 206-8. 

Stichtekook, 86. 

Stickney, Charles E., cited, 277. 

Stighkook, 86. 

Stiles, Henry M., cited, 277, 98. 

Stirling, lord, patent, 220. 

Stissing mountain, 58. 

Stissing mountain and pond, 57. 

Stockbridgc Indians, no, 182. 

Stoddert, cited, 264. 

Stoke creek, 232. 

Stone, William L., cited, 277, 71, 82, 

Stone, Arabia, 123. 
Stone creek, 201. 
Stony brook, 215, 221, 252. 
Stony creek, 96. 
Stony Point, 188. 
Stony Point tract, 189. 
Street. Alfred I!., cited. 36, 2 
Street. Charles R., cited, 277. 
Strong, Nathaniel T., mentioned, 60; 

cited, 277, 61, 62, 64. 
Strong's Xeck, 211, 215. 
Success pond, 179. 
Suckabone, 255. 
Suckebouk, 255. 
Suckebout, 255. 
Suckchonk, 255. 
Suffolk county, 209-27. 
Sugar creek, 261. 
Suggamuck, 221, 224. 
Sullivan. John, mentioned, 15, 35, 43, 

66, 102, 103, 106, 155, 156, 157, 158, 

174, 258. 
Sullivan county, 227-29. 
Summit lake, 54, 202. 
Sunbury, 262. 
Sunckhagag, 23. 
Sunnuckhig, 180. 
Sunquams, 224. 
Sunswick, 180. 
Susquehanna, 29, 30. 
Susquehanna river, 27, 28, 29, 53. 

172, 173, 175, 257, 261, 262. 
Suwanoes, 254. 
Swageh, 171. 
Swageh river, & 



Swahyawanah, 205. 

Swaneckes, 131. 

Swaskahamuka, 48. 

Sweegassie, 192. 

Sweege, 66, 67, 264. 

Swegaachey, 192. 

Swegage, 192. 

Swegatchie, 192. 

Swegatsky, 192. 

Swenochsoa, 151, 154. 

Swenoga, 151. 

Swenughkee, 151. 

Syejodenawadde, 123, 126. 

Sykuse, 146. 

Sylvester. Nathaniel B., cited, 277, 
19. 27, 69, 70, 71, 75, 78, 79, 90, 93, 
112, 138. 194, 195, 197, 199, 240. 

Syosset, 180, 223. 

Sypous, 232. 

Syracuse, 144, 145, 146, 147, 154. 

Tabigicht, 86. 
Table mountains, 144. 
Tacahkanick, 49. 
Tachannike, 49. 
Tackawasick creek, 185. 
Tacolago lake, 90. 
Tacoma, 54. 
Taconic, 49. 
Taegarondies, 118. 
Taescameasick, 185. 
Tagachsanagechti, 149. 
Tagaote, 136. 
Tagasoke, 141. 
Taghkanic mountains, 185. 
Taghkanick, 49, 58, 236. 
Taghkanick mountains, 57, 241. 
Taghroonwago, 27. 
Tagpokigt, 86. 
Taguneda, 151. 
Tahawus, 74, 87. 
Tahtenenyones, 151. 
Tahteyohnyahhah, 151. 
Takkichenon, 49. 
Takoayenthaqua, 151. 
Takundewide, 241. 
Talaquega, 94. 
Tamaqua, 177. 
Tamarack swamp, 241. 
Tammany, 255. 

Tammoesis, 255. 

Tamshenakassick, 185. 

Tanawadeh, 80, 193. 

Tanawunda creek, 67, 83, 136. 

Tanendahowa, 197. 

Taneodaeh, 75. 

Tanewawa, 266. 

Tanighnaquanda, 206. 

Tanketenkes, 255. 

Tankhanne, 58. 

Tanner, John, cited, 190. 

Tanochioragon, 115. 

Tanowandeh, 136. 

Tanrackan creek, 253, 255. 

Tantiketes, 255. 

Tanunnogao, 67. 

Tappaen, 255. 

Tappan, 189. 

Tappan bay, 255. 

Tappan Indians, territory, 186. 

Tappantown, 189. 

Taquashquieck, 58. 

Taracton, 86. 

Tarajorhies, 126. 

Taraktons, 86. 

Tarento, 266. 

Tarrytown, 243, 253. 

Tashammick, 58. 

Tatamuckatakis creek, 224. 

Tatamunehese Neck, 224. 

Tat(.sowehneahaqua, 151. 

Tatomuck, 255. 

Tauarataque, 236. 

Taughanick, 232. 

Taughanick creek, 232. 

Taughcaughnaugh creek, 236. 

Taukomo Neck, 224. 

Tauquashqueak, 58. 

Tawachquano, 28. 

Tawalsontha, 23. 

Tawasentha, 23, 262. 

Tawassagunshee, 24. 

Tawastawekak, 49. 

Tawerstague, 236. 

Tawistaa, 75. 

Taxkichenok, 185. 

Taylor, Rev. John, cited, 122, 123. 

Taylor Hollow, 269. 

Tchadakoin, 40. 

Tcheorontok, 117. 



Tchojachniage, 266. 
Teahhahhogue, 30. 
Teahoge, 94. 
Teahtontaloga, 126. 
Teandarague, 119. 
Teauchkung, 208. 
Teaunen x ghhe, 142. 
Tecananoviaronesi, 97. 
Tecardanaduk, 83. 
Tecaresetaneont, 257. 
Tecarhuharloda, 82, 94, 126. 
Tecarjikhado, 37. 
Tccarnagage, 67, 136. 
Tecarnaseteo, 208. 
Tecarnaseteoah, 208. 
Tecarnohs, 33. 
Tecarnowundo, 33. 
Tecarnowunnadaneo, 83. 
Techaronkion, 67. 
Techiroquen, lake, 114, 152. 
Techoueguen, 171. 
Teckyadough Nigarige, 75. 
Tederighroonas, 232. 
Teedynscung, 208. 
Teesink mountain, 57. 
Tegachequaneonta, 144. 
Tegahihahaoughwe, 92. 
Tegahiharoughwe, 92, 94. 
Tegahonesaota, 242. 
Tegahuharoughwae, 94. 
Tegajikhado, 146. 
Tegaronhies, 109. 
Tegataineaaghgwe, 83. 
Tegerhunckseroda, 144, 242. 
Tegerhunkserode, 151, 242. 
Tegerlmnkserode mountains, 144. 
Tegeroken, 141. 
Tegiatontaragon, 79. 
Tegiatontarigon, 266. 
Tehatirihokea, 126. 
Tehirotons, 37. 
Tehoseroron, 63. 
Tehosoraron, 63. 
Tehowneanyohent, 158. 
Teiohohogen, 75. 
Teiotagi, 266. 
Tejothahogen, 70. 
Tekadaogahe, 95, 97. 
Tekaghweangaraneghton, 239. 
Tekaharawa, 175. 

Tekahundiando, 101. 
Tekajikhado, 152. 
Tekaneadahe, 152. 
Tekaneataheungneugh, 152. 
Tekanotaronwe, 80. 
Tekaondoduk, 136. 
Tekaswenkarorens, 80. 
Tekawistota, 152. 
Tekisedaneyout, 67. 
Tekoharawa, 126. 
Tenachshagouchtongu, 262. 
Tenannah, 229. 
Tencare Negoni, 172. 
Tendeyackameek, 236. 
Tenkenas, 131. 
Tenkghanacke, 262. 
Tennanah, 229. 
Tenonanatche, 94. 
Tenonderoga, 75. 
Tenotoge, 126. 
Tenotogehatage, 126. 
Teohahahenwha, 152. 
Teonatale, 141. 
Teondaloga, 126. 
Teondoroge, 119. 
Teonigono, 31. 
Teonto, 152. 
Teoronto, 116. 
Teoronto bay, 117. 
Teosahway, 63. 
Tequanotagowa, 172. 
Tequatsera, 200. 
Teshiroque, 152. 
Tessuya, 87, 90. 
Tcthiroguen, 141. 
Tethiroquen, 114, 152. 
Teuaheughwa, 152. 
Teugega, 94- 
Teughtararow, 94. 
Teuneayahsgona, 152. 
Teunento, 152, 154. 
Teunghsatayagh, 143. 
Teungttoo, 152. 
Teushanushsong, 33. 
Teushunseshungautau, 31. 
Teuswenkientook, 152. 
Teutunehookah, 153. 
Teuunghuka, 153. 
Tewahhahsa, 270. 
Tewaskoowegoona, 153. 



Tewatenetarenies, 193. 

Tewheack, 54. 

Tewistanoontsaneaha, 51. 

Texas, 172. 

Texas Valley, 51. 

Teyanunsoke, 141. 

Teyeondarago, 121. 

Teyeondaroge, 126. 

Teyoghagoga, 30, 51. 

Teyonadelhough, 175. 

Teyoneandakt, 175. 

Teyoweyendon, 259. 

Teyowisodon, 153. 

Tgaaju, 37. 

Tgades, 67. 

Tgahsiyadeh, 67. 

Tgaisdaniyont, 67. 

Tganohsodoh, 67. 

Tganondagayoshah, 67. 

Tgasgohsadeh, 67. 

Tgirhitontie, 201. 

Thanawenthagoweh, 266. 

Thaugwetook, 160. 

Thayendakhike, 127. 

Theaggen, 43, 230. 

Thecheweguen, lake of, 152. 

Thegarondies, 118. 

Theianoguen, 75. 

Thendara, 205. 

Thenondiogo, 126, 127. 

Theodehacto, 118. 

Theoga, 42. 

Thereondequat, 117. 

Therotons, 27- 

Theyanoguen, 75. 

Theyaoguin, 141, 153. 

Thichero, 34. 

Thin brook, 160. 

Thiohero, 36, 27, 231, 242. 

Thogwenyah, 258. 

Thompson, Benjamin F., cited, 277, 
177, 178, 179, 180, 211, 212, 218, 
220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226. 

Thompson's creek, 222. 

Thorontohen, 167. 

Three River point, 153. 

Thnrber, map, 146, 151, 154. 

Tiachsochratota, 115. 

Tiachton, 154. 

Tiadaghta creek, 175. 

Tianadara, 141. 

Tianarago, 75. 

Tianderah, 175. 

Tianderra, 175. 

Tianderrogoe, 75. 

Tianna, 224. 

Tianontiaou, 22,2. 

Tiashoke, 185. 

Tiatachschiunge, 230. 

Tiatachtont, 154. 

Tibbett's brook, 249. 

Ticatonyk mountain, 236. 

Tichero, 34, 37. 

Tickeackgouga, 61. 

Tickeackgougahaunda, 61. 

Ticonderoga, 69, 70, 72, 75, 119, 127, 

196, 197. 
Ticonderoga falls, 71, 72. 
Tienaderha, 44. 
Tienderoga, 75. 
Tieucksouckrondtie, 89. 
Tightilligaghtikook, 241. 
Tiyanoga, 75. 
Tikawnik, 232. 
Timmerman's creek, 119. 
Tin brook, 160. 
Tinghtananda, 127. 
Tinnandora, 127. 
Tinnandrogie's Great Flatt, 127. 
Tioclirungwe, 115. 
Tiochtiage, 266. 
Tiochtiagega, 266. 
Tiochtidge, 79. 
Tiocton, 7,7, 153- 
Tioga, 24, 30, 42, 43, 62, 70, 141, 153, 

230, 261. 
Tioga branch, 44. 
Tioga count}', 229-30. 
Tioga creek, 94. 
Tioghsahronde, 24, 197. 
Tiohero, 27- 
Tiohionhoken, 194. 
Tiohtake, 266. 
Tiohtiaki, 266. 
Tiohujodha, 30, 51. 
Tiohuwaquaronta, 23- 
Tioinata, 193. 
Tiojachso, 154. 
Tionctong, lake, 27 > T 53- 
Tionctora, 27, x 53- 



Tiondiondoguin, 75. 

Tioneedehouwee creek, 198. 

T'onesta, 261. 

Tionihhohactong, 153. 

Tionioga, 30, 51. 

Tioniongarunte, 33. 

Tionondadon, 175. 

Tiononderoga, 127. 

Tionondoge, 127. 

Tionondogue, 127. 

Tionondoroge, 127. i 

Tionontoguen, 127. 

Tioratie, 87, 90. 

Tiorhaenska, 260. 

Tiorunda, 58. 

Tiosaronda, 197. 

Tiotohatton, 118. 

Tiottehatton, 118. 

Tioughnioga river, 28, 30, 50, 51, 115. 

Tiozinossungachta, 33. 

Tishasinks mountain, 57, 58. 

Tistis, 153. 

Titicus, 249, 255. 

Tiuchheo, 37. 

Tiughsaghrondy, 267. 

Tiyanagarunte creek, 167. 

Tiyoosyowa, 62. 

Tjadakoin, 40. 

T'kahehdadonk, 266. 

T'kahentootah, 153. 

T'kahnahtahkaeyehoo, 153. 

T'kahnehsenteu, 153. 

T'kahsenttah, 153. 

T'kahskoonsutah, 153. 

T'kahskwiutke, 153. 

T'kaneadaherneuh, 152. 

T'kantchatakwan, 39. 

Tochpollock creek, 229. 

Tockwogh, 224. 

Toderighroonas, 43. 

Tohkonick, 49. 

Tomhannock creek, 183, 185, 241. 

Tomhenack, 185, 241. 

Tomhenick, 183. 

Tomhenuck, 185. 

Tompkins county, 231-32. 

Toms creek, 219, 224. 

Tonakah, 158. 

Tonawanda, 52, 83. 

Tonawanda creek, 66, 67, 83, 136, 


Tonawanda island, 66, 135. 

Tonawanda swamp, 168. 

Tonequigon creek, 266. 

Tonetta lake, 177. 

Tongapogh, 165. 

Tongue mountain, 237. 

Tonihata, 193. 

Tooker, W. W., cited, 277, 16, 30, 49, 
59. 98, 99, 100. 124, 129, 130, 131, 
163, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 186, 
209, 210, 212, 213, 215-23, 225-27, 
237, 243-50. 

Tooker, cited, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 
255, 256. 

Tooth mountain, 59. 

Toppin, Mount, 50. 

Toquams, 255. 

Toquamske, 255. 

Toronto, 118, 167, 266. 

Toronto pond, 229. 

Toseoway, 62. 

Tosquiatossy, 33. 

Totama, 264. 

Totiakto, 118. 

Totiakton, 118, 153, 157. 

Totieronno, 232. 

Totoa, 236. 

Touareune hills, 200. 

Touenho, 153. 

Touharna, 185. 

Towaloondeh, 90. 

Towanendadon, 175. 

Towanoendalough, 175. 

Towarjoenny, 200. 

Towarloondah, 87, 90. 

Towasschoher, 202. 

Towastawekak, 49. 

Towd, 224. 

Towereoune, 199, 200. 

Towereune, 199. 

Tower joene, 199, 200. 

Towerjoine, 200. 

Towoknoura, 202. 

Toyong, 224. 

Toyongs, 224. 

Toyoungs creek, 214, 224. 

Trader's hill, 20. 

Trenondroge, 127. 


3 2 9 

Trenton Falls, 138. 

Trenton village, 140. 

Tribes Hill, 124. 

Troy, 182. 

Trumbull, J. H., cited, 278, 9, 16, 22, 
24, 25, 55, 56, 84, 97. 129, 187, 207, 
209, 214, 216, 222-24, 2 46, 251. 

Truxton, 152. 

Tryon, cited, 235. 

Tsanogh, 262. 

Tsatsawassa, 185. 

Tschochniade, 262. 

Tschochniees, 37. 

Tschochnioke, 232. 

Tsihonwinetha, 194. 

Tsiiakoontieta; 194. 

Tsiiakotennitserrontietha, 194. 

Tsiiowenokwarate, 194. 

Tsikanadahereh, 266. 

Tsikaniatareska, 194. 

Tsikanionwareskowa, 194. 

Tsinaghsee, 262. 

Tsinaghshe, 75. 

Tsinondrosie, 75. 

Tsinontchiouagon, 115. 

Tsiroqui, 114, 152. 

Tsitkanajoh, 266. 

Tsitriastenronwe, 80. 

Tsonnonthouans, bay of, 116. 

Tsonnontouans, 160. 

Tuayonharonwa falls, 127. 

Tuckahoe, 224, 252, 255. 

Tucseto, 166. 

Tueadasso, 154. 

Tuechtanonda creek, 127. 

Tuechtona, 127. 

Tueyahdassoo, 154. 

Tuhahanwah, 152. 

Tuhahteehnyahwahkou, 136. 

Tully, 152. 
Tuna, 33. 

Tunaengvvant valley, 33. 
Tunatentonk, 147, 154. 
Tundadaqua, 154. 
Tunegawant, 33. 
Tunesasah, 87, 90. 
Tunessassa, 33. 
Tuneungwan, 33. 
Tunkhannock, 262. 
Tuphanne, 255. 

Tupper lake, 190, 193, 194. 
Turner, cited, 133. 
Turtle tribe, villages, 258. 
Tuscarora, 109, 134, 141. 
Tuscarora creek, 112, 132, 136, 142. 
Tuscarora Reservation, 136. 
Tuscarora town, 29. 
Tuscaroras, territory, no; name, 135; 

villages, 142, 144. 
Tuscumcatick, 181, 185. 
Tuscumeatick, 185. 
Tushanushaagota, 33. 
Tuskiea, 136. 
Tutelo, 43. 
Tuxedo, 166. 
Tuxseto, 166. 
Twadaalabala, 127. 
Twadahahlodahque, 141. 
Twahdahalahala, 118. 
Twakanhah, 137. 
Twakanhahors, 137. 
Twastaweekak, 49. 
Twektonondo hill, 198. 
Twenungasko, 88, 90. 
Two Rocks, 239. 
Two Sisters' creek, 67. 
Tyconderoge, 75. 
Tyonyonhhogenh, 266. 
Tyoshoke, 241. 
Tyoshoke Church, 185. 

Ulster county, 232-37, 270. 

Umpewauge pond, 255. 

Unadilla, 44, 172, 175. 

Unadilla Forks, 175. 

Unadilla river, 138, 141, 175. 

Uncachaug, 224. 

Unchemau, 225. 

Uncohoug, 225. 

Uncchtgo, 28. 

Unedelly, 173. 

Uneendo, 154. 

Unendilla, 173. 

Union Springs, 35. 

Union Vale, 56. 

Unkway Neck, 179, 214. 

Unnonwarotsherakoyonneh, 266. 

Unqua, 179. 

Unquachage, 216, 225. 

Unquachock, 225. 



Unquetague, 216. 
Unsewats castle, 185. 
Unsheamuck, 225. 
Unshemamuck, 225. 
Unshemomuck, 225. 
Untagechiat, 232. 
Untheamuck, 225. 
Untiatachto, 154. 
Unundadages, 139. 
Upper Ebenezer, 63. 
Utahutan, 109. 
Utica, 139, 141. 
Utlogowanke, 127. 
Utowanne lake, 91. 
Utsyanthia, 175. 
Utsyanthia lake, 54, 202. 

Vail's brook, 226. 

Van Bergen island, 21. 

Van Cortlandt, mentioned, 165, 166, 

176; purchase, 248, 255, 256. 
Van Curler, cited, 112, 120, 122, 126, 

127, 141 ; mentioned, 138, 200. 
Van der Donck, Adriaen, cited, 278, 

19-20, 46, 60; map, 244, 246, 249, 

250, 251. 
Vandreuil, de, cited, 60. 
van Laer, A. J. F., cited, 128. 
Van Ness place, 49. 
Van Rensselaer, mentioned, 23. 
Van Rensselaer, Maria, mentioned, 

Van Rensselaer's patent, 182, 183. 
Varick, 204. 
Verdrietig Hook, 189. 
Verf kill, 200. 
Vernon, 137, 141. 
Vernon Center, 141. 
Verona, 141. 
Verplanck's Point, 248. 
Versailles, 32. 
Victor, 157. 
Viel tract, 56. 
Viele, cited, 105. 
Viele's land, 200. 
Virginia, 267 ; Indian name, 260. 
Viskill, 55. 
Vlaie creek, 81. 
Vncachoag, 224. 
Vncheckaug, 224. 

Voorhees, Adam, grant to, 123. 
Vrooman's land, 201. 
Vrooman's Nose, 201. 
Vyoge, 200. 

Waapenot, 75. 
Waccaback lake, 255. 
Wachachkeek, 84. 
•Wachanekassick, 49. 
Wachankasigh, 49. 
Wachiehamis, 255. 
Wachkeerhoha, 200. 
Wachkeeshoka, 200. 
Wachog, 225. 
Wachogue, 186, 225. 
Wachtung, 264. 
Wackanekasseck, 49. 
Wackanhasseck, 49. 
Waconina, 95. 
Waddington, 190, 191. 
Wading river, 219. 
Waerinnewangh, 236. 
Waghachamack, 236. 
Waghkerhon, 258. 
Wahcoloosencoochaleva, 241. 
Wahepartenie, 269. 
Wahgahahyeh, 118. 
Wahopartenie, 75, 87. 
Wahpole Sinegahu, 80. 
Wainscott, 225. 
Wainscut, 225. 
Waiontha lakes, 95. 
Wajomik, 257. 
Wakankonach, 236. 
Wakaseek, 236. 
Wallabout bay, 99, 100. 
Wallage, 180. 
Wallkill, 163. 
Wallkill river, 166. 
Wallomschock, 185. 
Walloomsac river, 185. 
Walloomscoic, 185. 
Walloonsac, 181. 
Wammunting, 58. 
Wampanomen, 225. 
Wampecack creek, 241. 
Wampmissic, 225. 
Wampmussic, 225. 
Wampum waters, 80. 
Wampus pond, 255. 



Wanachque, 253. 

Wanakah, 67. 

Wanakawaghkin, 166, 256 . 

Wanakena, 194. 

Wanasquattan, 253. 

Wandowenock, 179, 180. 

Wango, 41. 

Wanoksink, 166. 

Wantagh, 180. 

Wapanachki, 58. 

Wapeem, 49. 

Wappasening creek, 230. 

Wappasuning creek, 230. 

Wappasena creek, 230. 

Wappingers, 58. 

Waracahaes, 236. 

Warachkameek, 58. 

Waracto Neck, 225. 

Waratakac, 236. 

Waraukameek, 58. 

Ward's island, 131. 

Warenecker Indians, 58. 

Warensaghkennick, 166. 

Wareskeehin, 58. 

Warpoes, 100, 131. 

Warrawannankonck Indians, 58. 

Warren, 260. 

Warren county, 237-39. 

Warsaw, 257. 

Warwasing, 236. 

Warwick, 162, 164, 166. 

Wasabagak, 269. 

Wasco, yj- 

Wascontha, 127. 

Wasgwas, 37. 

Washburn mountains, 49. 

Washington, George, Indian name, 

259; mentioned, 204. 
Washington county, 239-41. 
Washington Heights, 130. 
Washinta, 262. 
Wassaic creek, 58. 
Wassenaer, cited, 56, 60, 188. 
Wassogroras, 189. 
Wassontha, 82. 
Wasto, 259. 
Wastohehno, 259. 
Wastok, 266. 
Watch Oak, 186. 
Watchogue, 186. 

Watchogue Xeck, 225. 
Water Gap, 162. 
Waterford, 195. 
Waterloo, 205. 
Water town, 96. 
Watervliet, 199. 
Wathajax, 200. 
Watsjoe, 49 
Watson, cited, j^, 240. 
Waukesha, 80. 
Waumainuck, 256. 
Waunaukaumakack, 185. 
Wauteghe, 173, 175. 
Waverly, 229, 230. 
Wawanaquasick, 47. 
\\ awanaquassick, 49. 
Wawantepekook, 84, 86. 
( Wawarsing, 233, 235, 236. 
Wawasink, 236. 
Wawastawa, 166. 
Wawayanda, 161, 166. 
Wawayanda creek, 164. 
Wawayanda patent, 189. 
Wawayanda purchase, 166. 
Wawbeek Lodge, 80. 
Waweighnunck, 49. 
Wawepex, 180, 225. 
Wawijehtanock, 49. 
Wawiyatanong, 266. 
Wawkwaonk, 239. 
Wawobadenik, 269. 
Wawyachtonock, 50. 
W'awyachtenok, 267. 
Wayaughtanock, 58. 
Wayhackameck, 162. 
Wayne county, 241-42. 
Wayumscutt, 225. 
Weakewanapp, 225. 
Weapons creek, 236. 
Webatuck, 50, 58. 
Webster, cited, 148. 
Wechgaeck, 256. 
Wechquadnach, 59. 
Weckquaeskeck, 256. 
Weckquaskeek, 256. 
Weehawken, 264. 
Weepose brook, 213, 225 
Wegatchie, 194. 
Weghkandeco, 251, 256. 
Weghquagsike, 256. 



Weghqueghe, 256. 

Wegwagonck, 226. 

Weighquatenheuk, 167. 

Weighquatenhonk, 237. 

Weiser, Conrad, cited, 278, 28, 154, 

230, 261. 
Welland canal, 132. 
Wellsville, 26. 
Wenanninissios, 256. 
Wennebees, 256. 
Wenrohronons, 136, 137. 
Wenscoat, 225. 
Wepatuck, 58. 
Wepuc creek, 256. 
Weputing, 59. 
Wequehachke, 59. 
Werpos, 100, 131. 
Wescawanus, 256. 
Wescyrorap plain, 189. 
Weshauwemis, 164. 
W'cssecanow, 256. 
West Canada creek, 9:, 92, 93, 94, 137, 

138, 139- 
West creek, 230, 231. 
West Farms, 243, 245, 248, 252, 253. 
West Hills, 144. 
West Neck, 210. 
West Seneca, 66. 
West Stony creek, 81. 
Westbury, 180. 
Westchester, 247. 
Westchester county, 242-56. 
Westhampton, 213. 
Westmoreland, 140. 
Westport, 71. 
Wetdashet, 120, 127. 
Weteringhare Guentere, 95. 
Weywittsprittner, 100. 
Wheatfield, 136. 
Wheercock, 256. 
Whichquopuhbau, 50. 
White Clove, 71. 
White creek, 138, 240. 
White Plains, 252. 
Whiteface, Mount, 73, 75, 76. 
Whitehall, 240. 
Whitestown, 137, 141. 
Whitestown creek, 137.. 
Whorinims, 189. 

Wianteick river, 59. 

Wiantenuck, 59. 

Wiccopee, 59. 

Wiccopee pond, 177. 

Wichquanachtchack, 86. 

Wichquanachtekak, 86. 

Wichquanis, 237. 

Wichquapakkat, 50. 

Wichquapuchat, 50. 

Wichquaskaha, 50. 

Wickapogue, 226. 

Wickapossett, 226. 

Wickerscreeke, 251, 256. 

Wickopee pond, 177. 

Wicquaskaka, 50. 

Wigam swamp, 226. 

Wigwam creek, 27. 

Wikison island, 256. 

Wilewana, 43. 

Willehoosa, 167. 

Willetts family, 213. 

Willewana, 43. 

Williams, E., cited, 196. 

Williams, Roger, cited, 278, 15, 68, 94, 

178, 216, 219. 
Williamstown, 170. 
Williamsville, 64, 65. 
Willis, N. P., cited, 229. 
Williwemack creek, 229. 
Willow creek, 123. 
Willowemoc, 229. 
Wilowi wajoi nepes, 269. 
Wilson, James G., cited, 278, 127, 225. 
Wilson, Dr Peter, mentioned, 39. 
Wimpeting, 59. 
Wimpoting, 59, 83. 
Windham, 83. 
Windsor, 29, 163. 
Winegtekonk, 167. 
Winganhappauge, 226. 
Winganhappogue river, 212. 
Winganheppoge, 212, 226. 
Winganhoppogue, 226. 
Wingatthappagh, 226. 
Winnakee, 59. 

Winne, Peter, cited, 278, 74. 
Winnebago, 80. 
Winnecomack patent, 226. 
Winona, 97. 
Wioming, 261. 



Wiquaeskeck, 263. 

Wiscoy, 27. 

Wiscoy creek, 26, 257. 

Wishqua, 256. 

Wishshiag, 58. 

W'itchopple, 95. 

W'oapassisqu, 208. 

Woerawin, 166. 

Wolf clan, villages, 258-59. 

Wolf tribe, 188. 

Wolfe island, 96. 

Wompenanit, 225. 

Womponamon, 225. 

Wononkpakoonk, 256. • 

Wood, James, cited, 245. 

Wood. Silas, cited, 278. 

Wood creek, 138, 196, 240. 

W r oodcock mountain, 167. 

W'opowog, 226. 

Wossecamer, 256. 

Wright, Rev. Asher, cited, 266, 14, 

15, 32, 39, 59, 62, 65. 
Wschummo, 42. 
Wuhquaska, 50. 
Wyalusing, 262. 

Wyandance, mentioned, 210, 222. 
Wyandance, 215, 226. 
Wyastenong, 266. 
Wynachkee, 56. 
Wynkoop creek, 43. 
Wvnogkee creek, 59. 
Wyomanock, 50. 
Wyoming, 29, 173, 257. 
Wyoming county, 257. 
Wyoming village, 257. 
Wysquaqua creek, 2.56. 

Yachtaucke, 187. 
Yagerah, 134, 159. 
Yagoogeh, 82. 
Yagowanea, 134. 
Yale College map, 97. 
Yamke, 226. 
Yamphank, 226. 

Yannocock Indians, 227. 

Yantapuchaberg, 200. 

Yaphank, 226. 

Yatamuntitahege river, 226. 

Yates, cited, 278, 23, 46, 76, 135, 164. 

Yates county, 257-58. 

Yellow lake, 191. 

Yennecock, 227. 

Yennycott, 227. 

Yenonanatche, 94, 95, 169. 

Yetgenesyoungguto creek, 33. 

Yodanyahgwah, 67. 

Yoghroonwago, 262. 

Yondutdenoghschare creek, 95. 

Yonkers, 246, 249, 255. 

Yonnondio, 20. 

Yorkjough, 103, 109. 

Yorktown, 243, 247, 248. 

Youagoh, 269. 

Younghaugh, no. 

Youngstown, 134. 

Yowhayle, 87, 91 

Yoxsaw, 103, 109. 

Yroquois, 155. 

Yucksea, 103, 108, 109. 

Yuneendo, 154. 

Zeisberger, David, cited, 278, 14, 15, 
19, 20, 26, 29, 33, 35- 37, 42, 43, 49- 
5 2 , 57, 58, 78, 84, 90, 91, 97, 99, i", 
129, 134, 147, 149, 151- 154, 193, 194, 
202, 208, 228, 231, 245, 246, 254, 259, 
260, 261. 

Zeniinge, 27, 29, 30. 

Zeninge, 30. 

Zimmerman's creek, 126. 

Zinnodowanha, 160. 

Zinochsaa, 154. 

Zinochsae, 154. 

Zinochtoe, 154. 

Zinotarista, 267. 

Zinschoe, 154. 

Zonesschio, 102. 

Zonesshio, 106. 

New York State Education Department 

New York State Museum 

John M. Clarke, Director 

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Geology. Gi (14) Kemp, J. F. Geology of Moriah and Westport Town- 
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Sep. 1895. ioc. 
Ga (19) Merrill, F.J. H. Guide to the Study of the Geological Collections 

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Whitlock. H. P. Minerals from Lyon Mountain, Clinton Co. 

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1900. 75c. 
Pa2 (39) Clarke, J. M.; Simpson, G. B. & Loomis, F. B. Paleontologic 

Papers 1. 72p. il. i6pl. Oct. 1900. 15c. 

Contents: Clarke, J. M. A Remarkable Occurrence of Orthoceras in the Oneonta Beds of 

the Chenango Valley, N. Y. 
Paropsonema cryptophya; a Peculiar Echinoderm from the Intumescens-zone 

(Portage Beds) of Western New York. 

Dictyonine Hexactinellid Sponges from the Upper Devonic of New York. 

The Water Biscuit of Squaw Island, Canandaigua Lake. N. Y. 

Simpson, G. B. Preliminary Descriptions of New Genera of Paleozoic Rugose Corals. 
Loomis. F. B. Siluric Fungi from Western New York. 

Pa3 (42) Ruedemann. Rudolf. Hudson River Beds near Albany and their 
Taxonomic Equivalents. ii4p. 2pl. map. Ap. 1901. 25c. 

Pa4 (45) Grabau, A. W. Geology and Paleontology of Niagara Falls and 
Vicinity. 286p. il. i8pl. map. Ap. 1901. 65c; cloth, goc. 

Pas (49) Ruedemann. Rudolf; Clarke, J. M. & Wood, Elvira. Paleon- 
tologic Papers 2 24op. i3pl. Dec. 1901. 40c. 

Contents: Ruedemann. Rudolf. Trenton Conglomerate of Rysedorph Hill. 

Clarke, J. M. Limestones of Central and Western New York Interbedded with Bituminoui 

Shales of the Marcellus Stage. 
Wood, Elvira. Marcellus Limestones of Lancaster. Erie Co. X. Y. 
Clarke. J. M. New Agelacrinites. 
Value of Amnigenia as an Indicator of Fresh-water Deposits during the Devonic of New 

York, Ireland and the Rhineland. 

Pa6 (52) Clarke, J. M. Report of the State Paleontologist 1901. 28op. il. 

9pl. map, 1 tab. July 1902. 40c. 
Pa7 (63) Stratigraphy of Canandaigua and Naples Quadrangles. 

78p. map. June 1904. 25c. 
Pa8 (65) Catalogue of Type Specimens of Paleozoic Fossils in the New 

York State Museum. 848P. May 1903. Si. 20, cloth. 


Pa9 (69) Report of the State Paleontologist 1902. 464P. 52pl. 8 maps. 

Nov. 1903. Si, cloth. 
Paio (80) Report of the State Paleontologist 1903. 396p. 2opl. map. 

Feb. 1905. 85c, cloth. 
Pan (81) & Luther, D. D. Watkins and Elmira Quadrangles. 32p. 

map. Mar. 1905. 25c. 
Pai2 (82) Geologic Map of the Tully Quadrangle. 4op. map. Ap. 1905. 

Pai3 (92) Grabau, A. W. Guide to the Geology and Paleontology of the 

Schoharie Region. 3i6p. il. 24PI. map. Ap. 1906. 73c, cloth. 
Pai4 (90) Ruedemann, Rudolf. Cephalopoda of Beekmantown and Chazy 

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Pais (99) Luther, D. D. Geology of the Buffalo Quadrangle. 32P. map. 

May 1906. 20c. 

Pai6 (101) Geology of the Penn Yan-Hammondsport Quadrangles. 

28p. map. July 1906. 25c. 
White, David. The Devonic Plants of New York. In preparation. 
Hartnagel, C. A. Geology of the Rochester Quadrangle. In press. 
Luther, D. D. Geology of the Geneva Quadrangle. In preparation. 

Geology of the Ovid Quadrangle. In preparation. 

Geology of the Phelps Quadrangle. In preparation. 

Whitnall, H. O. Geology of the Morrisville Quadrangle. Prepared. 
Hopkins, T. C. Geology of the Syracuse Quadrangle. In preparation. 
Hudson, G. H. Geology of Valcour Island. In preparation. 

Zoology. Zi (1) Marshall, W. B. Preliminary List of New York Unioni- 

dae. 2op. Mar. 1892. 5c. 
Za (9) Beaks of Unionidae Inhabiting the Vicinity of Albany, N. Y. 

24P. 1 pi, Aug. 1890. IOC. 
Z3 (29) Miller, G. S. jr. Preliminary List of New York Mammals. 124P. 

Oct. 1899. ijc. 
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Z5 (38) Miller, G. S. jr. Key to the Land Mammals of Northeastern North 

America. io6p. Oct. 1900. 15c. 
Z6 (40) Simpson, G. B. Anatomy and Physiology of Polygyra albolabris 

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Oct. 1 90 1. 25c. 
Z7 (43) Kellogg, J. L. Clam and Scallop Industries of New York. 36P 

apl. map. Ap. 1901. 10c. 
Z8 (51) Eckel, E. C. & Paulmier, F. C. Catalogue of Reptiles and Batra- 

chians of New York. 64p. il. ipl. Ap. 1902. 13c. 

Eckel, E. C. Serpents of Northeastern United States. 

Paulmier, F. C. Lizards. Tortoises and Batrachians of New York. 

Z9 (60) Bean, T. H. Catalogue of the Fishes of New York. 784P. Feb. 
1903. $1, cloth. 

Zio (71) Kellogg, J. L. Feeding Habits and Growth of Venus mercenaria. 
3op. 4pl. Sep. 1903. ioc. 

Zn (88) Letson, Elizabeth J. Check List of the Mollusca of New York. ii4p. 
May 1905. 20c. 

Z12 (91) Paulmier, F. C. Higher Crustacea of New York City. 78p. il, 
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Entomology. En 1 (5) Lintner, J. A. White Grub of the Mav Beetle. 32p. 
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En3 (13) San Jos^ Scale and Some Destructive Insects of New York 

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En4 (20) Felt, E. P. Elm-leaf Beetle in New York State. 46p. il. 5pl. 
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See En 1 5. 

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En6 (24) Memorial of the Life and Entomologic Work of J. A. Lint- 
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Supplement to 14th report of the State Entomologist. 


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Eng (31) 15th Report of the State Entomologist 1899. i28p. June 

1900. 15c. 

Enio (36) 16th Report of the State Entomologist 1900. n8p. i6pl. 

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Eni3 (47) Needham, J. G. & Betten, Cornelius. Aquatic Insects in the 

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Eni4 (53) Felt, E. P. 17th Report of the State Entomologist 1901. 232P. 

il. opl. Aug. 1902. Out of print. 
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This is a revision of En4 containing the more essential facts observed since that was pre- 

Em6 (59) Grapevine Root Worm. 4op. 6pl. Dec. 1902. 15c. 

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Eni7 (64) 18th Report of the State Entomologist 1902. nop. 6pl. 

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Em8 (68) Needham, J. G. & others. Aquatic Insects in New York. 32ap. 

52pl. Aug. 1903. 80c, cloth. 
Enig (72) Felt, E. P. Grapevine Root Worm. 58p. i3pl. Nov. 1903. 20c. 

This is a revision of Em 6 containing the more essential facts observed since that was pre- 

En20 (74) & Joutel, L. H. Monograph of the Genus Saperda. 88p. 

i4pl. June 1904. 25c. 
En2i (76) Felt, E. P. 19th Report of the State Entomologist 1903. i5op. 

4pl. 1904. 75c. 
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En23 (86) Needham, J. G. & others. May Flies and Midges of New York. 

352p. il. 37pl. June 1905. 80c, cloth. 
En24 (97) Felt, E. P. 20th Report of the State Entomologist 1904. 246p. 

il. i9pl. Nov. 1Q05. 40c. 

En25 (103) ■ Gipsy and Brown Tail Moths. 44p. iopl. July 1906. 15c. 

En26 (104) 21st Report of the State Entomologist 1905. i44p. iopl. 

Aug. 1906. 25c. 

En27 (109) Tussock Moth and Elm Leaf Beetle. 34P. Mar. 1907. 20c. 

Needham, J. G. Monograph on Stone Flics. In preparation. 

Botany. Boi (2) Peck, C. H. Contributions to the Botany of the State of 

New York. 66p. 2 pi. May 1SS7. Out of print. 

B02 (8) Boleti of the United States. 96p. Sep. 1889. [50c] 

B03 (25) Report of the State Botanist 1898. 76p. 5pl. Oct. 1899. 

Out of print. 

B04 (28) Plants of North Elba. 2o6p. map. June 1899. 20c. 

B05 (54) Report of the State Botanist 1901. 58p. 7pl. Nov. 1902. 40c. 

B06 (67) Report of the State Botanist 1902. 196P. spl. May 1903. 


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B08 (94) Report of the State Botanist 1904. 6op. iopl. July 1905. 40c. 

B09 (105) Report of the State Botanist 1905. ioSp. i2pl. Aug. 

1906. 50c. 
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Mar. 1900. joe. 


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i9 ( o 5 9) ^7 Abori 2 inal Use of Wood in New York. 9 ,&p %\. June 
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Beauchamp, W. M. Civil, Religious and Mourning Councils and Ceremonies 
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Miscellaneous. Msi (62) Merrill P. J. II. Directory of Natural History 
Museums m United States and Canada. 2 3 6p. Ap iqo? ?oc 

M S2 (66) Ellis, Mary. Index to Publications Ythe New^orkftate Nat- 
ural History Survey and New York State Museum 1837-1902 4180 
June 1903. 73c, cloth. °' y ' 4 l 

Museum memoirs iSS9-datc Q 

1 B ^: C 9 £.^ la SZ.^ ^elopmentof Some Silurian Brachi- 

2 "l98 Ja T,S^ arke ' J ' M ' Paleozoic Reticulate Sponges. 33 op. il 7 opl. 

3 Clarice, J. M. The Oriskany Fauna of Becraft Mountain, Columbia Co. 

N. Y. i 2 Sp. 9 pl. Oct. 1900. 80c. 

4 Peck, C. H. N. Y. Edible Fungi, 1895-99. i 6p. 2 spl. Nov. 1900. 75 c 

«Sw t^s"S S ^S Pti ° nS and ,llustratio - °' « -Ported in the 49 th. S ,st and S «l 

5 Clarke J . M & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Guelph Formation and Fauna of 
«n 1 Y n, „ 196P. 2ipl. July 1903. $1.^0, cloth. 

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7 Rue'demann Rudolf. Graptolites of New York. Pt 1 Graptolites of the 

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m *o 1 p 1 Insects Affecting Park and Woodland Trees, v 1 4 6op 
il. 4 8pl. Fob. 1906. $2.50, cloth v. 2 54 8p. il. 22 pl. Feb. 1907. #_*, cfc//i." 

9 Clarke, J . M. Early Devomc of New York and Eastern North America - 

In press. 

10 Eastman, C. R. The Devonic Fishes of the New York Formations 

In press. 

Eaton, E. II. Birds of New York. In preparation 

Ruedemann R. Graptolites of New York. Pt 2 Graptolites of the Higher 
Beds. In preparation. & 

Natural history of New York. 3 ov. il. pi. maps. Q. Albany i8 4 2- 04 

division 1 zoology. De Kay, James E. Zoology of New' York; or' The 
£ew York Fauna; comprising detailed descriptions of all the animals 
hitherto observed within the State of New York with brief notices of 
those occasionally found near its borders, and accompanied bv appropri- 
ate illustrations. 5v. il. pi. maps. sq. 0. Albany 1842-44. Out of print. 

Historical introduction to the series by Gov. W. II. Seward. i78p. 

v. i pti Mammalia. i 3 i + 4 6p. 33 pl. i8 4 2. 

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I o 4 2 . 
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Hand-colored plates: pts~6 bound together. 


division 2 botany. Torrey, John. Flora of the State of New York; com- 
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erto discovered in the State, with remarks on their economical and medical 
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v. 2 Flora of the State of New York. 572p. 89PI. 1843. 
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division 3 mineralogy. Beck, Lewis C. Mineralogy of New York; com- 
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of New York, and notices of their uses in the arts and agriculture, il. pi. 
sq. Q. Albany 1842. Out of print. 

v. 1 pti Economical Mineralogy, pt2 Descriptive Mineralogy. 24+536P. 
8 plates additional to those printed as part of the text. 

division 4 geology. Mather, W. TV.; Emmons, Ebenezer; Vanuxem, Lard- 
ner & Hall, James. Geology of New York. 4V. il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 
1842-43. Out of print. 

v. 1 pti Mather, W . W. First Geological District. 37 +653P. 46pl. 1843. 

v. 2 pt2 Emmons, Ebenezer. Second Geological District. 10+437P. i7pl. 

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v. 4 pt4 Hall, James. Fourth Geological District. 22 +683P. ic-pl. map. 

division 5 agriculture. Emmons, Ebenezer. Agriculture of New York; 
comprising an account of the classification, composition and distribution 
of the soils and rocks and the natural waters of the different geological 
formations, together with a condensed view of the meteorology and agri- 
cultural productions of the State. 5v. il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1846-54. Out 
of pr'nt. 

v. 1 Soils of the State, their Composition and Distribution. 11 +37 ip. 2ipl. 

v. 2 Analysis of Soils, Plants, Cereals, etc. 8+343+46P. 4 2 pi. 1849. 
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v. 3 Fruits, etc. 8+340P. 185 1. 

v. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. 95pl. 1851. 

v. 5 Insects Injurious to Agriculture. 8+272P. Sopl. 1854. 

With hand-colored plates. 

division 6 paleontology. Hall, James. Palaeontology of New York. 8v. 

il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1847-94. Bound in cloth. 
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v. ,3 Organic Remains of the Lower Helderberg Group and the Oriskany 

Sandstone, pti, text. 12 +532P. 1859. [$3.50] 

pt2. 143PI. 1861. [$2.50] 

v. 4 Fossil Brachiopoda of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage and 

Chemung Groups. 11+1+428P. 69pl. 1867. $2.50. 
v. 5 pti Lamellibranchiata 1. Monomyaria of the Upper Helderberg, 

H .milton and Chemung Groups. i8+268p. 45pl. 1884. $2.50. 
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berg, Hamilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 2V. 1879. v - x » text. 
15 +49 2 p. v. 2, i2opl. $2.50 for 2 v. 

& Simpson, George B. v. 6 Corals and Bryozoa of the Lower and 

Upper Helderberg and Hamilton Groups. 24+298P. 67pl. 1887. $2.50. 

& Clarke, John M. v. 7 Trilobites and other Crustacea of the Oris- 
kany, Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage, Chemung and Catskill 
Groups. 64 + 236P. 46pl. 1888. Cont. supplement to v. 5, pt2. Pterop- 
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& Clarke, John M. v. 8 pti Introduction to the Study of the Genera 

of the Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 16+367P. 44pl. 1892. $2.50. 
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1894. $2.50. 
Catalogue of the Cabinet of Natural History of the State of New York and 

of the Historical and Antiquarian Collection annexed thereto. 242P. O. 

Handbooks 1893-date. 7JX12J cm. 

In quantities, i cent for each 16 pages or less. Single copies postpaid as below. 
New York State Museum. 52p. il. 4c. 

Outlines history and work of the muslum with list of staff ioo». 

Paleontology. i2p. 2c. 

Brief outline of State Museum work in paleontology under heads: Definition; Relation to 
biology; Relation to stratigraphy; History of paleontology in New York. 

Guide to Exc- -rsi ons in the Fossiliferous Rocks of New York. 124P. 8c. 

Itineraries of 3.2 tri>.s covering nearly the entire series of Paleozoic rocks, prepared specially 
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Entomology. i6p. 2c. 

Economic Geology. 44p. 4c. 

Insecticides and Fungicides. 2op. jc. 

Classification of New York Series of Geologic Formations. 32p. jc. 

Geologic maps. Merrill, F. J. II. Economic and Geologic Map of the State 

of New York; issued as part of Museum bulletin 15 and 48th Museum 

Report, v. i. 59x67 cm. 1894. Scale 14 miles to 1 inch. 15c. 

Map of the State of New York Showing the Location of Quarries of 

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Map of New York Showing the Surface Configuration and Water Sheds 

19QI. Scale 12 miles to 1 inch. 15c. 
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